bacillus subtilis
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
D. Pei ◽  
Q. Zhang ◽  
X. Zhu ◽  
S. Han

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. A. Can-Herrera ◽  
C. D. Gutierrez-Canul ◽  
M. A. A. Dzul-Cervantes ◽  
O. F. Pacheco-Salazar ◽  
J. D. Chi-Cortez ◽  

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 289 ◽  
pp. 133185
Mingchen Xia ◽  
Han Zhou ◽  
Charles Amanze ◽  
Lan Hu ◽  
Li Shen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100984
Fawzy Magouz ◽  
Hasnaa Abu-Ghanima ◽  
Amr I. Zaineldin ◽  
Mahmoud S. Gewaily ◽  
Ali Soliman ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jackson Luu ◽  
Connor M. Mott ◽  
Olivia R. Schreiber ◽  
Holly M. Giovinco ◽  
Melanie Betchen ◽  

Bacillus subtilis produces dormant, highly resistant endospores in response to extreme environmental stresses or starvation. These spores are capable of persisting in harsh environments for many years, even decades, without essential nutrients. Part of the reason that these spores can survive such extreme conditions is because their chromosomal DNA is well protected from environmental insults. The α/β-type small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) coat the spore chromosome, which leads to condensation and protection from such insults. The histone-like protein HBsu has been implicated in the packaging of the spore chromosome and is believed to be important in modulating SASP-mediated alterations to the DNA, including supercoiling and stiffness. Previously, we demonstrated that HBsu is acetylated at seven lysine residues, and one physiological function of acetylation is to regulate chromosomal compaction. Here, we investigate if the process of sporulation or the resistance properties of mature spores are influenced by the acetylation state of HBsu. Using our collection of point mutations that mimic the acetylated and unacetylated forms of HBsu, we first determined if acetylation affects the process of sporulation, by determining the overall sporulation frequencies. We found that specific mutations led to decreases in sporulation frequency, suggesting that acetylation of HBsu at some sites, but not all, is required to regulate the process of sporulation. Next, we determined if the spores produced from the mutant strains were more susceptible to heat, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and formaldehyde exposure. We again found that altering acetylation at specific sites led to less resistance to these stresses, suggesting that proper HBsu acetylation is important for chromosomal packaging and protection in the mature spore. Interestingly, the specific acetylation patterns were different for the sporulation process and resistance properties of spores, which is consistent with the notion that a histone-like code exists in bacteria. We propose that specific acetylation patterns of HBsu are required to ensure proper chromosomal arrangement, packaging, and protection during the process of sporulation.

Zahoor Khan ◽  
Maryam Shafique ◽  
Faizan Saleem ◽  
M. Kamran Azim ◽  
Nusrat Jabeen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Yongmei Li ◽  
Mengyuan Xia ◽  
Pengbo He ◽  
Qiaoming Yang ◽  
Yixin Wu ◽  

Citrus is among the most important plants in the fruit industry severely infected with pathogens. Citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is one of the most devastating diseases during post-harvest stages of citrus fruit. In this study, a potential endophyte Bacillus subtilis L1-21, isolated from healthy citrus plants, was assessed for its biocontrol activity against the pathogen P. digitatum. Based on an in vitro crosstalk assay, we suggested that B. subtilis L1-21 inhibits the pathogen with an inhibition zone of 3.51 ± 0.08 cm. Biocontrol efficacy was highest for the fermented culture filtrate of B. subtilis L1-21. Additionally, using GC-MS analysis, 13 compounds were detected in the extract of this endophyte. The culture filtrate in Landy medium could enlarge and deform pathogen spores and prevent them from developing into normal mycelium. Accordingly, the Landy culture filtrate of B. subtilis L1-21 was stable in the temperature range of 4–90 °C and pH of 3–11. Further, MALDI-TOF-MS for B. subtilis L1-21 detected surfactin, fengycin, bacillaene and bacilysin as potential antifungal compounds. GFP-tagged B. subtilis L1-21 easily colonized in citrus fruit peel and pulp, suggesting its role in eliminating the fungal pathogen. Altogether, it is highly expected that the production of antifungal compounds, and the colonization potential of B. subtilis L1-21 are required against the post-harvest P. digitatum pathogen on citrus fruit.

2022 ◽  
Allyssa K. Miller ◽  
Jennifer K Herman

During sporulation, Bacillus subtilis undergoes an atypical cell division that requires overriding mechanisms which protect chromosomes from damage and ensure inheritance by daughter cells. Instead of assembling between segregated chromosomes at midcell, the FtsZ-ring (Z-ring) coalesces polarly, directing division over one chromosome. The DNA-binding protein RefZ facilitates the timely assembly of polar Z-rings and partially defines the region of chromosome initially captured in the forespore. RefZ binds to motifs (RBMs) located proximal to the origin of replication (oriC). Although refZ and the RBMs are conserved across the Bacillus genus, a refZ deletion mutant sporulates with wildtype efficiency, so the functional significance of RefZ during sporulation remains unclear. To further investigate RefZ function, we performed a candidate-based screen for synthetic sporulation defects by combining ∆refZ with deletions of genes previously implicated in FtsZ regulation and/or chromosome capture. Combining ∆refZ with deletions of ezrA, sepF, parA, or minD did not detectably affect sporulation. In contrast, a ∆refZ ∆noc mutant exhibited a sporulation defect, revealing a genetic interaction between RefZ and Noc. Using reporters of sporulation progression, we determined the ∆refZ ∆noc mutant exhibited sporulation delays after Spo0A activation but prior to late sporulation, with a subset of cells failing to divide polarly or activate the first forespore-specific sigma factor, SigF. The ∆refZ ∆noc mutant also exhibited extensive dysregulation of cell division, producing cells with extra, misplaced, or otherwise aberrant septa. Our results reveal a previously unknown epistatic relationship that suggests refZ and noc contribute synthetically to regulating cell division and supporting spore development.

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