so2 emissions
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Ping Guo ◽  
Jin Li ◽  
Jinsong Kuang ◽  
Yifei Zhu ◽  
Renrui Xiao ◽  

Abstract This paper investigates the effects of enterprise environmental governance under low-carbon pilot policies in China with a difference in differences (DID) design. In examining the development of these policies, we focus on exploring their effects on sulfur dioxide emissions of heavily polluting enterprises based on prefectural city- and firm-level data from 2003-2014. Overall, the policies significantly increased enterprise SO2 emissions, and the underlying reason being that investments in CO2 control crowded out investment in SO2 control in enterprises in low-carbon pilot regions. We also find that the implementation of low-carbon pilot policies resulted in greater SO2 emissions from state-owned enterprises and enterprises in western regions than from non-state-owned enterprises and those in eastern regions. It is further found that fiscal decentralization and the associated mediating effect of market segmentation promote enterprises' CO2 control and inhibit their SO2 control. This study helps us re-examine the overall environmental effects of low-carbon policies and has implications for the revision and improvement of environmental governance policies in developing countries.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 553
Robert Cichowicz ◽  
Maciej Dobrzański

This study examines the concentrations of air pollution in the vicinity of a combined heat and power plant (CHP) and a communication route, using computer modeling of pollutant dispersion and spatial analysis based on real measurements in the city of Łódź, Poland, Europe. The research takes into account the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0) and gaseous pollutants (SO2 and VOC) in winter and summer. The spatial distribution of pollutants is discussed, including the presence of areas with increased accumulations of pollutants. Because atmospheric air has no natural boundaries, when analyzing any location, not only local sources of pollution, but also background pollution, should be analyzed. A clear difference was observed between the concentrations of pollutants in the summer and winter seasons, with significantly higher concentrations in the winter (heating) period. The impacts of road transport, individual heating systems, and combined heat and power plants were also assessed. Computer calculations confirmed that road transport accounted for the largest share of both PM and SO2 emissions. The CHP plant was responsible for the smallest percentage of dust emissions and was the next largest producer of SO2 emissions. The share of the total emissions from the individual sources were compared with the results of detailed field tests. The numerical analysis of selected pollution sources in combination with the field analysis shows that the identified pollution sources included in the analysis represent only a part of the total observed pollutant concentrations (suggesting that other background sources account for the rest).

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 323
Pauline Verdurme ◽  
Simon Carn ◽  
Andrew J. L. Harris ◽  
Diego Coppola ◽  
Andrea Di Muro ◽  

Five effusive eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) are analyzed to investigate temporal trends of erupted mass and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Daily SO2 emissions are acquired from three ultraviolet (UV) satellite instruments (the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)) and an array of ground-based UV spectrometers (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)). Time-averaged lava discharge rates (TADRs) are obtained from two automatic satellite-based hot spot detection systems: MIROVA and MODVOLC. Assuming that the lava volumes measured in the field are accurate, the MIROVA system gave the best estimation of erupted volume among the methods investigated. We use a reverse petrological method to constrain pre-eruptive magmatic sulfur contents based on observed SO2 emissions and lava volumes. We also show that a direct petrological approach using SO2 data might be a viable alternative for TADR estimation during cloudy weather that compromises hot spot detection. In several eruptions we observed a terminal increase in TADR and SO2 emissions after initial emission of evolved degassed magma. We ascribe this to input of deeper, volatile-rich magma into the plumbing system towards the end of these eruptions. Furthermore, we find no evidence of volatile excess in the five eruptions studied, which were thus mostly fed by shallow degassed magma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 319-323
K.A. Viraj Miyuranga ◽  
Udara S.P.R. Arachchige ◽  
Danushka Thilakarathne ◽  
Randika A. Jayasinghe ◽  
Nuwan A. Weerasekara

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with similar chemical and physical properties to diesel. The study used waste cooking oil to make biodiesel because reusing waste cooking oil harms human health by raising FFA levels above the norm. Transesterification was performed at 60 °C using a 1:5 methanol to waste cooking oil volume ratio, 30 min reaction time, 600 rpm stirring speed and 1% wt. KOH was employed as a homogenous base catalyst. Biodiesel samples of B0, B2, B5, B20, B40 and B100 were processed at 25 ºC in combination with petrodiesel. Samples were tested for density, kinetic viscosity, flash point, acid value and pH. The fuel economy and flue gas analysis were performed using three-wheeler diesel. The amount of waste cooking oil biodiesel increases the density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, acid value and pH of the sample. In blended diesel, the amount of biodiesel also lowered CO2, CO, NO, NOx, hydrocarbon (HC) and SO2 emissions.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Víctor Hugo Gutiérrez Pérez ◽  
Juan Daniel Osorio Hernández ◽  
Ricardo Gerardo Sánchez Alvarado ◽  
Alejandro Cruz Ramírez ◽  
Seydy Lizbeth Olvera Vázquez ◽  

Lead was recovered through a direct smelting reduction route from a lead concentrate by using mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C. The lead concentrate was obtained from the mining State of Zacatecas, México by traditional mineral processing and froth flotation. The experimental trials showed that 86 wt.% of lead with a purity up to 97% can be recovered from the lead concentrate by a single step reduction process when 40 wt.% Na2CO3 and 0.4 g SiC were used in the initial charge. The process was modeled in the thermodynamic software FactSage 7.3 to evaluate the effect of adding different amounts of Na2CO3 on the lead recovery rates while holding constant the SiC amount and temperature. The stability phase diagram obtained showed that an addition of 34 wt.% Na2CO3 was enough to reach the highest lead recovery. It was observed that the interaction of Na2CO3 and SiC at a high temperature promotes the formation of C and Na2O, and SiO2, respectively, where the Na2O partially bonds with silica and sulfur forming Na2S and sodium silicates which may decrease the SO2 emissions and increase the weather degradation of the slag. The PbS was mainly reduced by the produced C and CO formed by the interaction between Na2CO3 and SiC at 1000 °C. The predicted results reasonably match with those obtained experimentally in the lead recovery rates and compounds formation.

M I Lamas ◽  
C G Rodriguez

In the recent years, seawater scrubbers have become an interesting option to reduce SO2 emissions in marine engines. In this regard, this paper proposes a numerical model to analyze SO2 absorption in seawater. A single seawater droplet was analyzed, and the developed model was used to predict the influence of several parameters on the desulphurization efficiency, such as the droplet diameter, SO2 concentration, alkalinity and temperature. It was found that a droplet of 200 μm initial diameter can absorb up to 1.77∙10-14 mol of S for the parameters analyzed, and this reduction improves when the alkalinity and SO2 concentration are increased and diameter, seawater temperature and gas temperature are reduced. Differences up to of 21.5%, 19.8%, 2.2% and 16.3% in the S reduction were obtaining varying the SO2 initial concentration, alkaline initial concentration, initial liquid temperature and initial gas temperature respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13351
Bin Wang ◽  
Dechun Huang ◽  
Chuanhao Fan ◽  
Zhencheng Xing

International trade links countries consuming goods and services to those where products and related SO2 pollution are produced, thereby affecting national mitigation responsibilities. This study combined accounting and decomposition techniques to investigate the patterns and drivers of SO2 emissions embodied in international trade from 1995 to 2015 and quantified the contribution of each country or region on the production and consumption sides. The global embodied emissions increased at an accelerated rate before the global financial crisis and peaked at 51.3 Mt in 2008, followed by a fluctuating decline from 2008 to 2015. Spatially, the transfers of SO2 emissions tended to flow from developed countries to less developed ones, but the trend has weakened after the financial crisis. Our decomposition analysis suggests that the energy and production system transitions and the slowdown in international trade jointly accounted for the peak and decline in emissions. Our contribution analysis indicates that developing economies have contributed to decreased emissions due to their recent efforts in production technology upgrading, energy efficiency improvement and energy structure optimization. The influence of developed economies on emissions decreased due to their reduced dependency on imports. Targeted policy methods are provided from the production and consumption perspectives for developing and developed economies, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 17559-17576
Mikko Sipilä ◽  
Nina Sarnela ◽  
Kimmo Neitola ◽  
Totti Laitinen ◽  
Deniz Kemppainen ◽  

Abstract. The metallurgical industry in the Kola Peninsula, north-west Russia, form, after Norilsk, Siberia, the second largest source of air pollution in the Arctic and subarctic domain. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas, including Finnish Lapland. We performed investigations on concentrations of SO2, aerosol precursor vapours, aerosol and ion cluster size distributions together with chemical composition measurements of freshly formed clusters at the SMEAR I station in Finnish Lapland relatively close (∼ 300 km) to the Kola Peninsula industrial sites during the winter 2019–2020. We show that highly concentrated SO2 from smelter emissions is converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in sufficient concentrations to drive new particle formation hundreds of kilometres downwind from the emission sources, even at very low solar radiation intensities. Observed new particle formation is primarily initiated by H2SO4–ammonia (negative-)ion-induced nucleation. Particle growth to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes was concluded to result from sulfuric acid condensation. However, air mass advection had a large role in modifying aerosol size distributions, and other growth mechanisms and condensation of other compounds cannot be fully excluded. Our results demonstrate the dominance of SO2 emissions in controlling wintertime aerosol and CCN concentrations in the subarctic region with a heavily polluting industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 108430
Ying Xu ◽  
Weishi Zhang ◽  
Jionghua Wang ◽  
Siping Ji ◽  
Can Wang ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document