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Semantic Web technology is not new as most of us contemplate; it has evolved over the years. Linked Data web terminology is the name set recently to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web is a continuation of Web 2.0 and it is to replace existing technologies. It is built on Natural Language processing and provides solutions to most of the prevailing issues. Web 3.0 is the version of Semantic Web caters to the information needs of half of the population on earth. This paper links two important current concerns, the security of information and enforced online education due to COVID-19 with Semantic Web. The Steganography requirement for the Semantic web is discussed elaborately, even though encryption is applied which is inadequate in providing protection. Web 2.0 issues concerning online education and semantic Web solutions have been discussed. An extensive literature survey has been conducted related to the architecture of Web 3.0, detailed history of online education, and Security architecture. Finally, Semantic Web is here to stay and data hiding along with encryption makes it robust.

2022 ◽  
Nuengruethai Posri ◽  
Boonjai Srisatidnarakul ◽  
Ronald L Hickman

Background: The transition from hospital to home among patients with stroke is quite challenging. If the patients are not ready for hospital discharge, their condition may worsen, which also causes a high rate of readmission. Although instruments to measure readiness for hospital discharge exist, none of them fit with the Thailand context. Objective: This study aimed to develop a Readiness for Hospital Discharge assessment tool in Thai patients with stroke. Methods: The study was conducted from February to September 2020, which consisted of several steps: 1) conducting an extensive literature review, 2) content validity with five experts, 3) pilot testing with 30 samples, and 4) field testing with 348 participants. Content validity index (CVI) was used to measure the content validity, Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation to evaluate reliability, and multiple logistic regression analysis to measure the construct validity. Results: The findings showed good validity and reliability, with I-CVI of 0.85, Cronbach’s alpha of 0.94, and corrected item-total correlation ranging from 0.43 to 0.86. The construct validity was demonstrated through the results of regression analysis showing that the nine variables include level of consciousness (OR = 0.544; CI 95% = 0.311 - 0.951), verbal response (OR = 0.445; 95% CI 0.272- 0.729), motor power right leg (OR = 0.165; 95% CI 0.56- 0.485), visual field (OR = 0.188; 95% CI 0.60-0.587), dysphagia (OR = 0.618; 95% CI 0.410-0.932), mobility (OR = 0.376; 95% CI 0.190 - 0.741), self-feeding (OR = 0.098; 95% CI 0.036 -0.265), bathing (OR = 0.099; 95% CI 0.026-0.378), and bladder control (OR = 0.589; 95% CI 0.355-0.977) that significantly influenced the hospital readmission within 30 days in patients with stroke. Conclusion: The Readiness for Hospital Discharge assessment tool is valid and reliable. Healthcare providers, especially nurses, can use this tool to assess discharge conditions for patients with stroke with greater accuracy in predicting hospital readmission.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Michelle Louise Gatt ◽  
Maria Cassar ◽  
Sandra C. Buttigieg

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the readmission risk prediction tools reported in the literature and their benefits when it comes to healthcare organisations and management.Design/methodology/approach Readmission risk prediction is a growing topic of interest with the aim of identifying patients in particular those suffering from chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes, who are at risk of readmission. Several models have been developed with different levels of predictive ability. A structured and extensive literature search of several databases was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis strategy, and this yielded a total of 48,984 records.Findings Forty-three articles were selected for full-text and extensive review after following the screening process and according to the eligibility criteria. About 34 unique readmission risk prediction models were identified, in which their predictive ability ranged from poor to good (c statistic 0.5–0.86). Readmission rates ranged between 3.1 and 74.1% depending on the risk category. This review shows that readmission risk prediction is a complex process and is still relatively new as a concept and poorly understood. It confirms that readmission prediction models hold significant accuracy at identifying patients at higher risk for such an event within specific context.Research limitations/implications Since most prediction models were developed for specific populations, conditions or hospital settings, the generalisability and transferability of the predictions across wider or other contexts may be difficult to achieve. Therefore, the value of prediction models remains limited to hospital management. Future research is indicated in this regard.Originality/value This review is the first to cover readmission risk prediction tools that have been published in the literature since 2011, thereby providing an assessment of the relevance of this crucial KPI to health organisations and managers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Katerina Cerna ◽  
Claudia Müller ◽  
Dave Randall ◽  
Martin Hunker

An extensive literature on participatory design with older adults has, thus far, little to say about the support older adults need when involved in online activities. Our research suggests that to empower older adults in participatory design, scaffolding work has to be done. Scaffolding interactions - creating temporary instructional support to help the learning of participants - is a common approach in participatory design. Yet, when applied in online participatory design with older adults, the traditional understanding of the concept does not match the way older adults' learn. Hence, we argue for a new understanding of this term, which we call situated scaffolding. We illustrate our argument with a case where older adults collaborate online as part of a participatory design project. We unpack the different dimensions of situated scaffolding and discuss how this novel understanding can be used to further inform sustainable participatory design for and with older adults.

2022 ◽  
Linus Andersson ◽  
Marika Jalovaara ◽  
Caroline Uggla ◽  
Jan Saarela

Extensive literature theorizes the role of re-partnering on cohort fertility and whether union dissolution can be an engine for fertility. A large share of higher-order unions is non-marital cohabitations. Yet, most previous completed cohort fertility studies on the topic analyze marital unions only and none have measured cohabitations using population-level data. We use Finnish register data to enumerate every birth, marriage, and cohabitation from ages 18-46 in the 1969–1972 birth cohorts, and analyze the relationship between the number of unions and cohort fertility for men and women using Poisson regression. We show that re-partnering is driven by cohabitations. Re-marriage is positively associated with cohort fertility, compared to individuals in a single intact marriage. However, when measured using marriages as well as non-marital cohabitations, re-partnering is negatively associated with fertility, compared to individuals in a single intact union. This negative association increases with socioeconomic status. “Serial cohabitation” is a strong predictor of low fertility. Men see a slight “re-marriage premium” in fertility and a (non-marital) “re-partnering penalty,” compared to women. Thus, re-partnering is likely not an efficient engine for fertility. Further, marriage and cohabitation are far from indistinguishable in a country often described as a second demographic transition forerunner.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 106-111 ◽  
Mansi Surati ◽  
Manoj Kanchanbhai Patel ◽  
Sunita Bhanudas Nikumbh ◽  
Rajesh Ramkunwar Yadav ◽  
Abhishek Dnyaneshwar Kukde ◽  

Objectives: During the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, the risk to the mental well-being of the elderly living in an old age home (OAH) has increased considerably. Dealing with this issue requires special measures. The current literature has very few examples of such programmes. We aimed to promote emotional balance and an independent living with positive outlook on life among the residents of the OAH facility during the pandemic based on action learning principles. This programme was conducted in an OAH that our institute has been associated with for several years. HelpAge India, a non-governmental organisation working in India to assist disadvantaged senior citizens, provided a programme that covered 12 themes. This article deals with the structuring process of the programme. Materials and Methods: The team comprised homoeopathic consultants and the faculty and students of a postgraduate homoeopathic institute. An extensive literature search and consultation with experts from various fields enabled the team to plan and build the final programme were evolved. Results: Broad themes gave rise to distinct modules and objectives were derived for each of these. Detailed action plans were worked out and a plan of evaluation for each of these modules was worked out. Conclusion: Planning a programme to ensure well-being needs a close and accurate identification of the needs of the residents of a particular OAH. A multidisciplinary approach can help in evolving effective strategies to formulate models for geriatric mental well-being.

Ignace T. C. Hooge ◽  
Diederick C. Niehorster ◽  
Marcus Nyström ◽  
Richard Andersson ◽  
Roy S. Hessels

AbstractEye trackers are applied in many research fields (e.g., cognitive science, medicine, marketing research). To give meaning to the eye-tracking data, researchers have a broad choice of classification methods to extract various behaviors (e.g., saccade, blink, fixation) from the gaze signal. There is extensive literature about the different classification algorithms. Surprisingly, not much is known about the effect of fixation and saccade selection rules that are usually (implicitly) applied. We want to answer the following question: What is the impact of the selection-rule parameters (minimal saccade amplitude and minimal fixation duration) on the distribution of fixation durations? To answer this question, we used eye-tracking data with high and low quality and seven different classification algorithms. We conclude that selection rules play an important role in merging and selecting fixation candidates. For eye-tracking data with good-to-moderate precision (RMSD < 0.5∘), the classification algorithm of choice does not matter too much as long as it is sensitive enough and is followed by a rule that selects saccades with amplitudes larger than 1.0∘ and a rule that selects fixations with duration longer than 60 ms. Because of the importance of selection, researchers should always report whether they performed selection and the values of their parameters.

Maryam Gillani ◽  
Hafiz Adnan Niaz ◽  
Muhammad Umar Farooq ◽  
Ata Ullah

AbstractWe live in the era of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), which is an extension of Vehicular AdHoc Networks (VANETs). In VANETs, vehicles act as nodes connected with each other and sometimes with a public station. Vehicles continuously exchange and collect information to provide innovative transportation services; for example, traffic management, navigation, autonomous driving, and the generation of alerts. However, VANETs are extremely challenging for data collection, due to their high mobility and dynamic network topologies that cause frequent link disruptions and make path discovery difficult. In this survey, various state-of-the-art data collection protocols for VANETs are discussed, based on three broad categories, i.e., delay-tolerant, best-effort, and real-time protocols. A taxonomy is designed for data collection protocols for VANETs that is essential to add precision and ease of understandability. A detailed comparative analysis among various data collection protocols is provided to highlight their functionalities and features. Protocols are evaluated based on three parametric phases. First, protocols investigation based on six necessary parameters, including delivery and drop ratio, efficiency, and recovery strategy. Second, a 4-D functional framework is designed to fit most data collection protocols for quick classification and mobility model identification, thus eradicating the need to read extensive literature. In the last, in-depth categorical mapping is performed to deep dive for better and targeted interpretation. In addition, some open research challenges for ITS and VANETs are discussed to highlight research gaps. Our work can thus be employed as a quick guide for researchers to identify the technical relevance of data collection protocols of VANETs.

Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-11
A.K.O. Huq ◽  
I. Uddin ◽  
E. Ahmed ◽  
M.A.B. Siddique ◽  
M.A. Zaher ◽  

Fats and oils are an essential part of everyday cooking as well as food products development and their purity are a concern since very early in human history. Adulteration of fats and oils is increased day by day throughout the world, a greater extent. Hence an attempt has been taken to review to identify different suitable rapid detection techniques for ensuring food quality and safety. The study was designed on the basis of extensive literature review for collecting relevant scientific evidence from various sources like Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline database, Science direct database, published journal, newspaper and periodicals. Various techniques have been utilized to assess the purity of edible fats and oils but yet they are costly and time-consuming. This study summarized the rapid detection techniques so that a common person can perform at the level of the household so as to have a broad picture of the status of adulteration in his food in case of doubt. Edible fats and oils are reported to be adulterated with other low-price oils. For example, mustard oil adulterated with argemone oil and butter yellow and ghee adulterated with vanaspati ghee. The leading challenges include the lack of market survey, lack of acceptance in the wholesale and retail market because of suspecting its purity, community health problem and decrease in consumer confidence.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Farren Rodrigues ◽  
Suzanne Block ◽  
Suruchi Sood

Vaccine hesitancy is a prevalent and ongoing issue. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, additional attention has been brought to the topic of vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy is a threat to the population’s health globally. This article aims to acquire insights from previous literature to determine what works to increase vaccine uptake and how we can apply this knowledge to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Research has focused chiefly on childhood vaccination and the hesitancy of caregivers. After conducting an extensive literature review, we have created a conceptual model of indicators that influence vaccine uptake for health providers and caregivers, which can also be used for vaccine recipients. Overall, the reasons for vaccine hesitancy are complex; therefore, a multifaceted approach is needed to address it. Understanding the factors that affect vaccine hesitancy will aid in addressing hesitancy and, in turn, lead to an increase in vaccine uptake.

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