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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Author(s):  
Tzanis Anevlavis ◽  
Matthew Philippe ◽  
Daniel Neider ◽  
Paulo Tabuada

While most approaches in formal methods address system correctness, ensuring robustness has remained a challenge. In this article, we present and study the logic rLTL, which provides a means to formally reason about both correctness and robustness in system design. Furthermore, we identify a large fragment of rLTL for which the verification problem can be efficiently solved, i.e., verification can be done by using an automaton, recognizing the behaviors described by the rLTL formula φ, of size at most O(3 |φ |), where |φ | is the length of φ. This result improves upon the previously known bound of O(5|φ |) for rLTL verification and is closer to the LTL bound of O(2|φ |). The usefulness of this fragment is demonstrated by a number of case studies showing its practical significance in terms of expressiveness, the ability to describe robustness, and the fine-grained information that rLTL brings to the process of system verification. Moreover, these advantages come at a low computational overhead with respect to LTL verification.


2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Author(s):  
Tetsuya Sakai ◽  
Sijie Tao ◽  
Zhaohao Zeng

In the context of depth- k pooling for constructing web search test collections, we compare two approaches to ordering pooled documents for relevance assessors: The prioritisation strategy (PRI) used widely at NTCIR, and the simple randomisation strategy (RND). In order to address research questions regarding PRI and RND, we have constructed and released the WWW3E8 dataset, which contains eight independent relevance labels for 32,375 topic-document pairs, i.e., a total of 259,000 labels. Four of the eight relevance labels were obtained from PRI-based pools; the other four were obtained from RND-based pools. Using WWW3E8, we compare PRI and RND in terms of inter-assessor agreement, system ranking agreement, and robustness to new systems that did not contribute to the pools. We also utilise an assessor activity log we obtained as a byproduct of WWW3E8 to compare the two strategies in terms of assessment efficiency. Our main findings are: (a) The presentation order has no substantial impact on assessment efficiency; (b) While the presentation order substantially affects which documents are judged (highly) relevant, the difference between the inter-assessor agreement under the PRI condition and that under the RND condition is of no practical significance; (c) Different system rankings under the PRI condition are substantially more similar to one another than those under the RND condition; and (d) PRI-based relevance assessment files (qrels) are substantially and statistically significantly more robust to new systems than RND-based ones. Finding (d) suggests that PRI helps the assessors identify relevant documents that affect the evaluation of many existing systems, including those that did not contribute to the pools. Hence, if researchers need to evaluate their current IR systems using legacy IR test collections, we recommend the use of those constructed using the PRI approach unless they have a good reason to believe that their systems retrieve relevant documents that are vastly different from the pooled documents. While this robustness of PRI may also mean that the PRI-based pools are biased against future systems that retrieve highly novel relevant documents, one should note that there is no evidence that RND is any better in this respect.


Author(s):  
Wang Kaiwen ◽  

Belt and Road is an open regional economic cooperation system. The strategy of Belt and Road is proposed to promote economic development and trade cooperation between China and the countries along the route, and to jointly build a community of shared interests and destiny between China and the countries along the rou2te. Under the current international background of global economic integration and trade protectionism, Researching on China’s investment abroad and imports to countries along the Belt and Road has strong practical significance. This article analyzes the status quo of China's investment and imports in countries along the Belt and Road, studies the existing problems, and proposes countermeasures.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
An Ping

PurposeThe purpose of this article is to adhere to the construction of foreign print books. Of course, when the funds are limited or reduced, we can adjust the collection structure according to the utilization situation and reduce the subjects or languages that readers use poorly. Provide data support for library collection development plan.Design/methodology/approachThis paper analyzes the development and utilization of printed foreign language books based on the case of the National Library of China (NLC).The quality of library collection is analyzed by list checking method, and the utilization of library collection is analyzed by comparative analysis method and the statistical analysis method is used for language and subject areas, the questionnaire analysis method is used for users in NLC.FindingsForeign printed books plays a certain role in supporting domestic social users. The construction advantages of these print books need to be adhered to and developed. They should not be interrupted or cut down sharply because of many libraries are developing towards digital library or smart library nowadays. Libraries need to balance printed and digital resources in their collection and optimize their printed collection composition in terms of subject areas and unique resources to keep up with evolving needs of their patrons.Research limitations/implicationsIt is not compared with the utilization of e-books.Practical implicationsIn the transition period from traditional library to digital library, quantitative analysis of the construction and utilization of printed book resources can provide research support for the formulation of collection development planning, better service to users and better use of funds.Social implicationsIn the period of library transformation and development, it is of great practical significance to study the construction and utilization of printed books in NLC for resource transformation and service transformation. This paper gives the corresponding analysis and discussion on whether printed books should adhere to and whether they can be optimized.Originality/valueIn the period of Library Transformation and development, it is of great practical significance to study the construction and utilization of foreign language printed books in NLC. The printed book resources can provide research support for the formulation of collection development plan, better service to users and better use of funds.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xukun Su ◽  
Yu Shen ◽  
Shikui Dong ◽  
Yuqing Liu ◽  
Hao Cheng ◽  
...  

Ignoring the responses of local households to ecological protection policies can not only seriously limit sustainable development of the alpine grassland ecosystem, but also not improve livelihood on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). It is of vital importance to clearly understand coupling feedback and trigger between household decision-making of local herdsmen with the implementation of ecological protection policies. We selected Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) as the study area which was in the hinterland of the QTP and the first national park in China. We used the global rangeland (G-Range) model to simulate alpine grassland changes and DEcisions under Conditions of Uncertainty by Modeled Agents (DECUMA) model to identify household decision-making of local herdsmen. Results showed that: (1) distribution of livestock density was basically consistent with the distribution of habitat suitability of local households in the SNP; (2) more than half of the uneducated households (52 and 70%) opposed the eco-compensation and eco-migration policies; (3) most of the households (53.7%) never traded livestock for maintaining their livelihood; and (4) When local households owed 65,000 yuan (≈10,000 dollars) in debts, as the critical value (trigger), they traded livestock to support their livelihood. We suggest that feedback and trigger of household decision-making should be fully considered by managers of national park and policymakers of local governments in planning ecological protection policies to maintain sustainable development of alpine grassland, which is of practical significance to long-term conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources in the SNP.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-20
Author(s):  
Mykola Mokliuk ◽  
Olha Popova ◽  
Maryna Soroka ◽  
Yanina Babchenko ◽  
Irina Ivashchenko

The article aims at allowing you to deepen the knowledge of the program material on computer science and, as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of the educational process as a whole during a pandemic, will increase the motivation of students to the subject; will allow developing students' abilities for self-development, self-education. Based on the purpose, subject, hypothesis of the research, the following tasks were solved: scientific methodological and pedagogical literature on the topic of research was studied; revealed the content and essence of Internet technologies; an Internet resource has been developed that allows organizing the process of distance learning in informatics; tested the effectiveness of its use in the process of teaching computer science to students. The practical significance of the study lies in the creation of an educational Internet resource that allows students to acquire the skills to independently create a Web site. This Internet resource can be used for forms of work in informatics in any educational institution during a pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Renat N. Apkin ◽  

According to UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations), no less than 10% of lung cancer diseases registered annually are caused by radon radiation. Born in the belly of the earth, the same gas, a class I cancirogen, increases the risk of non-cancerous diseases of the upper respiratory tract and cardiovascular diseases. The radon problem occupies an important place in the radioecological programs of the USA, Japan, Western Europe and Russia. However, the natural radiation varies in the background from location to location. In many countries, survey work is being carried out, including an assessment of the intensity of the radon hazards of sites allocated for construction. In Russia, the Radiation Safety Standards are stipulating that the concentration of radon in the air of residential premises should not exceed 200 Bq/m3; in Sweden, the maximum radon concentration is taken as 100 Bq/m3, in Finland and Canada - 400 Bq/m3, and in Germany and Great Britain - 200 Bq/m3. It is necessary to carefully choose the constructive site, with the minimum concentration of radon in the soil. Our purpose is to carry out a cartographic analysis of radon intake from soil in the territory of Kazan. An important component is the creation of unique maps based on the measurement of radon escalation. The practical significance of the work lies in the application of the results for making management decisions, in engineering and environmental surveys, for conducting hygienic assessments, or simply being used by citizens for informational purposes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Weiqi Mu ◽  
Jie Xu ◽  
Fugui Li ◽  
Siying Li ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic severely hit small and micro-businesses. In the face of the impact of the pandemic, how to help entrepreneurs, especially small- and micro-businesses that are more sensitive to the impact of the pandemic, make decisions to reduce losses has become an issue worth paying attention to. From the perspective of personality approach, this article studied openness, which is the strongest predictor of entrepreneurial performance among the big five personality traits, and explored the impact of entrepreneurs’ openness on entrepreneurial performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the inconsistent mediating role of strategic decision comprehensiveness on entrepreneurial performance. An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 238 entrepreneurs of small- and micro-businesses when China was recovering from the pandemic and starting to resume work and production (February 18 – February 26, 2020). Entrepreneurial performance during the COVID-19 pandemic was measured by comparing the business conditions before and after the pandemic. The results showed that entrepreneurs’ openness positively impacted strategic decision comprehensiveness and entrepreneurial performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the two competing hypotheses proposed by summarizing previous research, the results supported that strategic decision comprehensiveness negatively affected entrepreneurial performance. It indicated that entrepreneurs who tend to collect and analyze information extensively and then make decisions during the pandemic could not seize opportunities and improve their entrepreneurial performance. The results further supported that strategic decision comprehensiveness was an inconsistent mediator between openness and entrepreneurial performance, showing that entrepreneurs with low openness can also reduce the loss of entrepreneurial performance during the pandemic by making incomplete but rapid strategic decisions. This study found that the openness of entrepreneurs had a positive impact on strategic decision comprehensiveness for the first time and provided more empirical evidence for the negative effect of strategic decision comprehensiveness on entrepreneurial performance in the context of information uncertainty and unanalyzable situations. The inconsistent mediating effect of strategic decision comprehensiveness revealed in this study also has practical significance for helping entrepreneurs make correct decisions to reduce the losses caused by the pandemic.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Author(s):  
Hrishikesh D. Vinod

Quantitative researchers often use Student’s t-test (and its p-values) to claim that a particular regressor is important (statistically significantly) for explaining the variation in a response variable. A study is subject to the p-hacking problem when its author relies too much on formal statistical significance while ignoring the size of what is at stake. We suggest reporting estimates using nonlinear kernel regressions and the standardization of all variables to avoid p-hacking. We are filling an essential gap in the literature because p-hacking-related papers do not even mention kernel regressions or standardization. Although our methods have general applicability in all sciences, our illustrations refer to risk management for a cross-section of firms and financial management in macroeconomic time series. We estimate nonlinear, nonparametric kernel regressions for both examples to illustrate the computation of scale-free generalized partial correlation coefficients (GPCCs). We suggest supplementing the usual p-values by “practical significance” revealed by scale-free GPCCs. We show that GPCCs also yield new pseudo regression coefficients to measure each regressor’s relative (nonlinear) contribution in a kernel regression.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiang Lai ◽  
Hong-hao Zhang

Abstract The identification of key nodes plays an important role in improving the robustness of the transportation network. For different types of transportation networks, the effect of the same identification method may be different. It is of practical significance to study the key nodes identification methods corresponding to various types of transportation networks. Based on the knowledge of complex networks, the metro networks and the bus networks are selected as the objects, and the key nodes are identified by the node degree identification method, the neighbor node degree identification method, the weighted k-shell degree neighborhood identification method (KSD), the degree k-shell identification method (DKS), and the degree k-shell neighborhood identification method (DKSN). Take the network efficiency and the largest connected subgraph as the effective indicators. The results show that the KSD identification method that comprehensively considers the elements has the best recognition effect and has certain practical significance.


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