protein content
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 867-872
Qunwei You ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  
Taotao Tao ◽  
Tianyu Wang ◽  
Danhong Zhang ◽  

This study intends to explore miR-129’s effect on cell viability of Alzheimer’s disease by regulating the target gene APP. The hippocampal neurons were assigned into model group (MO group); mimetic group (SI group); inhibitor group (IN group) followed by analysis of hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation and activity, APP protein content, miR-129 expression and cell apoptosis by CCK-8 assay, Western blot method, MTT assay, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. miR-129 expression of hippocampal neurons in IN group was lowest. Compared with IN and MO groups, SI group had significantly increased miR-129 level and reduced number of hippocampal neuron apoptosis (P < 0.05). Compared with IN group, MO group had significantly reduced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). SI group had highest number of hippocampal neurons proliferation followed by IN group. SI group had highest OD value followed by MO group and IN group. The cell activity of SI group was higher than that of IN group and MO group (both P < 0.05). Compared with SI group, rat neuron activity in MO group was significantly higher than IN group (P < 0.05). The APP protein expression of hippocampal neuron cells in SI group was lowest followed by MO group and IN group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the low miR-129 expression can inhibit the activity of hippocampal neurons possibly through up-regulation of APP protein content.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sharmeel Khaira ◽  
Antoinette Pert ◽  
Emily Farrell ◽  
Cecelia Sibley ◽  
Karen Harvey-Wilkes ◽  

Background: Expressed breast milk (EBM) protein content is highly variable between mothers and often below published values that are still used for EBM protein fortification strategies. This approach may result in significant protein deficit and suboptimal protein energy (P/E) ratio. The study aim was to determine whether individualized EBM protein analysis and fortification will reduce preterm infant protein deficits and improve growth and neurodevelopmental outcome.Study Methods: In a single-center randomized, blinded study of infants born at 24 0/7–29 6/7 weeks, mother-specific protein values measured by a milk analyzer were used to individualize infant-specific protein intake (interventional group, IG), and compared this to a standardized protein fortification scheme based on published values of EBM protein content of 1.4 g/dL (control group, CG). For IG, milk analyzer protein values of mother's EBM were used to adjust protein content of the EBM. The CG EBM protein content was adjusted using the standard published value of 1.4 g/dL and not based on milk analyzer values. EBM protein content, protein intake, protein/energy (P/E) ratio, weight (WT), head circumference (HC), length (L), growth velocity (GV) from 2 to 6 weeks of age, WT, HC and L Z-Scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA, and lean body mass (35 weeks PMA skin fold thickness) were measured. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley III at average 24 months corrected gestational age (CGA).Results: EBM protein content before fortification was significantly below published values of 1.4 g/dL at all time points in both CG and IG. CG protein deficit was significantly decreased and progressively worsened throughout the study. Individualized protein fortification in IG avoided protein deficit and optimized P/E ratio. Although no significant change in short-term GV (at 6 weeks of age) was seen between groups, IG infants born at &lt;27 weeks had significant improvements in WT and L z-scores, and leaner body mass at 32 and 35 weeks PMA. IG exhibited significantly improved cognitive scores at 24 months CGA.Conclusions: Infant-specific protein supplementation of mother's EBM optimized P/E ratio by eliminating protein deficit and improved growth z scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA and neurocognitive testing at 24 months.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shijie Shi ◽  
Enting Wang ◽  
Chengxuan Li ◽  
Mingli Cai ◽  
Bo Cheng ◽  

Taste quality of rice is the key to its value. However, it is greatly affected by rice types and the environment. It is a complex but necessary factor to accurately evaluate the taste quality of various types of rice in different environments. In this study, 7 different types of rice with different taste values were used as materials, and 12 nitrogen fertilizer treatments were applied to obtain 84 different rice taste values. We used protein content, amylose content, and RVA to evaluate changes in the taste value of rice. Rice with high taste value tended to have higher amylose content, peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, and breakdown, as well as lower protein content, pasting temperature, and peak time. Protein and amylose contents affected the taste value of rice by affecting the RVA profiles except for setback. For high and low taste-value rice types, protein content could explain 66.8 and 42.9% of the variation in taste value, respectively. In the case of medium taste-value type, protein content was not enough to evaluate the taste quality of rice. Stickiness could explain 59.6% of the variation in taste value. When the protein content of rice was less than 6.61% or greater than 9.34%, it could be used to reflect the taste quality of rice. When the protein content was in between the two, protein content was not enough to reflect the taste quality of rice. Our results suggested that protein content could better reflect the taste quality change for rice, which provided a theoretical and technical basis for the accurate evaluation of the taste value of various types of rice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 759-767
Madina Sadygova ◽  
Sergei Gaponov ◽  
Galina Shutareva ◽  
Natalya Tsetva ◽  
Tatyana Kirillova ◽  

Introduction. Durum wheat is vital for high-quality pasta production. The present research tested the high technological potential of durum wheat varieties developed in the Saratov region. The research objective was to study the effect of the quality of durum wheat on the quality of pasta. Study objects and methods. The study featured durum wheat of the following varieties: Saratovskaya Zolotistaya, Valentina, Nik, Krasnokutka 13, Luch 25, Pamyati Vasilchuka, Bezenchukskaya 182 and Annushka. The experiment involved an original PSL-13 press for standard spaghetti with a diameter of 1.8 mm. The content of protein, raw gluten, and their quality were determined by standard methods. The cooking properties of the pasta were evaluated according to the method developed in the South-Eastern Federal Agricultural Research Center. Results and discussion. The indicators of raw gluten and protein are known to correlate. The samples of Saratovskaya Zolotistaya and Luch 25 had a high protein content of 15.3 and 15.6%, respectively, as well as a high content of raw gluten (33.2 and 35.1%, respectively). The raw gluten of Saratov varieties proved to be much better than in the control samples. The indicator of microSDs sedimentation was 30–36 mm. The strength of spaghetti followed the increase in crude gluten (33–35%) and protein (15.3–15.6%), which is typical of this type of pasta. The strength, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), and sharing force (R2 = 0.92) depended on the protein content. Conclusion. The study established the following optimal selection criteria for durum wheat varieties to be used in strong spaghetti production: virtuosity – 80%, raw gluten – 33–35%, protein content – 5–7% higher than normal, raw gluten – 72–80 units.

2022 ◽  
pp. 42-45
Юлия Юрьевна Миллер ◽  
Татьяна Федоровна Киселева ◽  
Лариса Викторовна Пермякова ◽  
Юлия Владимировна Арышева

Определяющей целью солодоращения является повышение ферментативной активности зерна. Нами предлагается способ интенсификации солодоращения пшеницы посредством применения неорганического стимулятора роста «Энерген». В исследовании использовали пшеницу Алтайской селекции трех сортов: «Алтайская 100», «Дуэт» и «Алейская». Предложенный неорганический препарат вносили при замачивании в последнюю замочную воду в количестве 0,6 г/дм и выдерживали с ним в контакте пшеницу в течение 6 ч. За данный период в ферментативной системе обработанного зерна произошли более выраженные изменения в сравнении с контрольным вариантом (необработанным зерном). К концу замачивания уровень активности ферментов опытных образцов стал выше уровня аналогичных активностей ферментов контрольных вариантов на 11,8 и 9,9 % соответственно для амилолитической и протеолитической активностей. Последующее проращивание зерна повысило ферментативную активность пшеничного солода. По окончании 7 сут данной стадии прирост амилолитической активности над активностями необработанного зерна для разных сортов составил от 31,5 до 59,0 %, протеолитической - от 97,8 до 125,4 %. При этом отмечено маловыраженное отличие показателей амилолитической и протеолитической активностей проращиваемого обработанного пшеничного солода шестых и седьмых суток ращения, что позволяет сократить продолжительность данной стадии и всего производства солода на одни сутки. Готовый пшеничный солод отличался высокой ферментативной активностью (в диапазоне для трех сортов): амилолитическая - 344,9-360,8 ед./г, протеолитическая - 324,9-257,8 ед./г, более низкой в сравнении с контрольным вариантом продолжительностью осахаривания - от 18 до 20 мин. Кроме этого, предложенный способ солодоращения позволяет использовать пшеницу с высоким содержанием белка, как, например, сорт «Алейская» с массовой долей белка 14,6 %, поскольку в процессе проращивания под стимулирующим действием неорганического препарата «Энерген» процесс протеолиза протекает более интенсивно, и в конечном солоде содержание белка снижается до 10,4 %. The defining goal of malting is to increase the enzymatic activity of grain. We propose a method for intensifying the malting of wheat through the use of an inorganic growth stimulator «Energen». The study used wheat of the Altai selection of three varieties: «Altai 100», «Duet» and «Aleyskaya». The proposed inorganic preparation was introduced during soaking into the last soak water in an amount of 0.6 g/dm and wheat was kept in contact with it for 6 hours. During this period, more pronounced changes occurred in the enzymatic system of the processed grain in comparison with the control variant (unprocessed grain). By the end of soaking, the enzyme level of the experimental samples is 11.8 and 9.9 % higher than the level of similar enzymes of the control variants, respectively, for amylolytic and proteolytic activities. The subsequent germination of grain increased the enzymatic activity of wheat malt. At the end of seven days of this stage, the increase in amylolytic activity over the activities of unprocessed grain for different varieties ranged of 31.5 to 59.0 %, proteolytic - of 97.8 to 125.4 %. At the same time, there was a little pronounced difference in the indicators of amylolytic and proteolytic activities of the germinated processed wheat malt of the sixth and seventh days of fermentation, which makes it possible to shorten the duration of this stage and the entire malt production by one day. The finished wheat malt was characterized by high enzymatic activity (in the range for three varieties): amylolytic 344.9-360.8 units /g, proteolytic 324.9-257.8 units/g, lower duration of saccharification in comparison with the control variant of 18 to 20 minutes. In addition, the proposed method of malting allows the use of wheat with a high protein content, such as the Aleyskaya variety with a mass fraction of protein of 14.6 %, since during germination under the stimulating effect of the inorganic preparation Energen, the proteolysis process proceeds more intensively, and in the final malt the protein content decreases to 10.4 %.

2022 ◽  
Rathan N D ◽  
Hari Krishna ◽  
Ranjith Kumar Ellur ◽  
Deepamala Sehgal ◽  
Velu Govindan ◽  

Abstract Malnutrition due to micronutrients and protein deficiency is recognized among the major global health issues. Genetic biofortification of wheat varieties is both cost-effective and sustainable strategy to contain global micronutrient and protein malnutrition. Genomic regions governing grain zinc concentration (GZnC), grain iron concentration (GFeC), grain protein content (GPC), test weight (TW), and thousand kernel weight (TKW) were investigated in a set of 183 diverse bread wheat genotypes through genome wide association study (GWAS). The RIL population was genotyped using Breeders' 35K Axiom Array and phenotyped in three environments during 2019-2020. A total of 55 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified, of which four significant MTAs for GFeC on chromosome 2B, 3A, 3B, 6A and two for GZnC on chromosomes 1A and 7B. Further, a stable SNP was detected for TKW and also identified pleiotropic regions controlling GPC and TKW. In silico analysis revealed a few important putative candidate genes viz., F-box-like domain superfamily, Zinc finger CCCH-type proteins, Serine-threonine/tyrosine-protein kinase, Histone deacetylase domain superfamily and SANT/Myb domain superfamily proteins, etc. The identified novel MTAs will be validated to estimate their effects on different genetic backgrounds for subsequent use in marker-assisted selection (MAS).

LM Mwai ◽  
AM Kingori ◽  
MK Ambula

In Kenya, Mulberry is grown in less than a piece of an acre by most of the farmers. Current acreage of mulberry stands at 250, spread over Western, Nyanza, and Rift Valley and Coastal regions. Mulberry leaves are highly palatable and digestible (70-90%) to ruminants and can be fed to non-ruminants as part of feed ingredient. Protein content and essential amino acid profile in the leaves and young stems varies from 15 to 35% depending on the variety. The Mulberry leaves are highly applicable as supplements replacing concentrates for dairy cattle, as the main feed for goats and sheep, and as an ingredient in rabbits and pigs’ diets. Farmers growing mulberry fodder offer higher protein content to livestock than those relying on different varieties of Napier grass, which have failed to boost milk production despite the amounts fed. In non-ruminant production, fishmeal and soybean meals are the main source of protein. In ruminant production, cottonseed meal and canola meal are the main source of protein. These meals are expensive, inadequate in supply and of variable quality. This often leads to low egg production and poor-quality eggs, hence low income and poverty among farmers. Therefore, efforts have been made to identify locally available protein feed resources that can be used as a protein supplement for livestock. Mulberry leaf meal (MLM) has been identified as a locally available alternative protein and mineral source that are beneficial to livestock and have been proven to improve production. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 1-9, Dec 2021

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 5-9
Vasiliy Blohin ◽  
Irina Nikiforova ◽  
Irina Ganieva ◽  
Igor Serzhanov

Four varieties and 3 promising lines of spring barley breeding by Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture were studied for grain nutrition to identify the most promising ones. The work was conducted in 2015-2017 in Predkamye Republic of Tatarstan. Grey forest soil, humus content 3.35-3.52 % (GOST 26213-91), alkaline-hydrolyzable nitrogen 85.0...94.0 mg/kg (by A.H. Kornfield), mobile phosphorus 251...287 and exchangeable potassium 149...167 mg/kg (by Kirsanov; GOST 26207-91). The predecessor is winter rye, the repetition is fourfold, the standard grade is Raushan. It was found that line k-295-12, on average over 3 years, significantly exceeded the standard by 27.77 g in crude protein content; by 20.0 g in digestible protein content and by 7.35 g in digestible protein content per feeding unit. The variability of sugar content in varieties was 30.67 ... 47.0 g, significantly exceeded the standard by 13.33 g variety Tevkech (47.0 g) and by 13.0 g line k-23-13 (46.67 g). The fat content was formed in the standard 19.03 g, varieties Kamashevsky, Endan and lines k-23-23, k-561-13 and k-295-12 exceeded it by 7.47; 5.77; 11.47; 9.84 and 5.67 g, respectively. The exchange energy content in grain ranged from 14.42 MJ of the variety Raushan, to 14.72 MJ of the line k-295-12, with no significant differences between genotypes. In the dry year of 2015, the crude and digestible protein content was 148.0...165.0 and 110.74...118.8 g, respectively, and in 2016 it was 129.00...164.4 and 92.88...118.37 g, respectively. In favorable 2017, the content of crude and digestible protein were lower, the varieties Raushan and Tevkech were characterized by the greatest decrease in crude and digestible protein (65.7 and 67.4 % to the level of 2015). On average over 3 years, the best line was k-295-12 for the set of indicators of grain nutrition

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