Environmental sustainability assessment of wooden furniture produced in Pakistan

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. Ali ◽  
F. Rehman ◽  
R. Hadi ◽  
G. Raza ◽  
N. Khan ◽  

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.

Resources ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 110 ◽  
Camilla Tua ◽  
Laura Biganzoli ◽  
Mario Grosso ◽  
Lucia Rigamonti

The European packaging market is forecast to grow 1.9% annually in the next years, with an increasing use of returnable packages. In this context, it is important to assess the real environmental effectiveness of the packaging re-use practice in terms of environmental impacts. This life cycle assessment aims to evaluate the environmental performances of reusable plastic crates (RPCs), which are used for the distribution of 36% of fruit and vegetables in Italy. RPCs can be re-used several times after a reconditioning process, i.e., inspection, washing, and sanitization with hot water and chemicals. The analysis was performed considering 12 impact categories, as well as the cumulative energy demand indicator and a tailor-made water consumption indicator. The results show that when the RPCs are used for less than 20 deliveries, the impacts of the life cycle are dominated by the manufacturing stage. By increasing the number of deliveries, the contribution of the reconditioning process increases, reaching 30–70% of the overall impacts for 125 uses. A minimum of three deliveries of the RPCs is required in order to perform better than an alternative system where crates of the same capacity (but 60% lighter) are single-use. The same modeling approach can be used to evaluate the environmental sustainability of other types of returnable packages, in order to have a complete overview for the Italian context and other European countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 6894
Shakira R. Hobbs ◽  
Tyler M. Harris ◽  
William J. Barr ◽  
Amy E. Landis

The environmental impacts of five waste management scenarios for polylactic acid (PLA)-based bioplastics and food waste were quantified using life cycle assessment. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the potential for a pretreatment process to accelerate the degradation of bioplastics and were modeled in two of the five scenarios assessed. The five scenarios analyzed in this study were: (1a) Anaerobic digestion (1b) Anaerobic digestion with pretreatment; (2a) Compost; (2a) Compost with pretreatment; (3) Landfill. Results suggested that food waste and pretreated bioplastics disposed of with an anaerobic digester offers life cycle and environmental net total benefits (environmental advantages/offsets) in several areas: ecotoxicity (−81.38 CTUe), eutrophication (0 kg N eq), cumulative energy demand (−1.79 MJ), global warming potential (0.19 kg CO2), and human health non-carcinogenic (−2.52 CTuh). Normalized results across all impact categories show that anaerobically digesting food waste and bioplastics offer the most offsets for ecotoxicity, eutrophication, cumulative energy demand and non-carcinogenic. Implications from this study can lead to nutrient and energy recovery from an anaerobic digester that can diversify the types of fertilizers and decrease landfill waste while decreasing dependency on non-renewable technologies. Thus, using anaerobic digestion to manage bioplastics and food waste should be further explored as a viable and sustainable solution for waste management.

Energies ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 252 ◽  
Vincenzo Muteri ◽  
Maurizio Cellura ◽  
Domenico Curto ◽  
Vincenzo Franzitta ◽  
Sonia Longo ◽  

The photovoltaic (PV) sector has undergone both major expansion and evolution over the last decades, and currently, the technologies already marketed or still in the laboratory/research phase are numerous and very different. Likewise, in order to assess the energy and environmental impacts of these devices, life cycle assessment (LCA) studies related to these systems are always increasing. The objective of this paper is to summarize and update the current literature of LCA applied to different types of grid-connected PV, as well as to critically analyze the results related to energy and environmental impacts generated during the life cycle of PV technologies, from 1st generation (traditional silicon based) up to the third generation (innovative non-silicon based). Most of the results regarded energy indices like energy payback time, cumulative energy demand, and primary energy demand, while environmental indices were variable based on different scopes and impact assessment methods. Moreover, the review work allowed to highlight and compare key parameters (PV type and system, geographical location, efficiency), methodological insights (functional unit, system boundaries, etc.), and energy/environmental hotspots of 39 LCA studies relating to different PV systems, in order to underline the importance of these aspects, and to provide information and a basis of comparison for future analyses.

Mohammad Alizadeh Fard ◽  
Brian D. Barkdoll

Abstract Poor mixing in water storage tanks can cause stagnant zones that could pose negative public health effects. The present study uses Life Cycle Assessment to decide among the only three mixing options available, namely sprinkler, multiple inlets, and a mechanical mixer for the first time. These options were compared using different life cycle assessment (LCA) tools using an 80-year lifetime as the functional unit while assuming that all three options result in acceptable water quality. Using SimaPro modeling software as well as the IPCC 2013 GWP 100a V1.0 and Cumulative Energy Demand methods, these three mixing approaches were compared with and without waste recycling. Results showed that application of a sprinkler is the least expensive option. Damage-cost analyses for categories of human health, ecosystem quality, and resources showed that a sprinkler caused the least damage and cost, while a mixer resulted in the most damage and cost.

RSC Advances ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (33) ◽  
pp. 18853-18862 ◽  
Edis Glogic ◽  
Alberto Adán-Más ◽  
Guido Sonnemann ◽  
Maria de Fatima Montemor ◽  
Liliane Guerlou-Demourgues ◽  

An addition of reduced graphene oxide to nickel–cobalt hydroxide electrodes results in net reduction of cumulative energy demand due to improved electrochemical properties.

Holzforschung ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 105-115 ◽  
Sara Bello ◽  
Iana Salim ◽  
Pedro Méndez-Trelles ◽  
Eva Rodil ◽  
Gumersindo Feijoo ◽  

Abstract 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are top biomass-based platform chemicals with promising potential and an essential part of the future of green chemistry. HMF can be obtained mainly from fructose or glucose. Lignocellulosic glucose has a high production potential from not edible biomass. In the present paper life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed aiming at a better understanding of the environmental performance of the production of FDCA and HMF from lignocellulosic feedstock. Two case studies from the literature were modeled to obtain the life cycle inventory data. The production routes to FDCA comprise seven different process sections: hydrolysis, HMF synthesis, HMF recovery, FDCA synthesis, FDCA flash separation, FDCA purification and HMF boiler. By means of the LCA methodology, solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dichloromethane (DCM), together with the energy demand, were found to be clear critical points in the process. Two scenarios were in focus: Scenario 1 considered the purification of FDCA through crystallization, whereas in Scenario 2 purification was performed through distillation.

2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 5026 ◽  
Ronald Panameño ◽  
Carlos Mario Gutiérrez-Aguilar ◽  
Beatriz Elena Angel ◽  
Sandro Fábio-César ◽  
Asher Kiperstok

Cleaner production has been used for several years in Latin America to minimize waste generation while reducing material and energy consumption. Despite those environmental benefits, its implementation may sometimes lead to changes in products or processes whose environmental performance can yield either positive or negative outputs when examined within a broader context, meaning it is necessary to complement cleaner production with other environmental tools that can provide environmental assessments. This paper presents a combination of cleaner production with life cycle assessment (LCA) applied within the wood industry in a case study in Salvador, a state of Bahia (Brazil), regarding the production of two models of wooden chairs. The study selected life cycle assessment as a scientific tool to quantify the environmental impacts of the models having ILCD 2011 midpoint and cumulative energy demand methods. The results confirmed the presence of environmental tradeoffs among the models that were not considered during the cleaner production program implemented. This paper also includes a proposal of a flowchart to guide the implementation of cleaner production when deciding to implement changes in material, energy source, processes, final destination, or lifespan of the product evaluated, identifying the stages where environmental assessment like life cycle assessment may be required to address tradeoffs.

MRS Advances ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 3 (25) ◽  
pp. 1399-1404
Brittany L. Smith ◽  
Callie W. Babbitt ◽  
Kelsey Horowitz ◽  
Gabrielle Gaustad ◽  
Seth M. Hubbard

ABSTRACTThis study provides detailed information on the manufacture of III-V metal organic vapor phase epitaxy precursors through extensive literature and patent research. This data informed a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of these chemicals. Reported impacts include cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The results were interpreted to identify sources of environmental burden within the life cycle and were compared to energy demand reported in previous studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 3542
Hatem Alhazmi ◽  
Abdulilah K. Alduwais ◽  
Thamer Tabbakh ◽  
Saad Aljamlani ◽  
Bandar Alkahlan ◽  

The building and construction sector has a huge impact on the environment because of the enormous amounts of natural resources and energy consumed during the life cycle of construction projects. In this study, we evaluated the potential environmental impact of the construction of a villa, from cradle to grave, in the Saudi Arabian context. Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden (CML) for Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University-IA baseline v3.03 methods were used to obtain the environmental profile for the impact categories, and Cumulative Energy Demand v1.09 was used to measure the embodied energy of the villa life cycle. The analyzed midpoint impact categories include global warming (GWP100a), ozone layer depletion (ODP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), photochemical oxidation (POCP), and indicator cumulative energy demand (CED). The operation use phase of the villa was found to have the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.61 × 106 kg CO2-eq and 1.75 × 104 kg SO2-eq, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the Saudi Arabian plans to increase the share of renewable sources and reduce the amount of electricity generated from hydrocarbons, which currently represents 46% of the total installed power, by 2032. The results showed that compared with the current electricity environmental impact, the CO2 emission from electricity will decrease by 53%, which represents a significant reduction in environmental impact. The findings will help with the life cycle assessment of structures during future planning and for energy conservation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document