Samurai to Soldier: Remaking Military Service in Nineteenth-Century Japan by D. Colin Jaundrill

2081 ◽  
Vol 73 (2) ◽  
pp. 265-267
Mark Ravina
2021 ◽  
pp. 297-300
Hannah Smith

This book ends in 1750 but its preoccupations can be traced into the early nineteenth century. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars against France between 1793 and 1815 saw two decades of warfare. Fears of popular revolution dominated the 1790s and 1800s, with radical groups being fiercely suppressed. The government’s concern over radical politics and the politics of class extended to the army. It was remarked that military service abroad had led to soldiers becoming vehement democrats; troops were even alleged to have been reading that working-class radical text ...

Thomas J. Brown

This introduction traces antebellum American skepticism about public monuments to the distrust of standing armies that was central to the ideology of the American Revolution. The popularity of Independence Day illustrates the iconoclasm of the early republic, which paralleled a widespread resistance to compulsory military service. Remembrance of the Civil War vastly increased the number of public monuments in the United States. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, these memorials became a vehicle for the militarization of American culture.

2017 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 71-84
Ingrid Brühwiler

In Switzerland, physical education was as important as it was in other European countries during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Different visions of physical education were adapted to the Swiss context to promote national citizens that were strong and healthy and thus capable of protecting their fatherland. Discussions of Per Henrik Ling’s “Swedish system” and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn’s “Deutsche Turnkunst,” both of which were adapted in the francophone and the germanophone parts of Switzerland, dominated the discourse. Until the end of the nineteenth century, patriotic ideals permeated the army-ruled physical education, although methodology and health topics were discussed as well. The national and civic aims of physical education were the same for girls and boys, with one very important exception: boys were prepared for military service, whereas girls were primarily prepared to be good future mothers.

2020 ◽  
pp. 127-148
Brian Taylor

This chapter deals with black activists’ post-war campaign to convince federal officials to encode black citizenship and political rights in law. Black military service during the Civil War served as a linchpin in African Americans’ post-war arguments for black rights and citizenship. This chapter explains the dynamics of the Reconstruction period that led Congressional Republicans to pass the 14th and 15th Amendments. This chapter also covers the downfall of Reconstruction and the process by which, in the final decades of the nineteenth century, white Americans undermined the rights and citizenship that African Americans possessed in theory.

2004 ◽  
Vol 65 ◽  
pp. 213-215
James P. Woodard

The Tribute of Blood has already earned an audience among historians of nineteenth and twentieth-century Brazil, who have found in Peter M. Beattie's analysis of military recruitment and enlisted service an innovative and often compelling exploration of a neglected facet of Brazilian history. But the book deserves a wider audience, not least because of Beattie's stated ambition of providing the first book-length study, “that explicitly focuses on impressment and conscription as transatlantic tribute labor systems intricately linked to other labor practices and relations in broader society” (14). Prospective members of such an audience not only stand to learn a great deal about Brazil (indeed, the novice might read The Tribute of Blood as an introduction to the socio-cultural history of Brazil during a “long nineteenth century” of its own). They also might be forced to rethink some of their own assumptions regarding military service in particular and institutional modernization more generally, and draw inspiration from Beattie's impressive command of a wide range of Brazilian sources and his willingness to extend comparisons to and borrow approaches from fields situated at some remove—geographic and otherwise—from his own.

2007 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 124-126
Gregory Starrett

In Egypt and elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire, the social safety net representedby the extended family branched off in many directions. By Mamluktimes, it encompassed the patronage of wealthy and noble families who distributedfood to the poor on religious festivals and during times of hardship,and who sponsored the construction of bridges, waterworks, and publicfountains. In addition, mosques sometimes housed schools, soup kitchens,and hospitals; merchants regularly fed beggars; Sufi lodges housed travelers;and waqf endowments sponsored various religious and charitable activities.Ruling dynasties, including their women, created funds that sponsoredorphans’ homes, paid the dowries of poor women, and provided pensions forthe widows and children of soldiers killed in battle.As Ener shows in her valuable and carefully researched book, the valuesof ihsan (generosity) and sadaqah (almsgiving) have been applied accordingto ideas about charity’s legitimate beneficiaries (e.g., clerics, the poor,orphans, and women without family support). Ener traces the fortunes of thepoor, the changing constellation of institutions available for their relief, andthe transformation in Egyptian understanding of those entitled to such care.By the middle of the nineteenth century, the traditional “mixed economy”of relief (p. 9), which incorporated countless donors and institutions,operated alongside a more centralized set of interests and practices intendedto control poor people’s movement and activities. Such practices had notbeen common previously (p. 15) and appear to have been unique in theMiddle East (p. 29). Authorities began to distinguish between the deservingand the undesirable poor and sought to prevent able-bodied men fromencroaching on urban space as beggars or “fake” mendicants and from usingpublicly available forms of assistance. In nineteenth-century Cairo andAlexandria, such men and peasants “absconding” from the countrysidewere often arrested, sent back to their home regions, and pressed into involuntaryagricultural, industrial, or military service. The growing modern statewas increasingly interested in controlling crime, immigration, and the flowof disease through internationalized urban spaces ...

1969 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
John Gibson

Sergeant Alexander Forbes is a Scottish Gaelic bard who lived in Perthshire in the early nineteenth century. Almost nothing is known about him apart from his military service. This marbh-rann for his lt-col,Patrick MacLeod of Geanies, doubles the bard's certainly known output. It had lain unread for decades in the holdings of the National Library of Scotland on George 1V Bridge in Edinburgh. Perthshire Gaelic was vulnerable to forces for economic and cultural change earlier than most fringe parts of the Gaidhealtachd.

Amanda Brickell Bellows

After the abolition of serfdom and slavery, Russian and American artists created oil paintings of peasants and African Americans that revealed to viewers the complexity of their post-emancipation experiences. Russian painters from the Society of Traveling Art Exhibitions and American artists including Henry Ossawa Tanner, William Edouard Scott, and Winslow Homer created thematically similar works that depicted bondage, emancipation, military service, public schooling, and the urban environment. Their compositions shaped nineteenth-century viewers’ conceptions of freedpeople and peasants and molded Russians’ and Americans’ sense of national identity as the two countries reconstructed their societies during an era of substantial political and social reform.

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