Background: To assess role of platelet aggregation in metastatic breast cancer patients.Methods:40 cases (Group I) of metastatic breast cancer patients and equal number of healthy control (Group II) subjects were included. Platelet aggregation studies in vitro using ADP and Thrombin were performed using an optical aggregometer. Detection of platelet aggregation was done by Chrono log series 490 dual and four channel optical aggregometer systems.Results:There were 4 subjects in group I and 12 in group II having ADP <60, 26 subjects in group I and 28 in group II with ADP 61-72 and 10 subjects in group I with ADP >72. Low thrombin <58 was seen in 8 in group II, normal thrombin between 61-72 was seen among 11 in group I and 32 in group II and high thrombin >82 among 29 in group I respectively. Amongst patients with normal platelet count, 14 patients had platelet aggregation with ADP in the normal range and 4 patients had platelet aggregation with ADP in the lower range. In patients with high platelet count, 12 showed aggregation in the normal range, and 10 patients showed aggregation in the higher range which was statistically significant (P< 0.05) (Table III, Graph II).Conclusion: Platelet aggregation has an important part to play in the tumor metastasis of breast cancer patients.
With advent of nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, AgNPs owing majorly to their antibacterial properties, are used widely in food industry and biomedical applications implying human exposure by various routes including inhalation. Several reports have suggested AgNPs induced pathophysiological effects in a cardiovascular system. However, cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension may interfere with AgNPs-induced response, yet majority of them are understudied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the thrombotic complications in response to polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) coated AgNPs using an experimental hypertensive (HT) mouse model. Saline (control) or PEG-AgNPs (0.5 mg/kg) were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled four times, i.e., on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 post-angiotensin II-induced HT, or vehicle (saline) infusion. On day 29, various parameters were assessed including thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules, platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro, plasma markers of coagulation, and fibrinolysis and systemic oxidative stress. Pulmonary exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice induced an aggravation of in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles and venules compared to normotensive (NT) mice exposed to PEG-AgNPs or HT mice given saline. The prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation in vitro were exacerbated after exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either NT mice exposed to nanoparticles or HT mice exposed to saline. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and von Willebrand factor were seen after the exposure to PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either PEG-AgNPs exposed NT mice or HT mice given with saline. Likewise, the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide were augmented by PEG-AgNPs in HT mice compared with either NT mice exposed to nanoparticles or HT mice exposed to saline. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PEG-AgNPs can potentially exacerbate the in vivo and in vitro procoagulatory and oxidative stress effect in HT mice and suggest that population with hypertension are at higher risk of the toxicity of PEG-AgNPs.
Bernard Soulier Syndrome (BSS) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and absence of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Clinical findings vary from person to person. Most of the patients are diagnosed with muco-cutaneous bleeding such as purpura, epistaxis and gingival bleeding in early childhood. Few pregnant women with BSS are described in the literature. Management of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy and delivery requires a multidisciplinary approach. The family should be warned about the potentially life-threatening bleeding during pregnancy and the delivery and the decision about mode of delivery should be individualised, involving discussion with patient and multidisciplinary team.
Platelet aggregation causes various diseases and therefore challenges the development of novel antiaggregatory drugs. In this study, we report the possible mechanism of platelet aggregation suppression by newly synthesized myrtenol-derived monoterpenoids carrying different heteroatoms (sulphur, oxygen, or nitrogen). Despite all tested compounds suppressed the platelet aggregation in vitro, the most significant effect was observed for the S-containing compounds. The molecular docking confirmed the putative interaction of all tested compounds with the platelet’s P2Y12 receptor suggesting that the anti-aggregation properties of monoterpenoids are implemented by blocking the P2Y12 function. The calculated binding force depended on heteroatom in monoterpenoids and significantly decreased with the exchanging of the sulphur atom with oxygen or nitrogen. On the other hand, in NMR studies on dodecyl phosphocholine (DPC) as a membrane model, only S-containing compound was found to be bound with DPC micelles surface. Meanwhile, no stable complexes between DPC micelles with either O- or N-containing compounds were observed. The binding of S-containing compound with cellular membrane reinforces the mechanical properties of the latter, thereby preventing its destabilization and subsequent clot formation on the phospholipid surface. Taken together, our data demonstrate that S-containing myrtenol-derived monoterpenoid suppresses the platelet aggregation in vitro via both membrane stabilization and blocking the P2Y12 receptor and, thus, appears as a promising agent for hemostasis control.
Introduction. Clinical experience in managing patients with a new coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 allowed to identify specific hemostasis disorders, and enables to introduce the concept of COVID-associated coagulopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the direction of coagulogram parameter changes, whole blood clotting parameters and characteristics of platelet and plasma hemostasis in patients with severe COVID-19. Materials and methods. The parameters of the hemostasis system were assessed using venous blood of 12 patients with severe COVID-19 and 16 healthy volunteers. The whole blood clotting process was investigated by low-frequency piezothromboelastography. The platelet count and indicators of spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were estimated with the help of a laser platelet aggregation analyzer. Fibrinolytic activity of plasma, plasminogen activity, content of fibrinogen, D-dimer, PTT, APTT, PTI and INR were assessed. Results. An increased level of fibrinogen, a 6-fold increased D-dimer level, and increased PTT were found in patients with severe COVID-19. The patient platelets count was reduced by 51 % (p <0.05), spontaneous platelet aggregation remained at nearly normal level. Almost complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet reactivity and inhibition of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis was revealed, despite an increased by 19.3 % (p <0.05) plasminogen activity. Parameters of the whole blood coagulation process pointed a pronounced activation of platelet hemostasis, a significant intensification of the polymerization stage of clot formation and an increased intensity of clot lysis and retraction. Conclusion. The significant increase of D-dimer level and paradoxical inhibition of plasma fibrinolytic activity revealed by test of XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis (in contrast to the increased intensity of clot lysis when assessing the coagulation of whole blood) indicate the complex pathogenic mechanisms of coagulopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the involvement of blood cells and the vascular wall in the process of pathological thrombus formation.
AbstractTo evaluate the effects of fructose diphosphate (FDP) on routine coagulation tests in vitro, we added FDP into the mixed normal plasma to obtain the final concentration of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/mL of drug. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (FBG) and thrombin time (TT) of samples were analyzed with blood coagulation analyzers from four different manufacturers(Sysmex, Stago, SEKISUI and Werfen) and their corresponding reagents, respectively. Before the experiment, we also observed whether there were significant differences in coagulation test results of different lots of reagents produced by each manufacturer. At the same time as the four routine clotting tests, the Sysmex blood coagulation analyzer and its proprietary analysis software were used to detect the change of maximum platelet aggregation rate in platelet-rich plasma after adding FDP (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mg/mL). The results of PT, aPTT and TT showed a FDP (0–35 mg/mL) concentration-dependent increase and a FBG concentration-dependent decrease. The degree of change (increase or decrease) varied depending on the assay system, with PT and aPTT being more affected by the Sysmex blood coagulation testing instrument reagent system and less affected by CEKISUI, TT less affected by CEKISUI and more affected by Stago, and FBG less affected by Stago and more affected by Sysmex. The results of PT, aPTT and TT were statistically positively correlated with their FDP concentrations, while FBG was negatively correlated. The correlation coefficients between FDP and the coagulation testing systems of Sysmex, Stago, Werfen and SEKISUI were 0.975, 0.988, 0.967, 0.986 for PT, and 0.993, 0.989, 0.990 and 0.962 for aPTT, 0.994, 0.960, 0.977 and 0.982 for TT, − 0.990, − 0.983, − 0.989 and − 0.954 for FBG, respectively. Different concentrations of FDP (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mg/mL) had different effects on the maximum aggregation rate of platelet induced by the agonists of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 5 µmol/L), arachidonic acid (Ara, 1 mmol/L), collagen (Col, 2.5 µg/mL) and epinephrine (Epi,10 µmol/L), but the overall downward trend was consistent, that is, with the increase of FDP concentration, the platelet aggregation rate decreased significantly. Our experimental study demonstrated a possible effect of FDP on the assays of coagulation and Platelet aggregation, which may arise because the drug interferes with the coagulation and platelet aggregation detection system, or it may affect our in vivo coagulation system and Platelet aggregation function, the real mechanism of which remains to be further verified and studied.
Aim: Inhibition of thrombin-mediated signaling processes using a vascular dose of rivaroxaban in adjunct to antiplatelet therapy, known as dual-pathway inhibition (DPI), reduces atherothrombotic events in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. However, there are limited data on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of this strategy.
Methods and Results: This investigation was conducted in selected cohorts of patients (n=40) with stable atherosclerotic disease enrolled within a larger prospective PD study who were treated with either aspirin plus clopidogrel (DAPT), aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg/bid (DPI) or DAPT plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg/bid. Multiple PD assays assessing of markers of thrombosis were used. PD endpoints included platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity measured by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) following stimuli with CATF [collagen‐related peptide +adenosine diphosphate (ADP) +tissue factor (TF)], markers of P2Y12 reactivity, markers of platelet aggregation using LTA following several stimuli (arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, TF, and TRAP), thrombin generation and thrombus formation. There was no difference in platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity between groups. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced thrombin generation and was associated with a trend towards reduced TF-induced platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel-based treatments reduced markers of P2Y12 signaling and TRAP‐induced platelet aggregation. There were no differences between groups on markers of cyclooxygenase‐1 mediated activity.
Conclusions: Compared with DAPT, DPI does not result in any differences in platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity, but reduces thrombin generation. These PD observations support that modulating thrombin generation by means of factor Xa inhibition in adjunct to antiplatelet therapy provides effective antithrombotic effects, supporting the efficacy and safety findings of DPI observed in clinical
Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural polyphenolic compound, which shows various effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EA...