Wahyu Ismail Kurnia ◽  
Muhammad Isradi Zainal ◽  
Alex Kisanjani
Akili D. Khawaji ◽  
Jong-Mihn Wie

The most popular method of controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in a steam turbine power plant is a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that uses lime/limestone scrubbing. Another relatively newer FGD technology is to use seawater as a scrubbing medium to absorb SO2 by utilizing the alkalinity present in seawater. This seawater scrubbing FGD process is viable and attractive when a sufficient quantity of seawater is available as a spent cooling water within reasonable proximity to the FGD scrubber. In this process the SO2 gas in the flue gas is absorbed by seawater in an absorber and subsequently oxidized to sulfate by additional seawater. The benefits of the seawater FGD process over the lime/limestone process and other processes are; 1) The process does not require reagents for scrubbing as only seawater and air are needed, thereby reducing the plant operating cost significantly, and 2) No solid waste and sludge are generated, eliminating waste disposal, resulting in substantial cost savings and increasing plant operating reliability. This paper reviews the thermodynamic aspects of the SO2 and seawater system, basic process principles and chemistry, major unit operations consisting of absorption, oxidation and neutralization, plant operation and performance, cost estimates for a typical seawater FGD plant, and pertinent environmental issues and impacts. In addition, the paper presents the major design features of a seawater FGD scrubber for the 130 MW oil fired steam turbine power plant that is under construction in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah, Saudi Arabia. The scrubber with the power plant designed for burning heavy fuel oil containing 4% sulfur by weight, is designed to reduce the SO2 level in flue gas to 425 ng/J from 1,957 ng/J.

2013 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 51-71 ◽  
Paweł Ziółkowski ◽  
Dariusz Mikielewicz ◽  
Jarosław Mikielewicz

Abstract The objective of the paper is to analyse thermodynamical and operational parameters of the supercritical power plant with reference conditions as well as following the introduction of the hybrid system incorporating ORC. In ORC the upper heat source is a stream of hot water from the system of heat recovery having temperature of 90 °C, which is additionally aided by heat from the bleeds of the steam turbine. Thermodynamical analysis of the supercritical plant with and without incorporation of ORC was accomplished using computational flow mechanics numerical codes. Investigated were six working fluids such as propane, isobutane, pentane, ethanol, R236ea and R245fa. In the course of calculations determined were primarily the increase of the unit power and efficiency for the reference case and that with the ORC.

Wancai Liu ◽  
Hui Zhang

Gas turbine is widely applied in power-generation field, especially combined gas-steam cycle. In this paper, the new scheme of steam turbine driving compressor is investigated aiming at the gas-steam combined cycle power plant. Under calculating the thermodynamic process, the new scheme is compared with the scheme of conventional gas-steam combined cycle, pointing its main merits and shortcomings. At the same time, two improved schemes of steam turbine driving compressor are discussed.

Jia Qianqian ◽  
Guo Chao ◽  
Li Jianghai ◽  
Qu Ronghong

The nuclear power plant with two modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR-PM) is under construction now. The control room of HTR-PM is designed. This paper introduces the alarm displays in the control room, and describes some verification and validation (V&V) activities of the alarm system, especially verification for some new human factor issues of the alarm system in the two modular design. In HTR-PM, besides the regular V&V similar to other NPPs, the interference effect of the alarm rings of the two reactor modules at the same time, and the potential discomfort of the two reactor operators after shift between them are focused. Verifications at early stage of the two issues are carried on the verification platform of the control room before the integrated system validation (ISV), and all the human machine interfaces (HMIs) in the control room, including the alarm system are validated in ISV. The test results on the verification platform show that the alarm displays and rings can support the operators understand the alarm information without confusion of the two reactors, and the shift between the two reactor operators have no adverse impact on operation. The results in ISV also show that the alarm system can support the operators well.

2008 ◽  
Vol 238 (12) ◽  
pp. 3522-3527 ◽  
Sheue-Ling Hwang ◽  
Jhih-Tsong Lin ◽  
Guo-Feng Liang ◽  
Yi-Jan Yau ◽  
Tzu-Chung Yenn ◽  

Emilie M. Roth ◽  
Randall J. Mumaw ◽  
Kim J. Vicente ◽  
Catherine M. Burns

Monitoring during emergencies in dynamic environments is widely recognized to be an active, selective attention, process. In contrast monitoring during normal operations is often thought to more closely resemble a vigilance task. This paper describes a field study of power plant operator monitor during normal operations. We observed and interviewed 27 operators at two different plants for a total of over 200 hours. Despite differences in control room technology, we found that in both cases operators devised active strategies to remove or reduce meaningless changes from the interface, create information different from that intended by the designers, and make important information more salient. These findings were integrated into a model of operator monitoring, that emphasizes operators' use of strategies for knowledge-driven monitoring and proactive adaptation of the control room interface. The model is equally applicable for normal and emergency operations and underscores the commonality in cognitive demands in both environments.

V. A. Khrustalev ◽  
M. V. Garievskii

The article presents the technique of an estimation of efficiency of use of potential heat output of an auxiliary boiler (AB) to improve electric capacity and manoeuvrability of a steam turbine unit of a power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a water-cooled water-moderated power reactor (WWER). An analysis of the technical characteristics of the AB of Balakovo NPP (of Saratov oblast) was carried out and hydrocarbon deposits near the NPP were determined. It is shown that in WWER nuclear power plants in Russia, auxiliary boilers are mainly used only until the normal operation after start-up whereas auxiliary boiler equipment is maintained in cold standby mode and does not participate in the generation process at power plants. The results of research aimed to improve the systems of regulation and power management of power units; general principles of increasing the efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy, as well as the issues of attracting the potential of energy technology sources of industrial enterprises to provide load schedules have been analyzed. The possibility of using the power complex NPP and the AB as a single object of regulation is substantiated. The authors’ priority scheme-parametric developments on the possibility of using the thermal power of the auxiliary boilers to increase the power of the steam turbine of a nuclear power plant unit equipped with WWER reactors unit during peak periods, as well as the enthalpy balance method for calculating heat flows, were applied. The surface area of the additional heater of the regeneration “deaerator – high pressure heaters” system and its cost were calculated. On the basis of calculations, it was shown that the additional power that can be obtained in the steam turbine of the NPP with a capacity of 1200 MW due to the use of heat of the modernized auxiliary boiler in the additional heat exchanger is 40.5 MW. The additional costs for the implementation of the heat recovery scheme of the auxiliary boiler at different prices for gas fuel and the resulting system effect were estimated in an enlarged way. Calculations have shown the acceptability of the payback period of the proposed modernization.

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