scholarly journals Heavy Metals and Probabilistic Risk Assessment via Pheretima (a Traditional Chinese Medicine) Consumption in China

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaohui Xu ◽  
Limin Li ◽  
Heng Zhou ◽  
Qing Hu ◽  
Lingling Wang ◽  

Earthworms are known to accumulate inorganic contaminants from the soil; they are also used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) called Pheretima, which might cause safety problems with long-term exposure. Here, this study was conducted to determine and analyze the level of heavy metal contamination such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in Pheretima and then explore the probabilistic health risks caused by 8 heavy metals in 98 batches of Pheretima using Monte Carlo simulation. A risk assessment strategy was conducted to assess heavy metal–associated health risk of Pheretima based on consumption data. For random consumption sampling, the results found that the non-carcinogenic risk of As is higher than the acceptable level, and the carcinogenic risk levels of As and Cr exceeded the acceptable risk recommended by the USEPA. Cr and As were regarded as the priority metals for risk control in the present study. Finally, it was recommended that the dosing frequency should be less than 24 d/y. In general, this study conducted a probabilistic risk assessment of heavy metals in Pheretima, which would be of significance for policy makers to take effective strategies to improve the quality and safety of Pheretima.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11853
Xingyong Zhang ◽  
Qixin Wu ◽  
Shilin Gao ◽  
Zhuhong Wang ◽  
Shouyang He

Heavy metals are released into the water system through various natural processes and anthropogenic activities, thus indirectly or directly endangering human health. The distribution, source, water quality and health risk assessment of dissolved heavy metals (V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Mo, Sb) in major rivers in Wuhan were analyzed by correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), heavy metal pollution index (HPI), hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR). The results showed that the spatial variability of heavy metal contents was pronounced. PCA and CA results indicated that natural sources controlled Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Mo, and industrial emissions were the dominant factor for V, Zn and Sb, while As was mainly from the mixed input of urban and agricultural activities. According to the heavy metal pollution index (HPI, ranging from 23.74 to 184.0) analysis, it should be noted that As and Sb contribute most of the HPI values. The health risk assessment using HI and CR showed that V and Sb might have a potential non-carcinogenic risk and As might have a potential carcinogenic risk to adults and children in the study area (CR value exceeded target risk 10−4). At the same time, it was worth noting that As might have a potential non-carcinogenic risk for children around QLR (HI value exceeded the threshold value 1). The secular variation of As and Sb should be monitor in high-risk areas. The results of this study can provide important data for improving water resources management efficiency and heavy metal pollution prevention in Wuhan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 127402 ◽  
Chunyapuk Kukusamude ◽  
Phitchan Sricharoen ◽  
Nunticha Limchoowong ◽  
Supalak Kongsri

2013 ◽  
Vol 726-731 ◽  
pp. 1085-1088
Xue Long Chen ◽  
Xiao Long Wang

a risk model to assess the environmental risk of wastewater from the traditional Chinese medicine manufacturers was set to cope with the increasing pollution. The Klebsiella planticola was selected as the indicator because of the sensitive reaction of its mass growth, the highest correlationship(r=0.989) with significance (P=0.001<0.01) along with the change of the wastewater’s concentrations and the perfect coefficient of fitting function (R2=1). The dose-effective relationship among microbial indicator and pollutants, which was analyzed and verified, was adopted to generate a fitting function. The fitting function equation was y=-0.945x4+0.971x3+0.314x2-0.114x +0.301; Thus, different risk levels were divided: No risk (0.2973≤OD600≤0.3010), Low risk (0.3010<OD600<0.4325, 0.1505<OD600<0.2973), Medium risk (0.4325≤OD600<0.5640, 0.1505≤OD600<0), High risk (0.5640≤OD600, OD600≤0.000). The sensitivity and precision of the risk assessment model could be guaranteed by the characteristics of the microbial indicator

Nur Syahirah Zulkafflee ◽  
Nurul Adillah Mohd Redzuan ◽  
Sara Nematbakhsh ◽  
Jinap Selamat ◽  
Mohd Razi Ismail ◽  

Paddy plants tend to accumulate heavy metals from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and this poses adverse risks to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in paddy plants in Kelantan, Malaysia, and its health risk assessment. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals was studied by means of enrichment (EF) and translocation factors (TF). The health risk assessment was performed based on USEPA guidelines. The EF for heavy metals in the studied areas was in the descending order of Cu > As > Cr > Cd > Pb. Meanwhile, Cr and Pb exhibited higher TF values from stem to grain compared with the others. The combined hazard index (HI) resulting from five heavy metals exceeded the acceptable limit (HI >1). The lifetime cancer risk, in both adult and children, was beyond the acceptable limit (10−4) and mainly resulted from exposure. The total cancer risk (CRt) due to simultaneous exposures to multiple carcinogenic elements also exceeded 10−4. In conclusion, intake of heavy metal through rice ingestion is likely to cause both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks. Further research is required to investigate the extent of heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and, moreover, to establish human exposure as a result of rice consumption.

2021 ◽  
Adele Lorene Hineao Whyte

<p>New Zealand does not have a major problem with marine pollution but there is still a need to develop methods to monitor the environment and protect ecosystems. Although some previous studies in New Zealand have measured the concentrations of chemicals in tissues from marine organisms, few to date have developed biomarkers of contaminant exposure. In the current study attempts were made to develop biomarkers for heavy metal contamination in the endemic New Zealand greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus. Metallothionein (MT) gene nucleotide sequences were isolated from P. canaliculus by cloning PCR products from genomic DNA. Nine MT exon 2 amino acid sequences were deduced, some of which were characterised by unusual features, including the presence of atypical tyrosine and histidine residues and lower than usual numbers of metal binding cysteine residues. MT sequences isolated in the current study were compared with those from other mollusc species worldwide. A 2-D gel DIGE proteomic approach was used to detect proteins involved in response to low salinity or heavy metal contamination. In the salinity study, control mussels were killed at the start of the experiment and others were exposed to ambient (32 ppt) and reduced (14 ppt) salinity for 3 days. Approximately 115 proteins showed significant (t-test p < 0.01) differences in abundance between the three experimental groups. Two isoforms of tropomyosin and one isoform of actin were identified and these proteins have been implicated in previous studies in response to reduced salinity. The low number of proteins identified in this study and the heavy metal experiment highlights the difficulty in working with invertebrate species that are presently underrepresented in the DNA and protein sequence databases. In the heavy metal experiment P. canaliculus were exposed to either 34.3 micrograms 1^1 Hg or 0.486 mg 1^1 Cd in the laboratory for 3 days. Control mussels were held in identical conditions without added metal. Over 100 proteins were detected which showed significant (p < 0.01) differences in abundance between control and metal treated groups but these proteins could not be identified using MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting or tandem mass spectrometry. Tissue and time specific differences in metal uptake were observed. Proteins which responded to heavy metals under laboratory conditions were compared to field samples from the Bay of Islands. Approximately 30 proteins were detected which appeared to be associated with the presence of heavy metals under both field and laboratory conditions. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop biomarkers for heavy metal contamination in P. canaliculus. Based on the average concentrations of metals detected in the Bay of Islands, the amount of metal consumed through a typical diet containing shellfish would be below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, because Maori, Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a greater quantity of seafood than the general New Zealand public a risk assessment for these groups was calculated. A survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by these groups is suggested to enable an adequate risk assessment to be made.</p>

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 100327 ◽  
Portia Annabelle Opoku ◽  
Geophrey K. Anornu ◽  
Abass Gibrilla ◽  
Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson Owusu-Ansah ◽  
Samuel Y. Ganyaglo ◽  

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