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Published By Iwa Publishing

1607-0798, 1606-9749
Updated Wednesday, 19 January 2022

Author(s):  
Mosbah Ben Said ◽  
Ahmed Ouamane

Abstract Labyrinth weirs are commonly used to increase the capacity of existing spillways and provide more efficient spillways for new dams due to their high specific discharge capacity compared to the linear weir. In the present study, experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to improve the rectangular labyrinth weir performance. In this context, four configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the entrance shape and alveoli width on its discharge capacity. The experimental models, three models of rectangular labyrinth weir with rounded entrance and one with flat entrance, were tested in rectangular channel conditions for inlet width to outlet width ratios (a/b) equal to 0.67, 1 and 1.5. The results indicate that the rounded entrance increases the weir efficiency by up to 5%. A ratio a/b equal to 1.5 leads to an 8 and 18% increase in the discharge capacity compared to a/b ratio equal to 1 and 0.67, respectively. In addition, a numerical simulation was conducted using the opensource CFD OpenFOAM to analyze and provide more information about the flow behavior over the tested models. A comparison between the experimental and numerical discharge coefficient was performed and good agreement was found (Mean Absolute Relative Error of 4–6%).


Author(s):  
Ali Mohtashami ◽  
Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared ◽  
Gholamreza Azizyan ◽  
Abolfazl Akbarpour

Abstract The complicated behavior of groundwater system in an arid aquifer is generally studied by solving the governing equations using either analytical or numerical methods. In this regard, analytical methods are just for some aquifers with regular boundaries. Numerical methods used for this aim are finite difference (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) which are engaged for some simple aquifers. Using them in the complex cases with irregular boundaries has some shortcomings, depended on meshes. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method based on the moving kriging (MK) approximation function is used to simulate groundwater flow in steady state over three aquifers, two standard and a real field aquifer. Moving kriging function known as new function which reduces the uncertain parameter. For the first aquifer, a simple rectangular aquifer, MLPG-MK indicates good agreement with analytical solutions. In the second one, aquifer conditions get more complicated. However, MLPG-MK reveals results more accurate than FDM. RMSE for MLPG-MK and FDM is 0.066 and 0.322 m respectively. In the third aquifer, Birjand unconfined aquifer located in Iran is investigated. In this aquifer, there are 190 extraction wells. The geometry of the aquifer is irregular as well. With this challenging issues, MLPG-MK again shows satisfactory accuracy. As the RMSE for MLPG-MK and FDM are 0.483 m and 0.566 m. therefore, planning for this aquifer based on the MLPG-MK is closer to reality.


Author(s):  
Ming Zhang ◽  
Kuo Zhang ◽  
Jinpeng Wang ◽  
Runjuan Zhou ◽  
Jiyuan Li ◽  
...  

Abstract The waste pomelo peel was pyrolyzed at 400 °C to prepare biochar and used as adsorbent to remove norfloxacin (NOR) from simulated wastewater. The adsorption conditions of norfloxacin by biochar were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). On the basis of single-factor experiment, the adsorption conditions of biochar dosage, solution pH and reaction temperature were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD), and the quadratic polynomial regression model of response value Y1 (NOR removal efficiency) and Y2 (NOR adsorption capacity) were obtained respectively. The results show that the two models are reasonable and reliable. The influence of single factor was as follows: solution pH > biochar dosage > reaction temperature. The interaction between biochar dosage and solution pH was very significant. The optimal adsorption conditions after optimization were as follows: biochar dosage = 0.5 g/L, solution pH = 3, and reaction temperature = 45 °C. The Y1 and Y2 obtained in the verification experiment were 75.68% and 3.0272 mg/g, respectively, which were only 2.38% and 0.0242 mg/g different from the theoretical predicted values of the model. Therefore, the theoretical model constructed by response surface methodology can be used to optimize the adsorption conditions of norfloxacin in water.


Author(s):  
Darud E. Sheefa ◽  
Brian D. Barkdoll

Abstract Water distribution system flushing is one way to get rid of contamination. In conventional flushing, all the contaminated water gets discharged to the environment, thereby harming it. A new method is proposed here as an alternative solution, in which a containment pond lined with impermeable material will be constructed in a suitable place within the municipality. Network modelling was performed to investigate the feasibility of the new method. It was found that (1) the proposed flushing method can successfully reduce environmental impacts compared to hydrant flushing only, (2) a containment pond cannot clear the system periphery away from the containment pond, (3) the best location of a containment pond is not always at the furthest location from the source reservoir, and (4) for some systems, some pond locations might be better from an economic perspective, while other locations will be better environmentally.


Author(s):  
Linyi Zhang ◽  
Chen Song ◽  
Yaoyao Xu ◽  
Yajun Shi ◽  
Xiaoling Liu

Abstract A single strain capable of efficient S2−-oxidizing was isolated from a black-odor river in Beijing. The single strain was identified as Stenotrophomonas through the physiology and biochemical characteristics as well as the 16S rRNA sequencing experiment. This strain was named as Stenotrophomonas sp.sp3 (strain sp3). The experimental results showed that for the strain sp3 growth and S2− oxidization, the optimal conditions were as follows: 25 °C of temperature, initial pH 7, 2.5 g/L of initial glucose concentration and 1.00 g/L of initial cell concentration. It was found that there were 31 kinds of sulfur oxidation related genes in the strain sp3 through the whole genomic analysis. The results of the transcriptome analysis suggested that the main metabolic pathway of S2− to SO42− was the paracoccus sulfur oxidation process. The bioconversion processes of S2− to S0, S2− to SO32−, S2O32− to S0 and SO32−, and SO32− to SO42− were controlled by hdrA, cysIJ, tst and sox gene, respectively.


Author(s):  
Vijendra Kumar ◽  
S. M. Yadav

Abstract Water resource management is a complex engineering problem, due to the stochastic nature of inflow, various demands and environmental flow downstream. With the increase in water consumption for domestic use and irrigation, it becomes more challenging. Many more difficulties, such as non-convex, nonlinear, multi-objective, and discontinuous functions, exist in real-life. From the past two decades, heuristic and metaheuristic optimization techniques have played a significant role in managing and providing better performance solutions. The popularity of heuristic and metaheuristic optimization techniques has increased among researchers due to their numerous benefits and possibilities. Researchers are attempting to develop more accurate and efficient models by incorporating novel methods and hybridizing existing ones. This paper's main contribution is to show the state-of-the-art of heuristic and metaheuristic optimization techniques in water resource management. The research provides a comprehensive overview of the various techniques within the context of a thorough evaluation and discussion. As a result, for water resource management problems, this study introduces the most promising evolutionary and swarm intelligence techniques. Hybridization, modifications, and algorithm variants are reported to be the most successful for improving optimization techniques. This survey can be used to aid hydrologists and scientists in deciding the proper optimization techniques.


Author(s):  
Wei-Zhuo Gai ◽  
Shi-Hu Zhang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Kexi Sun ◽  
Hong Jia ◽  
...  

Abstract Aluminum hydroxide is an eye catching and extensively researched adsorbent for fluoride removal and its defluoridation performance is closely related to the preparation method and crystalline phase. In this research, the defluoridation performances of aluminum hydroxides with different crystalline phases are compared and evaluated in terms of fluoride removal capacity, sensitivity to pH values and residual Al contents after defluoridation. It is found that the defluoridation performance of different aluminum hydroxides follows the order of boehmite > bayerite > gibbsite. The fluoride adsorption on aluminum hydroxides follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum defluoridation capacities of boehmite, bayerite and gibbsite are 42.08, 2.97 and 2.74 mg m−2, respectively. The pH values and FTIR analyses reveal that the ligand exchange between fluoride and surface hydroxyl groups is the fluoride removal mechanism. Different aluminum hydroxides have different surface hydroxyl group densities, which results in the different defluoridation capacities. This work provides a new idea to prepare aluminum hydroxide with outstanding defluoridation performance.


Author(s):  
Mehreen Ahmed ◽  
Rafia Mumtaz ◽  
Shahbaz Baig ◽  
Syed Muhammad Hassan Zaidi

Abstract The quality of water is traditionally assessed by the collection of physico-chemical parameters, i.e., pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen of the water bodies. However, the variations in environmental factors may have an impact on the quality of water, as changes in these attributes may affect the water bodies. These factors include the topographical, geological, lithological and soil type parameters of the watershed. In this study, the relationship amongst the physico-chemical, topographical, geological, lithological and soil type parameters of Rawal watershed was evaluated. The parameters included in the present study could be classified as follows: (a) water quality parameters (b) topographical parameters, (c) geological parameters, (d) lithological parameters, and (e) soil type parameters. Water quality parameters consisted of dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity and temperature. The topographical parameters include the slope and aspect of the watershed while the lithological, geological and soil type parameters include the lithology, geology and soil type of the watershed. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship amongst these different parameters. The results have revealed that the correlations of the topographical, lithological, geological parameters with the water quality parameters in the Rawal watershed for the monsoon seasons of June to August mostly have the same trend. Throughout the four year time period, turbidity and temperature parameters had positive correlations with soil type (ranging 0.03–0.24), however had weak correlation with geological and lithological parameters. Dissolved oxygen did not show any relationship with topographical and lithological parameters. The results for pH show that it has weak to fair positive correlations with topographical parameters. However, this analysis is based on the Landsat 8 images extracted for the monsoon seasons of the years of 2017–2020, and to examine a more prominent impact of geographical or environmental factors on the physico-chemical features, a large dataset should be considered.


Author(s):  
Pam Krone ◽  
Ross Clark ◽  
Jason Adelaars ◽  
Mason Leandro ◽  
Alex Henson ◽  
...  

Abstract Woodchip bioreactors are capable of removing nitrate from agricultural runoff and subsurface tile drain water, alleviating human health hazards and harmful discharge to the environment. Water pumped from agricultural tile drain sumps to nearby ditches or channels could be cost effectively diverted through a woodchip bioreactor to remove nitrate prior to discharge into local waterways. Sizing the bioreactor to achieve targeted outlet concentrations within a minimum footprint is important to minimizing cost. Determining the necessary bioreactor size should involve a hydrological component as well as reaction type and rates. We measured inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations in a pumped open-channel woodchip bioreactor over a 13-month period and used a tanks-in-series approach to model hydrology and estimate parameter values for reaction kinetics. Both zero-order and first-order reaction kinetics incorporating the Arrhenius equation for temperature dependence were modeled. The zero-order model fit the data better. The rate coefficients (k = 17.5 g N m−3 day−1 and theta = 1.12 against Tref = 20 °C) can be used for estimating the size of a woodchip bioreactor to treat nitrate in agricultural runoff from farm blocks on California's central coast. We present an Excel model for our tanks-in-series hydrology to aid in estimating bioreactor size.


Author(s):  
Netsanet Muluneh Gebreyohannes ◽  
Mwemezi J. Rwiza ◽  
Wilson Leonidas Mahene ◽  
Revocatus L. Machunda

Abstract The quality of water and sediments from a marginally-studied river was investigated with respect to As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn including their fractionation behavior and environmental risk. Samples were collected along the Kou River that flows across two districts in the Manyara region of Tanzania. The leaching behavior of Fe was studied using sequential extraction fractionation and kinetics approach. The Kou water failed to meet the irrigation, aquatic, and biological life standards with respect to one of more trace metallic elements (TMEs). Fe concentration in the river water ranged from 4.1 to 5.38 mg/L exceeding all the three standards. Six pollution indices were applied to assess the contamination and ecological risks of the nine trace metallic elements in the sediments. Overall, the metals were found to moderately contaminate the sediments. Cr, Fe, and Mn fell under the ‘severely polluted’ sediment quality class. Fe was the only metal that was found to significantly pollute both the river water and sediments. The Fe fractions in the sediments were in the order of residuals>Fe-Mn bound>organic bound>carbonate bound>water soluble>ion exchangeable. 7.8% of the total Fe content was bioavailable with a low potential to leach from the sediments. Under natural conditions, the sharpest release of the non-residual mobile fractions of Fe were identified to occur within the first 24 hours with the maximum Fe leached being 0.14% on the 12th day. None of the metals in the sediments were found with a potential to pose ecological risk.


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