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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-33
Author(s):  
M. Ranggawati ◽  
I. I. Arief ◽  
Z. Wulandari

Whey produced from cheese processing can be used as non-food products such as sunscreen by fermenting using Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Adding active ingredients such as red fruit oil which contains carotenoids can increase the effectiveness of sunscreen. This study aims to determine the formulation of fermented whey and red fruit oil usage in sunscreen. The study began with the production of fermented whey and sunscreen formulations with ratios of 0, 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 (fermented whey: red fruit oil). Furthermore, observe the organoleptic, antioxidant, SPF, pH, and homogeneity value. Adding fermented whey and red fruit oil showed no significant effect (P>0.05) onthe organoleptic test of aroma, but significantly (P<0.05) on color and texture. The antioxidant activity value test showed significantly different results (P<0.05) with IC50 values classified as moderate to high.Determination of the SPF value of sunscreen showed significantly different results  (P<0.05), but this value was classified as low protection. Although there was no significant effect on pH testing (P>0.05), the pH of sunscreen cream indicated that it was suitable for topical application. All samples showed homogeneous results and there were no coarse particles or separation between the oil and water phases. The best sunscreen formulation is 1:1 cream with the highest SPF value of 6.86 and strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 56.15 g/mL. Fermented whey and red fruit oil usage as active ingredients are more effective in increasing the protection of the cream against UV rays and free radicals.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 203
Author(s):  
Simona Ioniţă ◽  
Daniel Lincu ◽  
Raul-Augustin Mitran ◽  
Laila Ziko ◽  
Nada K. Sedky ◽  
...  

Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has attracted significant attention due to its antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer potential. However, its low aqueous solubility limits resveratrol bioavailability and use. In this work, different mesoporous silica matrices were used to encapsulate the polyphenol and to increase its dissolution rate. Pristine MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, SBA-16, FDU-12 and MCF silica were obtained. The influence of SBA-15 functionalized with aminopropyl, isocyanate, phenyl, mercaptopropyl, and propionic acid moieties on resveratrol loading and release profiles was also assessed. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated for mesoporous carriers and resveratrol-loaded samples against human lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell lines. The effect on apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed for selected resveratrol-loaded carriers. The polyphenol molecules are encapsulated only inside the mesopores, mostly in amorphous state. All materials containing either pristine or functionalized silica carriers increased polyphenol dissolution rate. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the mesoporous carriers and resveratrol–loaded supports on the kinetic parameters was identified. [email protected] and [email protected] samples exhibited the highest anticancer effect against A549 cells (IC50 values were 26.06 and 36.5 µg/mL, respectively) and against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values were 35.56 and 19.30 µg/mL, respectively), which highlights their potential use against cancer.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Author(s):  
Alicja Chrzanowska ◽  
Wioletta Olejarz ◽  
Grażyna Kubiak-Tomaszewska ◽  
Andrzej K. Ciechanowicz ◽  
Marta Struga

Purpose: To assess cytotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin conjugates with fatty acids on prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145) with different hormone sensitivity, based on previous promising results from the PC3 cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity were estimated using MTT and LDH tests, whereas its mechanisms were estimated by apoptosis and IL-6 assays. The intensity of proteins involved in lipid metabolism was determined using ML-CS assay. Results: The hormone insensitive DU-145 cells were more vulnerable than the hormone sensitive LNCaP cells. The IC50 values for oleic (4), elaidic (5) and docosahexaenoic acid (8) conjugates were 20.2 µM, 17.8 µM and 16.5 µM, respectively, in DU-145 cells, whereas in LNCaP cells IC50 exceeded 20 µM. The strong conjugate cytotoxicity was confirmed in the LDH test, the highest (70.8%) for compound (5) and 64.2% for compound (8) in DU-145 cells. This effect was weaker for LNCaP cells (around 60%). The cytotoxic effect of unconjugated ciprofloxacin and fatty acids was weaker. The early apoptosis was predominant in LNCaP while in DU-145 cells both early and late apoptosis was induced. The tested conjugates decreased IL-6 release in both cancer cell lines by almost 50%. Proteomic analysis indicated influence of the ciprofloxacin conjugates on lipid metabolic proteins in prostatic cancer. Conclusion: Our findings suggested the cytotoxic potential of ciprofloxacin conjugates with reduction in proteins involved in prostate cancer progress.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Author(s):  
Xia-Yu Chen ◽  
Qi Zeng ◽  
Yu-Chan Chen ◽  
Wei-Mao Zhong ◽  
Yao Xiang ◽  
...  

Six new α-pyrone meroterpenoid chevalones H–M (1–6), together with six known compounds (7–12), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Aspergillus hiratsukae SCSIO 7S2001 collected from Mischief Reef in the South China Sea. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1–5 and 7 showed different degrees of antibacterial activity with MIC values of 6.25–100 μg/mL. Compound 8 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against SF-268, MCF-7, and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.75, 9.29, and 20.11 μM, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 901
Author(s):  
Zikai Liu ◽  
Qing Cheng ◽  
Xiaoli Ma ◽  
Mingke Song

The role of calcium ion (Ca2+) signaling in tumorigenicity has received increasing attention in melanoma research. Previous Ca2+ signaling studies focused on Ca2+ entry routes, but rarely explored the role of Ca2+ extrusion. Functioning of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) on the plasma membrane is the major way of Ca2+ extrusion, but very few associations between NCX and melanoma have been reported. Here, we explored whether pharmacological modulation of the NCX could suppress melanoma and promise new therapeutic strategies. Methods included cell viability assay, Ca2+ imaging, immunoblotting, and cell death analysis. The NCX inhibitors SN-6 and YM-244769 were used to selectively block reverse operation of the NCX. Bepridil, KB-R7943, and CB-DMB blocked either reverse or forward NCX operation. We found that blocking the reverse NCX with SN-6 or YM-244769 (5–100 μM) did not affect melanoma cells or increase cytosolic Ca2+. Bepridil, KB-R7943, and CB-DMB all significantly suppressed melanoma cells with IC50 values of 3–20 μM. Bepridil and KB-R7943 elevated intracellular Ca2+ level of melanoma. Bepridil-induced melanoma cell death came from cell cycle arrest and enhanced apoptosis, which were all attenuated by the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. As compared with melanoma, normal melanocytes had lower NCX1 expression and were less sensitive to the cytotoxicity of bepridil. In conclusion, blockade of the forward but not the reverse NCX leads to Ca2+-related cell death in melanoma and the NCX is a potential drug target for cancer therapy.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 482
Author(s):  
Li-Zhi Cheng ◽  
Dan-Ling Huang ◽  
Min Liao ◽  
Ke-Ming Li ◽  
Zhao-Qiu Wu ◽  
...  

Moreollic acid, a caged-tetraprenylated xanthone from Gamboge, has been indicated as a potent antitumor molecule. In the present study, a series of moreollic acid derivatives with novel structures were designed and synthesized, and their antitumor activities were determined in multifarious cell lines. The preliminary screening results showed that all synthesized compounds selectively inhibited human colon cancer cell proliferation. TH12-10, with an IC50 of 0.83, 1.10, and 0.79 μM against HCT116, DLD1, and SW620, respectively, was selected for further antitumor mechanism studies. Results revealed that TH12-10 effectively inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell-cycle progression from G1 to S. Besides, the apparent structure–activity relationships of target compounds were discussed. To summarize, a series of moreollic acid derivatives were discovered to possess satisfactory antitumor potentials. Among them, TH12-10 displays the highest antitumor activities against human colon cancer cells, in which the IC50 values in DLD1 and SW620 are lower than that of 5-fluorouracil.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 461
Author(s):  
Arthit Makarasen ◽  
Suwicha Patnin ◽  
Pongsit Vijitphan ◽  
Nanthawan Reukngam ◽  
Panita Khlaychan ◽  
...  

New target molecules, namely, 2-phenylamino-4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives, were designed using a molecular hybridization approach, which was accomplished by fusing the pharmacophore structures of three currently available drugs: nevirapine, efavirenz, and rilpivirine. The discovery of disubstituted quinoline indicated that the pyridinylamino substituent at the 2-position of quinoline plays an important role in its inhibitory activity against HIV-1 RT. The highly potent HIV-1 RT inhibitors, namely, 4-(2′,6′-dimethyl-4′-formylphenoxy)-2-(5″-cyanopyridin-2″ylamino)quinoline (6b) and 4-(2′,6′-dimethyl-4′-cyanophenoxy)-2-(5″-cyanopyridin-2″ylamino)quinoline (6d) exhibited half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1.93 and 1.22 µM, respectively, which are similar to that of nevirapine (IC50 = 1.05 µM). The molecular docking results for these two compounds showed that both compounds interacted with Lys101, His235, and Pro236 residues through hydrogen bonding and interacted with Tyr188, Trp229, and Tyr318 residues through π–π stacking in HIV-1 RT. Interestingly, 6b was highly cytotoxic against MOLT-3 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), HeLA (cervical carcinoma), and HL-60 (promyeloblast) cells with IC50 values of 12.7 ± 1.1, 25.7 ± 0.8, and 20.5 ± 2.1 µM, respectively. However, 6b and 6d had very low and no cytotoxicity, respectively, to-ward normal embryonic lung (MRC-5) cells. Therefore, the synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-phenylamino-4-phenoxyquinoline derivatives can serve as an excellent basis for the development of highly effective anti-HIV-1 and anticancer agents in the near future.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Author(s):  
Christos Vassileiou ◽  
Stefania Kalantzi ◽  
Eleanna Vachlioti ◽  
Constantinos M. Athanassopoulos ◽  
Christos Koutsakis ◽  
...  

Polyamine toxins (PATs) are conjugates of polyamines (PAs) with lipophilic carboxylic acids, which have been recently shown to present antiproliferative activity. Ten analogs of the spider PATs Agel 416, HO-416b, and JSTX-3 and the wasp PAT PhTX-433 were synthesized with changes in the lipophilic head group and/or the PA chain, and their antiproliferative activity was evaluated on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, using Agel 416 and HO-416b as reference compounds. All five analogs of PhTX-433 were of very low activity on both cell lines, whereas the two analogs of JSTX-3 were highly active only on the MCF-7 cell line with IC50 values of 2.63–2.81 μΜ. Of the remaining three Agel 416 or HO-416b analogs, only the one with the spermidine chain was highly active on both cells with IC50 values of 3.15–12.6 μM. The two most potent compounds in this series, Agel 416 and HO-416b, with IC50 values of 0.09–3.98 μΜ for both cell lines, were found to have a very weak cytotoxic effect on the MCF-12A normal breast cells. The present study points out that the structure of both the head group and the PA chain determine the strength of the antiproliferative activity of PATs and their selectivity towards different cells.


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 130
Author(s):  
Kai Chen ◽  
Yingnan Si ◽  
Jia-Shiung Guan ◽  
Zhuoxin Zhou ◽  
Seulhee Kim ◽  
...  

Glioblastomas, accounting for approximately 50% of gliomas, comprise the most aggressive, highly heterogeneous, and malignant brain tumors. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new targeted therapy, i.e., highly potent natural compound verrucarin A (Ver-A), delivered with monoclonal antibody-directed extracellular vesicle (mAb-EV). First, the high surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastoma patient tissue and cell lines was confirmed using immunohistochemistry staining, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. mAb-EV-Ver-A was constructed by packing Ver-A and tagging anti-EGFR mAb to EV generated from HEK293F culture. Confocal microscopy and the In Vivo Imaging System demonstrated that mAb-EV could penetrate the blood–brain barrier, target intracranial glioblastoma xenografts, and deliver drug intracellularly. The in vitro cytotoxicity study showed IC50 values of 2–12 nM of Ver-A. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of major organs in the tolerated dose study indicated minimal systemic toxicity of mAb-EV-Ver-A. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy study in intracranial xenograft models demonstrated that EGFR mAb-EV-Ver-A effectively inhibited glioblastoma growth, but the combination with VEGF mAb did not improve the therapeutic efficacy. This study suggested that mAb-EV is an effective drug delivery vehicle and natural Ver-A has great potential to treat glioblastoma.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Author(s):  
Lorena Urda ◽  
Matthias Heinrich Kreuter ◽  
Jürgen Drewe ◽  
Georg Boonen ◽  
Veronika Butterweck ◽  
...  

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide, affecting over 250 million people and resulting in over five million deaths. Antivirals that are effective are still limited. The antiviral activities of the Petasites hybdridus CO2 extract Ze 339 were previously reported. Thus, to assess the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Ze 339 as well as isopetasin and neopetasin as major active compounds, a CPE and plaque reduction assay in Vero E6 cells was used for viral output. Antiviral effects were tested using the original virus (Wuhan) and the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. The antiviral drug remdesivir was used as control. Pre-treatment with Ze 339 in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells with either virus variant significantly inhibited virus replication with IC50 values of 0.10 and 0.40 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values obtained for isopetasin ranged between 0.37 and 0.88 μM for both virus variants, and that of remdesivir ranged between 1.53 and 2.37 μM. In conclusion, Ze 339 as well as the petasins potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro of the Wuhan and Delta variants. Since time is of essence in finding effective treatments, clinical studies will have to demonstrate if Ze339 can become a therapeutic option to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


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