scholarly journals In vitro assays for the functional characterization of (psychedelic) substances at the serotonin receptor 5‐HT 2A R

2022 ◽  
Eline Pottie ◽  
Christophe P. Stove
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
pp. 1107
Wonho Choi ◽  
Yoshihiro Yamaguchi ◽  
Ji-Young Park ◽  
Sang-Hyun Park ◽  
Hyeok-Won Lee ◽  

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogen of various plants which transfers its own DNA (T-DNA) to the host plants. It is used for producing genetically modified plants with this ability. To control T-DNA transfer to the right place, toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of A. tumefaciens were used to control the target site of transfer without any unintentional targeting. Here, we describe a toxin-antitoxin system, Atu0939 (mazE-at) and Atu0940 (mazF-at), in the chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The toxin in the TA system has 33.3% identity and 45.5% similarity with MazF in Escherichia coli. The expression of MazF-at caused cell growth inhibition, while cells with MazF-at co-expressed with MazE-at grew normally. In vivo and in vitro assays revealed that MazF-at inhibited protein synthesis by decreasing the cellular mRNA stability. Moreover, the catalytic residue of MazF-at was determined to be the 24th glutamic acid using site-directed mutagenesis. From the results, we concluded that MazF-at is a type II toxin-antitoxin system and a ribosome-independent endoribonuclease. Here, we characterized a TA system in A. tumefaciens whose understanding might help to find its physiological function and to develop further applications.

2021 ◽  
Mikhail Ali Hameedi ◽  
Erica Teixeira Prates ◽  
Michael R Garvin ◽  
Irimpan Mathews ◽  
B Kirtley Amos ◽  

In addition to its essential role in viral polyprotein processing, the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like (3CLpro) protease can cleave human immune signaling proteins, like NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO) and deregulate the host immune response. Here, in vitro assays show that SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro cleaves NEMO with fine-tuned efficiency. Analysis of the 2.14 Å resolution crystal structure of 3CLpro C145S bound to NEMO226-235 reveals subsites that tolerate a range of viral and host substrates through main chain hydrogen bonds while also enforcing specificity using side chain hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Machine learning- and physics-based computational methods predict that variation in key binding residues of 3CLpro-NEMO helps explain the high fitness of SARS-CoV-2 in humans. We posit that cleavage of NEMO is an important piece of information to be accounted for in the pathology of COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 677
Nasim Shahidi Hamedani ◽  
Arijit Biswas ◽  
Oliver Rudan ◽  
Rosa Tönges ◽  
Carlotta Meyring ◽  

Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protransglutaminase which plays an important role in clot stabilization and composition by cross-linking the α- and γ-chains of fibrin and increasing the resistance of the clot to mechanical and proteolytic challenges. In this study, we selected six DNA aptamers specific for activated FXIII (FXIIIa) and investigated the functional characterization of FXIIIa after aptamer binding. One of these aptamers, named FA12, efficiently captures FXIIIa even in the presence of zymogenic FXIII subunits. Furthermore, this aptamer inhibits the incorporation of FXIII and α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) into fibrin(ogen) with IC50-values of 38 nM and 17 nM, respectively. In addition to FA12, also another aptamer, FA2, demonstrated significant effects in plasma-based thromboelastometry (rotational thromboelastometry analysis, ROTEM)-analysis where spiking of the aptamers into plasma decreased clot stiffness and elasticity (p < 0.0001). The structure–function correlations determined by combining modeling/docking strategies with quantitative in vitro assays revealed spatial overlap of the FA12 binding site with the binding sites of two FXIII substrates, fibrinogen and α2AP, while FA2 binding sites only overlap those of fibrinogen. Taken together, these features especially render the aptamer FA12 as an interesting candidate molecule for the development of FXIIIa-targeting therapeutic strategies and diagnostic assays.

Microbiology ◽  
2006 ◽  
Vol 152 (7) ◽  
pp. 2129-2135 ◽  
Taku Oshima ◽  
Francis Biville

Functional characterization of unknown genes is currently a major task in biology. The search for gene function involves a combination of various in silico, in vitro and in vivo approaches. Available knowledge from the study of more than 21 LysR-type regulators in Escherichia coli has facilitated the classification of new members of the family. From sequence similarities and its location on the E. coli chromosome, it is suggested that ygiP encodes a lysR regulator controlling the expression of a neighbouring operon; this operon encodes the two subunits of tartrate dehydratase (TtdA, TtdB) and YgiE, an integral inner-membrane protein possibly involved in tartrate uptake. Expression of tartrate dehydratase, which converts tartrate to oxaloacetate, is required for anaerobic growth on glycerol as carbon source in the presence of tartrate. Here, it has been demonstrated that disruption of ygiP, ttdA or ygjE abolishes tartrate-dependent anaerobic growth on glycerol. It has also been shown that tartrate-dependent induction of the ttdA-ttdB-ygjE operon requires a functional YgiP.

2016 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
pp. 1042-1053 ◽  
Clara Stead ◽  
Adam Brown ◽  
Cathryn Adams ◽  
Sarah J. Nickolls ◽  
Gareth Young ◽  

Glycine receptor 3 (GlyRα3) is a ligand-gated ion channel of the cys-loop family that plays a key role in mediating inhibitory neurotransmission and regulation of pain signaling in the dorsal horn. Potentiation of GlyRα3 function is therefore of interest as a putative analgesic mechanism with which to target new therapeutics. However, to date, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of this receptor with sufficient selectivity to enable target validation studies have not been described. To address this lack of pharmacological tools, we developed a suite of in vitro assays comprising a high-throughput fluorescent membrane potential screen and a medium-throughput electrophysiology assay using IonFlux HT together with conventional manual patch clamp. Using these assays, we conducted a primary screening campaign and report the structures of hit compounds identified as GlyR PAMs. Our functional characterization data reveal a hit compound with high efficacy relative to current known potentiators and selectivity over GABAAR, another major class of inhibitory neurotransmission receptors of importance to pain. These small-molecule GlyR PAMs have high potential both as early tool compounds to enable pharmacological studies of GlyR inhibitory neurotransmission and as a starting point for the development of potent, selective GlyRα3 PAMs as novel analgesics.

2020 ◽  
Vol 22 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. iii417-iii418
Ming Yuan ◽  
Karlyne Reilly ◽  
Christine Pratilas ◽  
Christopher Heaphy ◽  
Fausto Rodriguez

Abstract To identify the biologic relevance of ATRX loss in NF1-associated gliomagenesis, we studied the effects of Atrx loss using four previously characterized Nf1+/-Trp53+/- murine glioma lines. Lines 130G#3 and 158D#8 (corresponding to grade IV and III gliomas, respectively) displayed preserved ATRX protein expression compared to NIH-3T3 cells. We studied the effects of Atrx knockdown in these two lines in the presence and absence of the TERT inhibitor, BIRBR1532. Using a telomere-specific FISH assay, we identified increased signal intensity after Atrx knockdown, only in the presence of the TERT inhibitor. These features are reminiscent of ALT, although there were no significant alterations in cell growth. Next, we studied the effect of ATRX loss in MPNST lines ST88-14, NF90-8, STS-26T. These cell lines all expressed ATRX and DAXX. However, STS-26T contained a TERT promoter mutation and ST88-14 had a known SNP in the TERT promoter, while NF90-8 had no alterations. ATRX siRNA knockdown showed no significant effects in cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, ATRX knockdown resulted in rare ultra-bright foci, indicative of ALT. Next, we studied the in vitro effect of the ATR inhibitor VE-821 in MPNST cell lines. Only NF90-8 (lacking TERT alterations) demonstrated a decrease in growth after ATRX knockdown and VE-821 treatment. However, ATRX knockdown alone did not affect sensitivity to carboplatin. Our findings further support a role for ATRX loss with subsequent ALT activation in a biologic subset of NF1-associated malignancies, thereby opening an opportunity for therapeutic targeting of these aggressive tumors using specific classes of drugs.

2004 ◽  
pp. 85-94
Bjarke Ebert ◽  
Sally Anne Thompson ◽  
Signe Í. Stórustovu ◽  
Keith A. Wafford

Molecules ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 23 (11) ◽  
pp. 2876 ◽  
Lin Tan ◽  
Mei Wang ◽  
Youfa Kang ◽  
Farrukh Azeem ◽  
Zhaoxi Zhou ◽  

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is abundant in proanthocyanidins (PAs) that are important for human health and plant response to abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in PA biosynthesis still need to be elucidated. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) catalyzes a key step in PA biosynthesis. In this study, three ANR cDNAs (MiANR1-1,1-2,1-3) were isolated from mango, and expressed in Escherichia coli. In vitro enzyme assay showed MiANR proteins convert cyanidin to their corresponding flavan-3-ols, such as (−)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin. Despite high amino acid similarity, the recombinant ANR proteins exhibited differences in enzyme kinetics and cosubstrate preference. MiANR1-2 and MiANR1-3 have the same optimum pH of 4.0 in citrate buffer, while the optimum pH for MiANR1-1 is pH 3.0 in phosphate buffer. MiANR1-1 does not use either NADPH or NADH as co-substrate while MiANR1-2/1-3 use only NADPH as co-substrate. MiANR1-2 has the highest Km and Vmax for cyanidin, followed by MiANR1-3 and MiANR1-1. The overexpression of MiANRs in ban mutant reconstructed the biosynthetic pathway of PAs in the seed coat. These data demonstrate MiANRs can form the ANR pathway, leading to the formation of two types of isomeric flavan-3-ols and PAs in mango.

2017 ◽  
Vol 61 (11) ◽  
Stanislav Huszár ◽  
Vinayak Singh ◽  
Alica Polčicová ◽  
Peter Baráth ◽  
María Belén Barrio ◽  

ABSTRACT The mycobacterial phosphoglycosyltransferase WecA, which initiates arabinogalactan biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been proposed as a target of the caprazamycin derivative CPZEN-45, a preclinical drug candidate for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this report, we describe the functional characterization of mycobacterial WecA and confirm the essentiality of its encoding gene in M. tuberculosis by demonstrating that the transcriptional silencing of wecA is bactericidal in vitro and in macrophages. Silencing wecA also conferred hypersensitivity of M. tuberculosis to the drug tunicamycin, confirming its target selectivity for WecA in whole cells. Simple radiometric assays performed with mycobacterial membranes and commercially available substrates allowed chemical validation of other putative WecA inhibitors and resolved their selectivity toward WecA versus another attractive cell wall target, translocase I, which catalyzes the first membrane step in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. These assays and the mutant strain described herein will be useful for identifying potential antitubercular leads by screening chemical libraries for novel WecA inhibitors.

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