mycobacterium tuberculosis
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Sharif ◽  
D. Ahmed ◽  
R. T. Mahmood ◽  
Z. Qasim ◽  
S. N. Khan ◽  

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangyu Fan ◽  
Zichen Liu ◽  
Zhibin Wan ◽  
Hanlu Zou ◽  
Mengzhi Ji ◽  

BackgroundInduced by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. As a special virus, prophage is domesticated by its host and are major contributors to virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity. The function of prophages and their genes in M. tuberculosis is still unknown.MethodsRv2650c is a prophage gene in M. tuberculosis genome. We constructed recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) to observe bacteria morphology and analyze the resistance to various adverse environments. Recombinant and control strains were used to infect macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, we performed ELISA experiments of infected macrophages.ResultsRv2650c affected the spread of colonies of M. smegmatis and enhanced the resistance of M. smegmatis to macrophages and various stress agents such as acid, oxidative stress, and surfactant. ELISA experiments revealed that the Rv2650c can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the prophage gene Rv2650c can inhibit the spread of colonies and the expression of inflammatory factors and promote intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. These results build the foundation for the discovery of virulence factors of M. tuberculosis, and provide novel insights into the function of the prophage in Mycobacterium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jiang Pi ◽  
Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
Enzhuo Yang ◽  
Lingming Chen ◽  
Lingchan Zeng ◽  

AbstractTuberculosis (TB), induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, remains a top killer among infectious diseases. While Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the sole TB vaccine, the clumped-clustered features of BCG in intradermal immunization appear to limit both the BCG protection efficacy and the BCG vaccination safety. We hypothesize that engineering of clumped-clustered BCG into nanoscale particles would improve safety and also facilitate the antigen-presenting-cell (APC)’s uptake and the following processing/presentation for better anti-TB protective immunity. Here, we engineered BCG protoplasts into nanoscale membraned BCG particles, termed as “BCG-Nanocage” to enhance the anti-TB vaccination efficiency and safety. BCG-Nanocage could readily be ingested/taken by APC macrophages selectively; BCG-Nanocage-ingested macrophages exhibited better viability and developed similar antimicrobial responses with BCG-infected macrophages. BCG-Nanocage, like live BCG bacilli, exhibited the robust capability to activate and expand innate-like T effector cell populations of Vγ2+ T, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells of rhesus macaques in the ex vivo PBMC culture. BCG-Nanocage immunization of rhesus macaques elicited similar or stronger memory-like immune responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, as well as Vγ2Vδ2 T and CD4+/CD8+ T effectors compared to live BCG vaccination. BCG-Nanocage- immunized macaques developed rapidly-sustained pulmonary responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells upon Mtb challenge. Furthermore, BCG- and BCG-Nanocage- immunized macaques, but not saline controls, exhibited undetectable Mtb infection loads or TB lesions in the Mtb-challenged lung lobe and hilar lymph node at endpoint after challenge. Thus, the current study well justifies a large pre-clinical investigation to assess BCG-Nanocage for safe and efficacious anti-TB vaccination, which is expected to further develop novel vaccines or adjuvants. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Khushpreet Kaur ◽  
Sumedha Sharma ◽  
Sudhanshu Abhishek ◽  
Prabhdeep Kaur ◽  
Uttam C. Saini ◽  

Bone tuberculosis is widely characterized by irreversible bone destruction caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Mycobacterium has the ability to adapt to various environmental stresses by altering its transcriptome in order to establish infection in the host. Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the transcriptional profile of M. tuberculosis during infection in the bone environment compared to axenic cultures of exponentially growing M.tb. In the current study, we characterized the in vivo transcriptome of M. tuberculosis within abscesses or necrotic specimens obtained from patients with bone TB using whole genome microarrays in order to gain insight into the M. tuberculosis adaptive response within this host microenvironment. A total of 914 mycobacterial genes were found to be significantly over-expressed and 1688 were repressed (fold change>2; p-value ≤ 0.05) in human bone TB specimens. Overall, the mycobacteria displayed a hypometabolic state with significant (p ≤ 0.05) downregulation of major pathways involved in translational machinery, cellular and protein metabolism and response to hypoxia. However, significant enrichment (p ≤ 0.05) of amino-sugar metabolic processes, membrane glycolipid biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis (serine, glycine, arginine and cysteine) and accumulation of mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex suggests possible mycobacterial survival strategies within the bone lesions by strengthening its cell wall and cellular integrity. Data were also screened for M.tb virulence proteins using Virulent-Pred and VICM-Pred tools, which revealed five genes (Rv1046c, Rv1230c, DppD, PE_PGRS26 and PE_PGRS43) with a possible role in the pathogenesis of bone TB. Next, an osteoblast cell line model for bone TB was developed allowing for significant intracellular multiplication of M.tb. Interestingly, three virulence genes (Rv1046c, DppD and PE_PGRS26) identified from human bone TB microarray data were also found to be overexpressed by intracellular M. tuberculosis in osteoblast cell lines. Overall, these data demonstrate that M. tuberculosis alters its transcriptome as an adaptive strategy to survive in the host and establish infection in bone. Additionally, the in vitro osteoblast model we describe may facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of bone TB.

ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Alemayehu Godana Birhanu ◽  
Marta Gómez-Muñoz ◽  
Shewit Kalayou ◽  
Tahira Riaz ◽  
Timo Lutter ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Kristin N. Nelson ◽  
Sarah Talarico ◽  
Shameer Poonja ◽  
Clinton J. McDaniel ◽  
Martin Cilnis ◽  

Tuberculosis (TB) control programs use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for detecting and investigating TB case clusters. Existence of few genomic differences between Mtb isolates might indicate TB cases are the result of recent transmission. However, the variable and sometimes long duration of latent infection, combined with uncertainty in the Mtb mutation rate during latency, can complicate interpretation of WGS results. To estimate the association between infection duration and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) accumulation in the Mtb genome, we first analyzed pairwise SNP differences among TB cases from Los Angeles County, California, with strong epidemiologic links. We found that SNP distance alone was insufficient for concluding that cases are linked through recent transmission. Second, we describe a well-characterized cluster of TB cases in California to illustrate the role of genomic data in conclusions regarding recent transmission. Longer presumed latent periods were inconsistently associated with larger SNP differences. Our analyses suggest that WGS alone cannot be used to definitively determine that a case is attributable to recent transmission. Methods for integrating clinical, epidemiologic, and genomic data can guide conclusions regarding the likelihood of recent transmission, providing local public health practitioners with better tools for monitoring and investigating TB transmission.

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