in vitro assays
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. F. Costa ◽  
K. C. Gonçalves ◽  
E. F. L. C. Bailão ◽  
S. S. Caramori ◽  
M. C. Valadares ◽  

Abstract Plant-derived products can assist in the healing process of dermal wounds. It has been demonstrated that Hancornia speciosa latex present angiogenic, osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Then, it could contribute to the wound healing process. However, natural products in contact with skin may cause dermatitis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allergic and irritant potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex using in vitro assays. The obtained results showed that the H. speciosa serum fraction latex has a slightly irritant potential and is not cytotoxic neither allergenic for human cells. Moreover, we identified a remarkable low amount of proteins in this material in comparison to Hevea brasiliensis latex. This result could explain the non-allergenic potential of H. speciosa serum fraction latex because proteins present in latex are the main responsible for allergy. This biomaterial could be used as a non-allergenic source for development of new medicines.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 188
Pablo Rayff da Silva ◽  
Renan Fernandes do Espírito Santo ◽  
Camila de Oliveira Melo ◽  
Fábio Emanuel Pachú Cavalcante ◽  
Thássia Borges Costa ◽  

The compound (E)-2-cyano-N,3-diphenylacrylamide (JMPR-01) was structurally developed using bioisosteric modifications of a hybrid prototype as formed from fragments of indomethacin and paracetamol. Initially, in vitro assays were performed to determine cell viability (in macrophage cultures), and its ability to modulate the synthesis of nitrite and cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) in non-cytotoxic concentrations. In vivo, anti-inflammatory activity was explored using the CFA-induced paw edema and zymosan-induced peritonitis models. To investigate possible molecular targets, molecular docking was performed with the following crystallographic structures: LT-A4-H, PDE4B, COX-2, 5-LOX, and iNOS. As results, we observed a significant reduction in the production of nitrite and IL-1β at all concentrations used, and also for TNFα with JMPR-01 at 50 and 25 μM. The anti-edematogenic activity of JMPR-01 (100 mg/kg) was significant, reducing edema at 2–6 h, similar to the dexamethasone control. In induced peritonitis, JMPR-01 reduced leukocyte migration by 61.8, 68.5, and 90.5% at respective doses of 5, 10, and 50 mg/kg. In silico, JMPR-01 presented satisfactory coupling; mainly with LT-A4-H, PDE4B, and iNOS. These preliminary results demonstrate the strong potential of JMPR-01 to become a drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 485
Ahmet Özdemir ◽  
Halilibrahim Ciftci ◽  
Belgin Sever ◽  
Hiroshi Tateishi ◽  
Masami Otsuka ◽  

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. Due to the shortcomings of traditional chemotherapy, targeted therapies have come into prominence for the management of NSCLC. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a first-line therapy for NSCLC patients with EGFR-activating mutations. In this context, new indenopyrazoles, which were prepared by an efficient microwave-assisted method, were subjected to in silico and in vitro assays to evaluate their potency as EGFR TK-targeted anti-NSCLC agents. Compound 4 was the most promising antitumor agent towards A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 6.13 µM compared to erlotinib (IC50 = 19.67 µM). Based on its low cytotoxicity to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), it can be concluded that compound 4 exerts selective antitumor action. This compound also inhibited EGFR TK with an IC50 value of 17.58 µM compared to erlotinib (IC50 = 0.04 µM) and induced apoptosis (56.30%). Taking into account in silico and in vitro data, compound 4 stands out as a potential EGFR TKI for the treatment of NSCLC.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 254
Denisse A. Gutierrez ◽  
Lisett Contreras ◽  
Paulina J. Villanueva ◽  
Edgar A. Borrego ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibañez ◽  

In this study, we identified a novel pyrazole-based derivative (P3C) that displayed potent cytotoxicity against 27 human cancer cell lines derived from different tissue origins with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) in the low micromolar and nanomolar range, particularly in two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines (from 0.25 to 0.49 µM). In vitro assays revealed that P3C induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation leading to mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-3/7 and -8 activation, suggesting the participation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. P3C caused microtubule disruption, phosphatidylserine externalization, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle arrest on TNBC cells. In addition, P3C triggered dephosphorylation of CREB, p38, ERK, STAT3, and Fyn, and hyperphosphorylation of JNK and NF-kB in TNBC cells, indicating the inactivation of both p38MAPK/STAT3 and ERK1/2/CREB signaling pathways. In support of our in vitro assays, transcriptome analyses of two distinct TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells) treated with P3C revealed 28 genes similarly affected by the treatment implicated in apoptosis, oxidative stress, protein kinase modulation, and microtubule stability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Xiang Ma ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Hao Fan ◽  
Zengliang Li ◽  
Wangwang Chen ◽  

AbstractGastric cancer (GC) is a global health problem and further studies of its molecular mechanisms are needed to identify effective therapeutic targets. Although some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to be involved in the progression of GC, the molecular mechanisms of many GC-related lncRNAs remain unclear. In this study, a series of in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to study the relationship between FAM225A and GC, which showed that FAM225A levels were correlated with poor prognosis in GC. Higher FAM225A expression tended to be correlated with a more profound lymphatic metastasis rate, larger tumor size, and more advanced tumor stage. FAM225A also promoted gastric cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Further mechanistic investigation showed that FAM225A acted as a miR-326 sponge to upregulate its direct target PADI2 in GC. Overall, our findings indicated that FAM225A promoted GC development and progression via a competitive endogenous RNA network of FAM225A/miR-326/PADI2 in GC, providing insight into possible therapeutic targets and prognosis of GC.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 372
Feyisara Eyiwumi Oni ◽  
Qassim Esmaeel ◽  
Joseph Tobias Onyeka ◽  
Rasheed Adeleke ◽  
Cedric Jacquard ◽  

Pseudomonas lipopeptides (Ps-LPs) play crucial roles in bacterial physiology, host–microbe interactions and plant disease control. Beneficial LP producers have mainly been isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and from bulk soils. Despite their wide geographic distribution and host range, emerging evidence suggests that LP-producing pseudomonads and their corresponding molecules display tight specificity and follow a phylogenetic distribution. About a decade ago, biocontrol LPs were mainly reported from the P. fluorescens group, but this has drastically advanced due to increased LP diversity research. On the one hand, the presence of a close-knit relationship between Pseudomonas taxonomy and the molecule produced may provide a startup toolbox for the delineation of unknown LPs into existing (or novel) LP groups. Furthermore, a taxonomy–molecule match may facilitate decisions regarding antimicrobial activity profiling and subsequent agricultural relevance of such LPs. In this review, we highlight and discuss the production of beneficial Ps-LPs by strains situated within unique taxonomic groups and the lineage-specificity and coevolution of this relationship. We also chronicle the antimicrobial activity demonstrated by these biomolecules in limited plant systems compared with multiple in vitro assays. Our review further stresses the need to systematically elucidate the roles of diverse Ps-LP groups in direct plant–pathogen interactions and in the enhancement of plant innate immunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Peng Xu ◽  
Kang Hu ◽  
Ping Zhang ◽  
Zhi-Gang Sun ◽  
Nan Zhang

Abstract Background N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a dynamic and reversible internal RNA structure of eukaryotic mRNA. YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A-specific reader YTH domain family, plays fundamental roles in several types of cancer. However, the function of YTHDF2 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) remains elusive. Methods The knockdown and overexpression of YTHDF2 in LUSC cells were conducted to detect the biological characteristics of YTHDF2. In vivo assays, the role of YTHDF2 in tumor growth was further uncovered. In vitro assays, YTHDF2 was confirmed to be involved in activating the mTOR/AKT signaling and YTHDF2 overexpression induced the EMT process in LUSC. Clinically, immunohistochemical staining revealed the relationship between YTHDF2 expression levels and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blot, CCK8 assay, transwell assay, and wound-healing assay were used to detect the expression level and function of YTHDF2 under hypoxia exposure in LUSC cells. Results The results showed that hypoxia-mediated YTHDF2 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and invasion by activating the mTOR/AKT axis, and YTHDF2 overexpression induces the EMT process in LUSC. Moreover, YTHDF2 is closely associated with pN (pN– 37.0%, pN + 73.9%; P = 0.002) and pTNM stage (pI 50.0%, PII 43.3%, pIIIa 80.6%; P = 0.007), ultimately resulting in poor survival for LUSC patients. Conclusion In brief, the results highlight high-YTHDF2 expression predicted a worse prognosis of LUSC, while hypoxia-mediated YTHDF2 overexpression promotes lung squamous cell carcinoma progression by activation of the mTOR/AKT signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Bram Van den Bergh

With an antibiotic crisis upon us, we need to boost antibiotic development and improve antibiotics’ efficacy. Crucial is knowing how to efficiently kill bacteria, especially in more complex in vivo conditions. Indeed, many bacteria harbor antibiotic-tolerant persisters, variants that survive exposure to our most potent antibiotics and catalyze resistance development. However, persistence is often only studied in vitro as we lack flexible in vivo models. Here, I explored the potential of using Drosophila melanogaster as a model for antimicrobial research, combining methods in Drosophila with microbiology techniques: assessing fly development and feeding, generating germ-free or bacteria-associated Drosophila and in situ microscopy. Adult flies tolerate antibiotics at high doses, although germ-free larvae show impaired development. Orally presented E. coli associates with Drosophila and mostly resides in the crop. E. coli shows an overall high antibiotic tolerance in vivo potentially resulting from heterogeneity in growth rates. The hipA7 high-persistence mutant displays an increased antibiotic survival while the expected low persistence of ΔrelAΔspoT and ΔrpoS mutants cannot be confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, a Drosophila model for in vivo antibiotic tolerance research shows high potential and offers a flexible system to test findings from in vitro assays in a broader, more complex condition.

2022 ◽  
Srijit Seal ◽  
Jordi Carreras-Puigvert ◽  
Maria-Anna Trapotsi ◽  
Hongbin Yang ◽  
Ola Spjuth ◽  

Mitochondrial toxicity is an important safety endpoint in drug discovery. Models based solely on chemical structure for predicting mitochondrial toxicity are currently limited in accuracy and applicability domain to the chemical space of the training compounds. In this work, we aimed to utilize both -omics and chemical data to push beyond the state-of-the-art. We combined Cell Painting and Gene Expression data with chemical structural information from Morgan fingerprints for 382 chemical perturbants tested in the Tox21 mitochondrial membrane depolarization assay. We observed that mitochondrial toxicants significantly differ from non-toxic compounds in morphological space and identified compound clusters having similar mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity, thereby indicating that morphological space provides biological insights related to mechanisms of action of this endpoint. We further showed that models combining Cell Painting, Gene Expression features and Morgan fingerprints improved model performance on an external test set of 236 compounds by 60% (in terms of F1 score) and improved extrapolation to new chemical space. The performance of our combined models was comparable with dedicated in vitro assays for mitochondrial toxicity; and they were able to detect mitochondrial toxicity where Tox21 assays outcomes were inconclusive because of cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that combining chemical descriptors with different levels of biological readouts enhances the detection of mitochondrial toxicants, with practical implications for use in drug discovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lyndsey A. Reich ◽  
Jessica A. Moerland ◽  
Ana S. Leal ◽  
Di Zhang ◽  
Sarah Carapellucci ◽  

AbstractRexinoids are ligands which activate retinoid X receptors (RXRs), regulating transcription of genes involved in cancer-relevant processes. Rexinoids have anti-neoplastic activity in multiple preclinical studies. Bexarotene, used to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma, is the only FDA-approved rexinoid. Bexarotene has also been evaluated in clinical trials for lung and metastatic breast cancer, wherein subsets of patients responded despite advanced disease. By modifying structures of known rexinoids, we can improve potency and toxicity. We previously screened a series of novel rexinoids and selected V-125 as the lead based on performance in optimized in vitro assays. To validate our screening paradigm, we tested V-125 in clinically relevant mouse models of breast and lung cancer. V-125 significantly (p < 0.001) increased time to tumor development in the MMTV-Neu breast cancer model. Treatment of established mammary tumors with V-125 significantly (p < 0.05) increased overall survival. In the A/J lung cancer model, V-125 significantly (p < 0.01) decreased number, size, and burden of lung tumors. Although bexarotene elevated triglycerides and cholesterol in these models, V-125 demonstrated an improved safety profile. These studies provide evidence that our screening paradigm predicts novel rexinoid efficacy and suggest that V-125 could be developed into a new cancer therapeutic.

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