serotonin receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Toshiyuki Fujita ◽  
Naoya Aoki ◽  
Chihiro Mori ◽  
Eiko Fujita ◽  
Toshiya Matsushima ◽  

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a phylogenetically conserved modulatory neurotransmitter. In mammals, 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of many mental states and the processing of emotions in the central nervous system. Serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system, including the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei, are spatially clustered in the brainstem and provide ascending innervation to the entire forebrain and midbrain. Both between and within the DR and MR, these serotonergic neurons have different cellular characteristics, developmental origin, connectivity, physiology, and related behavioral functions. Recently, an understanding of the heterogeneity of the DR and MR serotonergic neurons has been developed at the molecular level. In birds, emotion-related behavior is suggested to be modulated by the 5-HT system. However, correspondence between the raphe nuclei of birds and mammals, as well as the cellular heterogeneity in the serotonergic neurons of birds are poorly understood. To further understand the heterogeneity of serotonergic neurons in birds, we performed a molecular dissection of the chick brainstem using in situ hybridization. In this study, we prepared RNA probes for chick orthologs of the following serotonin receptor genes: 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR1D, 5-HTR1E, 5-HTR1F, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2B, 5-HTR2C, 5-HTR3A, 5-HTR4, 5-HTR5A, and 5-HTR7. We showed that the expression pattern of 5-HT receptors in the serotonin neurons of chick DR and MR may vary, suggesting heterogeneity among and within the serotonin neurons of the DR and MR in the chick brainstem. Our findings regarding the molecular properties of serotonergic neurons in the bird raphe system will facilitate a good understanding of the correspondence between bird and mammalian raphes.

2022 ◽  
Piergiorgio Salvan ◽  
Madalena Fonseca ◽  
Anderson Winkler ◽  
Antoine Beauchamp ◽  
Jason Lerch ◽  

Abstract Although we understand how serotonin receptors function at the single-cell level, what role different serotonin receptors play in regulating brain-wide activity and, in turn, human behaviour, remains unknown. Here, we developed transcriptomic-neuroimaging mapping to characterise brain-wide functional signatures associated with specific serotonin receptors: serotonin receptor networks (SRNs). Probing SRNs with optogenetics-fMRI and pharmacology in mice, we show that activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons differentially modulates the amplitude and functional connectivity of different SRNs, showing that receptors’ spatial distributions can confer specificity not only at the local, but also at the brain-wide, network-level. In humans, using resting state fMRI, different sets of SRNs are linked to different behavioural phenotypes. These results provide compelling evidence that heterogeneous brain-wide distributions of different serotonin receptor types may underpin behaviourally-distinct modes of serotonin regulation. This suggests that dorsal raphe serotonin neurons may regulate multiple aspects of human behaviour via modulation of large-scale receptor networks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 172 ◽  
pp. 106888
Anum Zahid ◽  
Leyla Karadurmuş ◽  
Nurgul K. Bakirhan ◽  
Mehmet Altay Unal ◽  
Hasan Nazır ◽  

Vinay Kumar Sharma ◽  
Xuyu Yang ◽  
Soo-Kyung Kim ◽  
Amirhossein Mafi ◽  
Daniel Saiz-Sanchez ◽  

AbstractProtecting neurons from death during oxidative and neuroexcitotoxic stress is key for preventing cognitive dysfunction. We uncovered a novel neuroprotective mechanism involving interaction between neurotrophic factor-α1 (NF-α1/carboxypeptidase E, CPE) and human 5-HTR1E, a G protein-coupled serotonin receptor with no previously known neurological function. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays confirmed interaction between NFα1/CPE and 5-HTR1E and 125I NF-α1/CPE-binding studies demonstrated saturable, high-affinity binding to 5-HTR1E in stably transfected HEK293 cells (Kd = 13.82 nM). Treatment of 5-HTR1E stable cells with NF-α1/CPE increased pERK 1/2 and pCREB levels which prevented a decrease in pro-survival protein, BCL2, during H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cell survival assay in β-arrestin Knockout HEK293 cells showed that the NF-α1/CPE-5-HTR1E-mediated protection against oxidative stress was β-arrestin-dependent. Molecular dynamics studies revealed that NF-α1/CPE interacts with 5-HTR1E via 3 salt bridges, stabilized by several hydrogen bonds, independent of the serotonin pocket. Furthermore, after phosphorylating the C-terminal tail and intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) of NF-α1/CPE-5-HTR1E, it recruited β-arrestin1 by forming numerous salt bridges and hydrogen bonds to ICL2 and ICL3, leading to activation of β-arrestin1. Immunofluorescence studies showed 5-HTR1E and NF-α1/CPE are highly expressed and co-localized on cell surface of human hippocampal neurons. Importantly, knock-down of 5-HTR1E in human primary neurons diminished the NF-α1/CPE-mediated protection of these neurons against oxidative stress and glutamate neurotoxicity-induced cell death. Thus, NF-α1/CPE uniquely interacts with serotonin receptor 5-HTR1E to activate the β-arrestin/ERK/CREB/BCL2 pathway to mediate stress-induced neuroprotection.

2021 ◽  
Gareth Williams ◽  
David Chambers ◽  
Ruman Rahmam ◽  
Francisco Molina-Holgado

Background: We have previously reported that the endocannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM630 is a potent inhibitor of isocitrade dehydrogenase-1 wild-type glioblastoma (GBM) core tumor cell proliferation. To uncover the mechanism behind the anti-tumour effects we have performed a transcriptional analysis of AM630 activity both in the tumour core cells (U87) and the invasive margin cells (GIN-8), the latter representing a better proxy of post-surgical residual disease. Results: The core and invasive margin cells exhibited markedly different gene expression profiles and only the core cells had high expression of a potential AM630 target, the CB1 receptor. Both cell types had moderate expression of the HTR2B serotonin receptor, a reported AM630 target. We found that the AM630 driven transcriptional response was substantially higher in the central cells than in the invasive margin cells, with the former driving the up regulation of immune response and the down regulation of cell cycle and metastatic pathways and correlating with transcriptional responses driven by established anti-neoplastics as well as serotonin receptor antagonists. Conclusion: Our results highlight the different responsiveness of the core and invasive margin cells. Taken together, whilst our findings identify AM630 as an anti-neoplastic drug, showing a high correlation with known anti-proliferative drugs, we find distinct drug sensitivies of the infiltrative margin relative to contrast-enhanced core regions of GBM upon which failed molecular targeted therapies to date have been predicated.

2021 ◽  
Phong Phan ◽  
Di Liang ◽  
Min Zhao ◽  
Russell C. Wyeth ◽  
Conor Fogarty ◽  

Abstract Background: Schistosomiasis is a medically significant disease caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. The schistosome life cycle requires chemically mediated interactions with an intermediate (aquatic snail) and definitive (human) host. Blocking parasite development within the snail stage requires improved understanding of the interactions between the snail host and the Schistosoma water-borne free-living form (miracidium). Innovations in snail genomics and aquatic chemical communication provide an ideal opportunity to explore snail-parasite coevolution at the molecular level. Rhodopsin G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of particular interest in studying how trematode parasites navigate towards their snail hosts. The potential role of GPCRs in parasites makes them candidate targets for new antihelminthics that disrupt the intermediate host life-cycle stages, thus preventing subsequent human infections.Results: A genomic-bioinformatic approach was used to identify GPCR orthologs between the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and miracidia of its obligate parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We show that 8 S. mansoni rhodopsin GPCRs expressed within the miracidial stage share overall amino acid similarity with 8 different B. glabrata rhodopsin GPCRs, particularly within transmembrane domains, suggesting conserved structural features. These GPCRs include an orphan peptide receptor as well as several with strong sequence homologies with rhabdomeric opsin receptors, a serotonin receptor, a sulfakinin (SK) receptor, an allatostatin-A (buccalin) receptor and an FMRFamide receptor. Buccalin and FMRFa peptides were identified in water conditioned by B. glabrata, and we show synthetic buccalin and FMRFa can stimulate significant rates of change of direction and turn-back responses in S. mansoni miracidia.Conclusions: Ortholog GPCRs were identified in S. mansoni miracidia and B. glabrata. These GPCRs may detect similar ligands, including snail-derived odorants that could facilitate miracidial host finding. These results lay the foundation for future research elucidating the mechanisms by which GPCRs mediate host finding which can lead to the potential development of novel anti-schistosome interventions.

Shubhika Jain ◽  
Bharti Chogtu ◽  
Vybhava Krishna ◽  
Isha Khadke

Serotonin causes a significant shift in the excitability of neurons and endogenous serotonin and drugs acting on serotonergic receptors play a role in pathogenesis of epilepsy. This study was done to study the effect of Mosapride, a serotonin receptor 5HT4 agonist, in animal models of epilepsy. Albino Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups with six animals in each group. Group 1 was control group, group 2 was standard group and group 3, 4 and 5 received test drug mosapride in low dose (3mg/kg), high dose (6mg/kg) and mosapride plus standard antiepileptic drug respectively. The antiepileptic efficacy was evaluated using Maximal Electroshock Seizure model (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions. Data was analysed using ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukeys test. Mosapride treated animals showed statistically significant decrease (p<0.001) in the duration of flexion, hind limb extension and post ictal depression in MES model which was comparable to phenytoin group. In PTZ model, mosapride alone did not show any significant difference as compared to control group in terms of latency and duration of seizures (p>0.05). The antiepileptic efficacy of mosapride is similar to phenytoin in MES model. However, in PTZ model mosapride did not show any beneficial antiepileptic effect

2021 ◽  
Rutger van der Schrier ◽  
Jack D. C. Dahan ◽  
Martijn Boon ◽  
Elise Sarton ◽  
Monique van Velzen ◽  

Opioids may produce life-threatening respiratory depression and death from their actions at the opioid receptors within the brainstem respiratory neuronal network. Since there is an increasing number of conditions where the administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone is inadequate or undesired, there is an increased interest in the development of novel reversal and prevention strategies aimed at providing efficacy close to that of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone but with fewer of its drawbacks such as its short duration of action and lesser ability to reverse high-affinity opioids, such as carfentanil, or drug combinations. To give an overview of this highly relevant topic, the authors systematically discuss predominantly experimental pharmacotherapies, published in the last 5 yr, aimed at reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression as alternatives to naloxone. The respiratory stimulants are discussed based on their characteristics and mechanism of action: nonopioid controlled substances (e.g., amphetamine, cannabinoids, ketamine), hormones (thyrotropin releasing hormone, oxytocin), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, ampakines, serotonin receptor agonists, antioxidants, miscellaneous peptides, potassium channel blockers acting at the carotid bodies (doxapram, ENA001), sequestration techniques (scrubber molecules, immunopharmacotherapy), and opioids (partial agonists/antagonists). The authors argue that none of these often still experimental therapies are sufficiently tested with respect to efficacy and safety, and many of the agents presented have a lesser efficacy at deeper levels of respiratory depression, i.e., inability to overcome apnea, or have ample side effects. The authors suggest development of reversal strategies that combine respiratory stimulants with naloxone. Furthermore, they encourage collaborations between research groups to expedite development of viable reversal strategies of potent synthetic opioid-induced respiratory depression.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Joji Nakayama ◽  
Lora Tan ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Boon Cher Goh ◽  
Shu Wang ◽  

Metastasis is responsible for approximately 90% of cancer-associated mortality but few models exist that allow for rapid and effective screening of anti-metastasis drugs. Current mouse models of metastasis are too expensive and time consuming to use for rapid and high-throughput screening. Therefore, we created a unique screening concept utilizing conserved mechanisms between zebrafish gastrulation and cancer metastasis for identification of potential anti-metastatic drugs. We hypothesized that small chemicals that interrupt zebrafish gastrulation might also suppress metastatic progression of cancer cells and developed a phenotype-based chemical screen to test the hypothesis. The screen used epiboly, the first morphogenetic movement in gastrulation, as a marker and enabled 100 chemicals to be tested in five hours. The screen tested 1280 FDA-approved drugs and identified Pizotifen, an antagonist for serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) as an epiboly-interrupting drug. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of HTR2C suppressed metastatic progression in a mouse model. Blocking HTR2C with Pizotifen restored epithelial properties to metastatic cells through inhibition of Wnt-signaling. In contrast, HTR2C induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Wnt-signaling and promoted metastatic dissemination of human cancer cells in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model. Taken together, our concept offers a novel platform for discovery of anti-metastasis drugs.

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