Sustainable Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes in Solid-State Fermentation of Agro-Industrial Waste: Application in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Juice Clarification

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2379
Author(s):  
Priya Rana ◽  
Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj ◽  
Sushma Gurumayum ◽  
Kandi Sridhar

Valorization of agro-industrial waste through greener and biotechnological processes are promising approaches to minimize the generation of agro-industrial waste. Therefore, the study aimed to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes from agro-industrial waste under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions and study their application in the clarification of pumpkin juice. The SSF was performed with three different combinations of wheat bran + rice bran (WBRB), wheat bran + wheat straw (WBWS), and rice bran + wheat straw (RBWS) as dry solid substrates (1:1) using Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 7229). The protein, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase contents ranged from 0.98–3.90 mg/g, 5.89–6.84 U/g substrate, and 10.08–13.77 U/g substrate, respectively in different agro-industrial waste as substrates (WBRB, WBWS, RBWS, and control). The increase in enzyme concentration (0.50–2.40%) added to pumpkin juice exhibited an increased juice yield (16.30–55.60%), reduced browning index (1.03–0.70), and an increase in clarity (5.31–13.77 %T), which was further confirmed by a total variance of 84.83% by principal component analysis. Thus, the low-cost lignocellulolytic enzymes can be produced from agro-industrial waste that might have applications in food and beverage industries. Hence, this approach could be used as a long-term sustainable and circular source to valorize agro-industrial waste towards the greener future and the preservation of ecosystems.

2016 ◽  
Vol 3 (6) ◽  
pp. 279-284
Author(s):  
Nivedita Sharma ◽  
Shruti Pathania ◽  
Shweta Handa

An abundant amount of agricultural/horticultural waste were generated from agricultural and industrial processing. However, such wastes usually have a composition rich in sugars, minerals and proteins, and therefore, they should not be considered "wastes" but raw materials for other industrial processes. The purpose of the present work was to optimize the xylanase production by Myceliopthora thermophila SH1 (Ascomycota: Chaetomiaceae) an alkalothermophilic strain isolated from hot spring of Himachal Pradesh under solid state fermentation using different agricultural wastes/horticultural waste as a substrate by enrichment with basal salt medium at temperature 45 oC after incubating it for 7 days. The highest level of enzymes was produced using rice bran, orange pulp, sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, wheat bran, apple pomace as a substrate. The secreted extracellular enzyme presented a property that matches the requirement in industrial environment.


2016 ◽  
Vol 41 (5) ◽  
Author(s):  
Muhammad Nadeem ◽  
Muhammad Ahmar Ali ◽  
Quratulain Syed ◽  
Rubina Nelofer ◽  
Uzma Sahar

AbstractObjective: The purpose of the present study was to enhance nutritional qualities of various agricultural byproducts such as wheat bran, rice bran and rice polish through co-culture solid state fermentation (SSF) using Candida utilis and Rhizopus oligosporus for their better exploitation as feed ingredients.Methods: Co-culture solid state fermentation (SSF) was carried at 30oC for 48 h by employing Candida utilis and Rhizopus oligosporus on various agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, rice bran and rice polish. After that the fermented agricultural byproducts were dried in hot air oven at 80oC and analyzed to compare with unfermented byproducts.Results: The results of the proximate analysis showed that crude protein contents increased significantly (p≤0.05) in all the fermented substrates with concurrent decrease in nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents. A significant reduction in anti nutritional content (phytic acid) was also observed in fermented products whereas values of mineral contents [calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P)] were found high. Resultantly, high mineral contents improved Ca: P ratio in the fermented products. Shelf life study showed that the fermented substrates were nutritionally stable and no significant changes in nutritional values were observed up to 90 days.Conclusion: All these results showed that the fermented substrates are nutritionally better and can be successfully exploited as animal feed for better growth of livestock.


2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Author(s):  
K. Y. Usha ◽  
K. Praveen ◽  
B. Rajasekhar Reddy

The white rot fungi Stereum ostrea displayed a wide diversity in their response to supplemented inducers, surfactants, and copper sulphate in solid state fermentation. Among the inducers tested, 0.02% veratryl alcohol increased the ligninolytic enzyme production to a significant extent. The addition of copper sulphate at 300 μM concentration has a positive effect on laccase production increasing its activity by 2 times compared to control. Among the surfactants, Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X 100, tested in the studies, Tween 80 stimulated the production of ligninolytic enzymes. Biosorption of dyes was carried out by using two lignocellulosic wastes, rice bran and wheat bran, in 50 ppm of remazol brilliant blue and remazol brilliant violet 5R dyes. These dye adsorbed lignocelluloses were then utilized for the production of ligninolytic enzymes in solid state mode. The two dye adsorbed lignocelluloses enhanced the production of laccase and manganese peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase.


2009 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
pp. 1555-1562 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cristina Moreira da Silveira ◽  
Eliana Badiale-Furlong

Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran); protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2) and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran). When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fernanda de Oliveira ◽  
Tereza Cristina Luque Castellane ◽  
Marcelo Rodrigues de Melo ◽  
João Batista Buzato

Abstract Naringin (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavanone-7-rhamnoglucoside), considered as the main bitter component of grapefruit, requires the use of enzymes to reduce the level of this substance during juice processing. For this reason, it has been the focus of many studies. To increase the production of naringinase by Aspergillus niger cultivated in solid-state fermentation (SSF), it was verified whether the influence of agro-industrial residues as fermentation substrates and, finally, selected the best of the three inducers, or their mixtures to remove the bitterness of grapefruit juice. Cultivation with 2.3 g of grapefruit peel, 2.5 g of rice bran, and 5.2 g of wheat bran and medium supplementation with a mixture of naringin, rutin, and hesperidin in the concentration of (g / L): 2, 5, 4.5, and 3.0, respectively, leading to a maximum activity of 28 U / mL. The results indicate that the sequencing procedure, which allowed the definition of an optimal mixture of components, is a new way for microorganisms to have a high naringinase yield, in particular by SSF, since our data showed a 96% increase in the production of naringinase.


Biotechnology ◽  
2019 ◽  
pp. 1424-1455
Author(s):  
Hooi Ling Ho

Xylanases are inducible enzymes responsible for the complete hydrolysis of xylan into xylose. Both solid state fermentation (SsF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) are used in the production of xylanase. SsF has become a popular approach due to its economic value. In fact, higher biomass and lower protein breakdown are among the factors involved in determining the production of xylanases in SsF. Agricultural extracts which are abundantly available in the environment such as rice bran and wheat bran are commonly used as the potential carbon source in xylanases production. Xylanase is indeed one of the valuable enzymes which show immense potential in vast industrial applications. The demand for xylanase is increasing because of its prodigious utilization in pulp and paper, bakery, food and beverage, detergents, textile, and animal feed. Xylanase has therefore become one of the important commercial enzymes in recent years.


2011 ◽  
Vol 60 (3) ◽  
pp. 209-212 ◽  
Author(s):  
MOHAMMED IMAD EDDIN ARABI ◽  
YASSER BAKRI ◽  
MOHAMMED JAWHAR

Fusarium sp. has been shown to be a promising organism for enhanced production of xylanases. In the present study, xylanase production by 21 Fusarium sp. isolates (8 Fusarium culmorum, 4 Fusarium solani, 6 Fusarium verticillioides and 3 Fusarium equiseti) was evaluated under solid state fermentation (SSF). The fungal isolate Fusarium solani SYRN7 was the best xylanase producer among the tested isolates. The effects of some agriculture wastes (like wheat straw, wheat bran, beet pulp and cotton seed cake) and incubation period on xylanase production by F. solani were optimized. High xylanase production (1465.8 U/g) was observed in wheat bran after 96 h of incubation. Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were found to be 5 and 50 degrees C, respectively.


Author(s):  
Hooi Ling Ho

Xylanases are inducible enzymes responsible for the complete hydrolysis of xylan into xylose. Both solid state fermentation (SsF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) are used in the production of xylanase. SsF has become a popular approach due to its economic value. In fact, higher biomass and lower protein breakdown are among the factors involved in determining the production of xylanases in SsF. Agricultural extracts which are abundantly available in the environment such as rice bran and wheat bran are commonly used as the potential carbon source in xylanases production. Xylanase is indeed one of the valuable enzymes which show immense potential in vast industrial applications. The demand for xylanase is increasing because of its prodigious utilization in pulp and paper, bakery, food and beverage, detergents, textile, and animal feed. Xylanase has therefore become one of the important commercial enzymes in recent years.


2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gunashree B. Shivanna ◽  
Govindarajulu Venkateswaran

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase fromAspergillus nigerCFR 335 andAspergillus ficuumSGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media.Aspergillus nigerCFR 335 andA. ficuumproduced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF byA. nigerCFR 335 andA.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.


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