Wheat Straw
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 657
Zedong Teng ◽  
Liyan Wang ◽  
Bingqian Huang ◽  
Yue Yu ◽  
Jianwei Liu ◽  

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), a novel and environmentally-friendly solvent, have high potential for biomass pretreatment due to its advantages of low cost, low toxicity, strong solubility, excellent selectivity and biocompatibility. Two types of DES (binary and ternary) were synthesized and characterized, and optimized ternary DES was selected to pretreat wheat straw for enhancement of the solubility of lignocellulose. Moreover, enzymatic hydrolysis was tested to verify the performance of pretreatment. In addition, the changes in surface morphology, structure and crystallinity of wheat straw pretreated by DES were analyzed to reveal the pretreatment mechanism. Experimental results indicated that viscosity exhibited little difference in different types of DESs, and a declining trend as the temperature increases in same DES. The ternary DES pretreatment efficiently enhanced the solubility of typical lignocellulose, with the optimal removal rate of lignin at approximately 69.46%. Furthermore, the total sugar concentration of the residue was about 5.1 times more than that of untreated wheat straw after the pretreated samples were hydrolyzed by the cellulase for 24 h, indicating that DES has the unique ability to selectively extract lignin and hemicellulose from wheat straw while retaining cellulose, and thus enhanced the solubility of lignocellulose. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and X-ray diffraction (XRD) determination showed that the surface of wheat straw suffered from serious erosion and the crystallinity index of wheat straw increased after DES5 pretreatment. Therefore, DES cleaves the covalent bond between lignin and cellulose and hemicellulose, and reduces the intractability of lignin resulting in the lignin dissolution. It suggests that DES can be used as a promising and biocompatible pretreatment way for the cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose biomass into biofuels.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 453
Andrea Petrella ◽  
Sabino De De Gisi ◽  
Milvia Elena Di Di Clemente ◽  
Francesco Todaro ◽  
Ubaldo Ayr ◽  

Environmentally sustainable cement mortars containing wheat straw (Southern Italy, Apulia region) of different length and dosage and perlite beads as aggregates were prepared and characterised by rheological, thermal, acoustic, mechanical, optical and microstructural tests. A complete replacement of the conventional sand was carried out. Composites with bare straw (S), perlite (P), and with a mixture of inorganic and organic aggregates (P/S), were characterised and compared with the properties of conventional sand mortar. It was observed that the straw fresh composites showed a decrease in workability with fibre length decrease and with increase in straw volume, while the conglomerates with bare perlite, and with the aggregate mixture, showed similar consistency to the control. The thermal insulation of the straw mortars was extremely high compared to the sand reference (85–90%), as was the acoustic absorption, especially in the 500–1000 Hz range. These results were attributed to the high porosity of these composites and showed enhancement of these properties with decrease in straw length and increase in straw volume. The bare perlite sample showed the lowest thermal insulation and acoustic absorption, being less porous than the former composites, while intermediate values were obtained with the P/S samples. The mechanical performance of the straw composites increased with length of the fibres and decreased with fibre dosage. The addition of expanded perlite to the mixture produced mortars with an improvement in mechanical strength and negligible modification of thermal properties. Straw mortars showed discrete cracks after failure, without separation of the two parts of the specimens, due to the aggregate tensile strength which influenced the impact compression tests. Preliminary observations of the stability of the mortars showed that, more than one year from preparation, the conglomerates did not show detectable signs of degradation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 362
Sebastian Serna-Loaiza ◽  
Manuel Dias ◽  
Laura Daza-Serna ◽  
Carla C. C. R. de Carvalho ◽  
Anton Friedl

Developing sustainable biorefineries is an urgent matter to support the transition to a sustainable society. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a crucial renewable feedstock for this purpose, and its complete valorization is essential for the sustainability of biorefineries. However, it is improbable that a single pretreatment will extract both sugars and lignin from LCB. Therefore, a combination of pretreatments must be applied. Liquid-hot-water (LHW) is highlighted as a pretreatment for hemicellulose hydrolysis, conventionally analyzed only in terms of sugars and degradation products. However, lignin is also hydrolyzed in the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate LHW at different conditions for sugars, degradation products, and lignin. We performed LHW at 160, 180, and 200 °C for 30, 60, and 90 min using wheat straw and characterized the extract for sugars, degradation products (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid), and lignin. Three conditions allowed reaching similar total sugar concentrations (~12 g/L): 160 °C for 90 min, 180 °C for 30 min, and 180 °C for 60 min. Among these, LHW performed at 160 °C for 90 min allowed the lowest concentration of degradation products (0.2, 0.01, and 1.4 g/L for furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid, respectively) and lignin hydrolysis (2.2 g/L). These values indicate the potential use of the obtained sugars as a fermentation substrate while leaving the lignin in the solid phase for a following stage focused on its extraction and valorization.

Xinyue Cao ◽  
Rüdiger Reichel ◽  
Holger Wissel ◽  
Sirgit Kummer ◽  
Nicolas Brüggemann

AbstractExcess nitrogen (N) after animal slurry application is a persistent problem of intensive agriculture, with consequences such as environmental pollution by ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3−) leaching. High-carbon organic soil amendments (HCAs) with a large C:N ratio have shown the potential of mitigating unintended N losses from soil. To reduce gaseous and leaching N losses after the application of slurry, a laboratory incubation study was conducted with silt loam soil. We tested the potential of three different types of HCA—wheat straw, sawdust, and leonardite (application rate 50 g C L−1 slurry for each of the three HCAs)—to mitigate N loss after amendment of soil with pig and cattle slurry using two common application modes (slurry and HCA mixed overnight with subsequent addition to soil vs. sequential addition) at an application rate equivalent to 80 kg N ha−1. Compared to the control with only soil and slurry, the addition of leonardite reduced the NH3 emissions of both slurries by 32–64%. Leonardite also reduced the total N2O emissions by 33–58%. Wheat straw reduced N2O emissions by 40–46%, but had no effect on NH3 emission. 15 N labeling showed that the application of leonardite was associated with the highest N retention in soil (24% average slurry N recovery), followed by wheat straw (20% average slurry N recovery). The mitigation of N loss was also observed for sawdust, although the effect was less consistent compared with leonardite and wheat straw. Mixing the slurry and HCA overnight tended to reduce N losses, although the effect was not consistent across all treatments. In conclusion, leonardite improved soil N retention more effectively than wheat straw and sawdust.

Reactions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-46
Léa Vilcocq ◽  
Agnès Crepet ◽  
Patrick Jame ◽  
Florbela Carvalheiro ◽  
Luis C. Duarte

Three different types of biomass sourced from forestry waste (eucalyptus residues), agricultural waste (wheat straw), and energy crop (miscanthus) were used as starting materials to produce hemicellulosic sugars, furans (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural), and oligosaccharides. A two-step hybrid process was implemented; biomass was first autohydrolysed without any additive to extract hemicelluloses and dissolve it in water. Then, the hydrolysate was treated with a solid acid catalyst, TiO2-WOx, in order to achieve hydrolysis and produce monomeric sugars and furans. This article investigates the role of the biomass type, autohydrolysis experimental conditions, polymerisation degree and composition of hemicelluloses on the performance of the process coupling autohydrolysis and catalytic hydrolysis. The highest global yields of both oligosaccharides and monomeric sugars were obtained from Eucalyptus (37% and 18%, respectively).

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Felicia Rodríguez ◽  
Efrén Aguilar-Garnica ◽  
Adrián Santiago-Toribio ◽  
Arturo Sánchez

Hydrothermal pretreatment (HP) is an eco-friendly process for deconstructing lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) that plays a key role in ensuring the profitability of producing biofuels or bioproducts in a biorefinery. At the laboratory scale, HP is usually carried out under non-isothermal regimes with poor temperature control. In contrast, HP is usually carried out under isothermal conditions at the commercial scale. Consequently, significant discrepancies in the values of polysaccharide releases are found in the literature. Therefore, laboratory-scale HP data are not trustworthy if scale-up or retrofitting of HP at larger scales is required. This contribution presents the results of laboratory-scale batch HP for wheat straw in terms of xylan and glucan release that were obtained with rigorous temperature control under isothermal conditions during the reaction stage. The heating and cooling stages were carried out with fast rates (43 and −40 °C/min, respectively), minimizing non-isothermal reaction periods. Therefore, the polysaccharide release results can be associated exclusively with the isothermic reaction stage and can be considered as a reliable source of information for HP at commercial scales. The highest amount of xylan release was 4.8 g/L or 43% obtained at 180 °C and 20 min, while the glucan release exhibited a maximum of 1.2 g/L or 5.5%. at 160 °C/180 °C and 30 min.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Arianna Latini ◽  
Fabio Fiorani ◽  
Patrizia Galeffi ◽  
Cristina Cantale ◽  
Annamaria Bevivino ◽  

This study aims to highlight the major effects of biochar incorporation into potting soil substrate on plant growth and performance in early growth stages of five elite Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum). The biochars used were obtained from two contrasting feedstocks, namely wood chips and wheat straw, by gasification under high temperature conditions, and were applied in a greenhouse experiment either as pure or as nutrient-activated biochar obtained by incubation with digestate. The results of the experiment showed that specific genotypes as well as different treatments with biochar have significant effects on plant response when looking at shoot traits related to growth. The evaluated genotypes could be clustered in two main distinct groups presenting, respectively, significantly increasing (Duilio, Iride, and Saragolla varieties) and decreasing (Marco Aurelio and Grecale varieties) values of projected shoot system area (PSSA), fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and plant water loss by evapotranspiration (ET). All these traits were correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.98. Concerning the treatment effect, a significant alteration of the mentioned plant traits was observed when applying biochar from wheat straw, characterized by very high electrical conductivity (EC), resulting in a reduction of 34.6% PSSA, 43.2% FW, 66.9% DW, and 36.0% ET, when compared to the control. Interestingly, the application of the same biochar after nutrient spiking with digestate determined about a 15–30% relief from the abovementioned reduction induced by the application of the sole pure wheat straw biochar. Our results reinforce the current basic knowledge available on biological soil amendments as biochar and digestate.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7591
Pedro M. A. Pereira ◽  
Joana R. Bernardo ◽  
Luisa Bivar Roseiro ◽  
Francisco Gírio ◽  
Rafał M. Łukasik

Biomass pre-treatment is a key step in achieving the economic competitiveness of biomass conversion. In the present work, an imidazole pre-treatment process was performed and evaluated using wheat straw and eucalyptus residues as model feedstocks for agriculture and forest-origin biomasses, respectively. Results showed that imidazole is an efficient pre-treatment agent; however, better results were obtained for wheat straw due to the recalcitrant behavior of eucalyptus residues. The temperature had a stronger effect than time on wheat straw pre-treatment but at 160 °C and 4 h, similar results were obtained for cellulose and hemicellulose content from both biomasses (ca. 54% and 24%, respectively). Lignin content in the pre-treated solid was higher for eucalyptus residues (16% vs. 4%), as expected. Enzymatic hydrolysis, applied to both biomasses after different pre-treatments, revealed that results improved with increasing temperature/time for wheat straw. However, these conditions had no influence on the results for eucalyptus residues, with very low glucan to glucose enzymatic hydrolysis yield (93% for wheat straw vs. 40% for eucalyptus residues). Imidazole can therefore be considered as a suitable solvent for herbaceous biomass pre-treatment.

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