Temperature affects both elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons in a crystal. The Debye-Waller factor, B, describes the influence of temperature on the elastic scattering of electrons, whereas the imaginary part of the (complex) atomic form factor, fc = fr + ifi, describes the influence of temperature on the inelastic scattering of electrons (i.e. absorption). In HRTEM simulations, two possible ways to include absorption are: (i) an approximate method in which absorption is described by a phenomenological constant, μ, i.e. fi; - μfr, with the real part of the atomic form factor, fr, obtained from Hartree-Fock calculations, (ii) a more accurate method in which the absorptive components, fi of the atomic form factor are explicitly calculated. In this contribution, the inclusion of both the Debye-Waller factor and absorption on HRTEM images of a (Oll)-oriented GaAs crystal are presented (using the EMS software.Fig. 1 shows the the amplitudes and phases of the dominant 111 beams as a function of the specimen thickness, t, for the cases when μ = 0 (i.e. no absorption, solid line) and μ = 0.1 (with absorption, dashed line).