laboratory conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 177 ◽  
pp. 114494
Miguel Angel Maldonado-Michel ◽  
Roberto Muñiz-Valencia ◽  
Ana Lilia Peraza-Campos ◽  
Hortensia Parra-Delgado ◽  
Wilberth Chan-Cupul

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Z. Javed ◽  
M. S. Asim ◽  
A. R. Ishaq ◽  
T. Younis ◽  
M. Manzoor ◽  

Abstract Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.

2022 ◽  
Vol 464 ◽  
pp. 109803
Estefania Aguirre-Zapata ◽  
Humberto Morales ◽  
Carla V. Dagatti ◽  
Fernando di Sciascio ◽  
Adriana N. Amicarelli

Phatcharaphon Wiwattanawanichakun ◽  
Siriwan Saehlee ◽  
Thitaree Yooboon ◽  
Nutchaya Kumrungsee ◽  
Saksit Nobsathian ◽  

Abstract Background Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the tobacco cutworm, is an prominent agricultural pest. To reduce the use of chemical pesticides that cause health problems and that leave residue in the environment, some botanical pesticides have been developed. Our research aimed to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of Acorus calamus L. extract for the control of S. litura under laboratory conditions. Results After 24 h of topical application, the A. calamus methanolic crude extract showed toxicity against secondary instar S. litura larvae (LD50 ~ 7.438 µg/larva). Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxy flavone), one of the isolated phenolic compounds, showed optimal control efficiency (LD50 ~ 2.752 µg/larva) and showed a reduction in carboxylesterase activities, which have detoxification reduction roles in larvae. Conclusion Chrysin in the crude extract of A. calamus may be an active compound to control this pest, and it may be applied as an alternative to minimize the usage of chemical insecticides. Graphical Abstract

Justin Boyles ◽  
Emily Johnson ◽  
Nathan W. Fuller ◽  
Kirk Silas ◽  
Lily Hou ◽  

Hibernators adjust the expression of torpor behaviourally and physiologically to balance the benefits of energy conservation in hibernation against the physiological and ecological costs. Small fat-storing species, like many cave-hibernating bats, have long been thought to be highly constrained in their expression of hibernation because they must survive winter relying only on endogenous energy stores. We evaluated behavioural microclimate selection in tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus (Cuvier, 1832)) across a three-month hibernation experiment under laboratory conditions. We also opportunistically tested for evidence of acclimatization in torpid metabolic rate (TMR). When given access to gradients in microclimate, bats tended to choose the warmest temperature available (11°C) while almost completely avoiding the driest condition available (85% relative humidity at 8°C). Further, bats held at different temperatures over the course of the hibernation showed no differences in TMR when measured under common conditions at the end of hibernation. Taken together, our results suggest selective pressures to conserve energy during hibernation are not overwhelmingly strong and further support the proposition that optimal expression of hibernation is something less than the maximal expression of hibernation unless the animal is nearing starvation.

Edith H. Torres-Montoya ◽  
Leonardo Ulloa-Urquidy ◽  
José I. Torres-Avendaño ◽  
José Marcial Zazueta-Moreno ◽  
Annete I. Apodaca-Medina ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda ◽  
Juliano Vilela Fracasso ◽  
Higor Domingos Silvério Da Silva ◽  
Isabella Dinardo Miranda

ABSTRACT: Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the sugarcane spittlebug, is one of the most important pests of this crop in Brazil. The magnitude of its damage depends on the pest population, the plants size when they are infested and the cultivar tolerance. The knowledge about those parameters allows the elaboration of the spittlebug management matrix, in which small plants and less tolerant varieties fields are prioritized for sampling and controlling in relation to developed plants and tolerant varieties fields. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the response of sugarcane genotypes to M. fimbriolata, so that they can be correctly allocated in the management matrix. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using a randomized block design with treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2×11 (experiment 1) and 2×21 (experiment 2), with six (experiment 1) or five replicates (experiment 2). The first factor included two levels of infestation (infested and noninfested plants with spittlebugs), while the second consisted of the cultivars. Cultivars IACSP01-5503, CTC 9004 and RB925211 were considered tolerant to spittlebug, they did not show significant reductions in aboveground biomass, despite showing symptoms of pest attack, as leaves yellowing, while CV6654 and IACSP01-3127 were the least tolerant cultivars, showing the highest reduction in aboveground biomass due to M. fimbriolata infestation. Thus, CV6654 and IACSP01-3127 should be prioritized for sampling and control over the others. On average, spittlebug infestations caused 30.9 % of reduction of aboveground biomass.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. 013403
Liping Lian ◽  
Xu Mai ◽  
Weiguo Song ◽  
Jun Zhang ◽  
Kwok Kit Richard Yuen ◽  

Abstract Merging pedestrian flow can be observed often at public intersections and locations where two or more channels merge. Because of restrictions on the flow, pedestrian congestion, or even crowd disasters (e.g. Hajj crush 2015) happen easily at these junctions. However, studies on merging behaviors in large crowds remain rare. This paper investigates the merging characteristics of the pedestrian flow with controlled experiments under laboratory conditions. The formation of lanes is observed, and the lane separation width can vary for different density levels. Shannon entropy is used to analyze the utilization of the passage. The space usage in the merging area is most efficient when the width of the two branches is half that of the main corridor. Furthermore, the branch and main channel can mutually bottleneck each other in the large crowds and the flowrates for the upstream, downstream and branches are investigated. This study uses spatiotemporal diagrams to explore the clogging propagation of the merging flow as well as the relationship of the velocity and position. The results can be used as references for the design of public infrastructure and human safety management.

2022 ◽  
pp. 118034
Gemma G. Clark ◽  
Weiyi Pan ◽  
Daniel E. Giammar ◽  
Thanh H. Nguyen

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