Influence of Alkaline Activation over Swelling and Cation Exchange Capacity on Bentonites

2010 ◽  
Vol 660-661 ◽  
pp. 1064-1069 ◽  
Jeane A. Rosário ◽  
Laura A. Silva ◽  
Gabriel Beraldi G. Moura ◽  
Marivone Gusatti ◽  
Raquel B. Lima ◽  

The performance of the alkaline processes on the properties of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and swelling was studied in three different types of bentonite from Brazil, Argentina and Mozambique. Alkaline activations were performed by means of mechanochemical reactions with solutions of NaOH and Na2CO3, to increase the sodium content of bentonite clays and, thus, improve the properties above. Clay samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, to obtain the constituent phases. Activated samples were evaluated according to their cation exchange capacity – determined by the methylene blue test, and swelling index – measured by the Foster’s method. Results showed that the activation improved the properties of all bentonite types, especially the Brazilian clay, which achieved the most significant raises. There was also an indication that the type of clay affect the processing.

1969 ◽  
Vol 49 (2) ◽  
pp. 231-240 ◽  
M. D. Webber ◽  
J. S. Clark

Reactions between phosphate, Al and Wyoming bentonite in aqueous suspensions were studied under two conditions: (1) H3PO4 was added after interlayer hydroxy aluminum complexes had been formed by the addition of Ca(OH)2 to AlCl3 + bentonite suspensions; and (2) H3PO4 was added to AlCl3 + bentonite suspensions before the addition of Ca(OH)2. The suspensions were aerated and maintained at 25 °C.When H3PO4 was added after the formation of hydroxy aluminum complexes, the results were not significantly different from those when Ca(OH)2 was added to suspensions containing both AlCl3 and H3PO4. Phosphate was removed from solution and an interlayer hydrous aluminum phosphate was formed which increased the d(001) spacings of the bentonite. The amount of phosphate removed from solution increased to a maximum with increasing amounts of H3PO4 added and over this range there was no change in cation exchange capacity (CEC). Large amounts of H3PO4 increased the CEC of the bentonite. A major part of the reaction was completed within 24 hours and the values of pH changed only slightly from 1 to 120 days.Values of the (Al) (OH)2(H2PO4) ion product measured after aging for 14 days were larger than would have been maintained by crystalline variscite, but X-ray diffraction studies showed no evidence for formation of a separate crystalline phosphate phase.

Clay Minerals ◽  
2005 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-24 ◽  
S. Ramirez ◽  
D. Righi ◽  
S. Petit

AbstractHydrolytic exchange was performed experimentally on four smectitic clays to evaluate the extent of clay alteration induced by this process and the associated ‘auto-transformation’ of H+ clays. Clay samples were Na-saturated and submitted to 10, 50 and 100 wetting-drying (WD) cycles and characterized after treatment using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and cation exchange capacity analysis. Evidence for hydrolytic exchange was given by increasing amounts of exchangeable Mg2+ and precipitation of Na soluble salts for samples subjected to 100 WD cycles. Results indicated a decrease in the interlayer charge after 10 WD cycles but no further decrease was observed after 50 and 100 WD cycles. For one sample, XRD data indicated a decrease in the proportion of the smectite phase and a relative increase in the concentration of illite-smectite mixed layers also present in the sample. The results suggested that the reaction induces first a decrease in the layer charge and then a partial dissolution of some smectite layers.

Clay Minerals ◽  
1974 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 135-144 ◽  
G. Brown ◽  
P. Bourguignon ◽  
J. Thorez

AbstractA bluish-green clay found in veins cutting across brecciated slates of the Llanvirnian stage at Huy, Belgium, is shown by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis to be a lithium-bearing, aluminium-rich, regular mixed layer montmorillonite-chlorite with associated pyrophyllite, nacrite and quartz and smaller amounts of calcite and ankerite. The cation exchange capacity of the purified air-dry magnesium saturated clay is 49 mEq/100 g and its structural formula isThe problem of the nomenclature of regular mixed layer montmorillonite-chlorites is discussed.

2015 ◽  
Vol 820 ◽  
pp. 56-59
F.K.A. Sousa ◽  
I.A. Silva ◽  
W.S. Cavalcanti ◽  
Gelmires Araújo Neves ◽  
Heber Carlos Ferreira

Used in various branches of the industry, bentonitic clays are considered a valuable mineral, used specially in the petroleum industry for manufacturing of fluids used the drilling of petroleum wells in long depth. Recently, a deposit of this valuable mineral was discovered in the town of Olivedos-PB. There are data that prove that this is a very poor and underdeveloped town. So, this work aims at the physico-mineralogical characterization of clays recently discovered and, this way, verify if they present similar characteristics which allow them to replace the clays from Boa Vista-PB, and if they can be used by the industry, thus bringing social development for that town. The characterization was made by means of the analysis of chemical composition by X-ray fluorescence (EDX), thermogravimetric and thermal differential analyses (TG and DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cation-exchange capacity (CEC) and specific area (SA). The results show that the clays recently discovered in Olivedos-PB are polycationic clays, presenting MgO, CaO and K2O content, and that they are constituted by smectitic clay mineral, by quartz and kaolinite.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (5) ◽  
pp. 1173
Fotini Martsouka ◽  
Konstantinos Papagiannopoulos ◽  
Sophia Hatziantoniou ◽  
Martin Barlog ◽  
Giorgos Lagiopoulos ◽  

Six pharmaceutical pastes were prepared using chemically modified kaolin and talc powders. Tests were conducted to determine their structural and chemical characteristics as well as their antimicrobial protection, thus rendering them suitable for cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Kaolin and talc were treated chemically via the cation exchange method to load the clay particles with copper and zinc ions, two cations well known for their antimicrobial properties. Mineralogical analyses were conducted by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after the modification, confirming the mineralogical purity of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy was also used in conjunction with energy dispersed spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to obtain chemical mapping images, revealing the dispersion of the added metals upon the clay minerals surfaces. Moreover, chemical analysis has been performed (XRF) to validate the enrichment of the clays with each metal utilizing the cation exchange capacity. All modified samples showed the expected elevated concentration in copper or zinc in comparison to their unmodified versions. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical state of the samples’ surfaces was investigated, revealing the presence of salt compounds and indicating the oxidation state of adsorbed metals. Finally, the resistance of pastes in microbial growth when challenged with bacteria, molds, and yeasts was assessed. The evaluation is based on the European Pharmacopeia (EP) criteria.

1973 ◽  
Vol 51 (11) ◽  
pp. 1558-1565 ◽  
G. G. Jacoli ◽  
W. P. Ronald ◽  
L. Lavkulich

The inhibition of ribonuclease activity by bentonite and the adsorption of the protein molecule within the clay matrix were assessed by enzyme and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively.Pretreatment of bentonite with EDTA, potassium, barium, and barium–EDTA caused varying expansion of the d(001) spacing of the clay. The d(001) variation was sensitive to pH.Inhibition of the enzyme activity generally followed the pattern of expansion of the d(001) spacing of the clay, but failed when the interlayers of bentonite expanded beyond their maximum capability.Vermiculite, which is a clay having a higher cation exchange capacity than bentonite, did not expand from the normal state after similar treatment nor did it inhibit ribonuclease activity.When the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein molecule were disrupted, the denatured protein still entered the interlayers of bentonite, but caused a greater expansion of the d(001) spacing than the native ribonuclease.

Clay Minerals ◽  
2004 ◽  
Vol 39 (3) ◽  
pp. 317-332 ◽  
A. Meunier ◽  
B. Lanson ◽  
B. Velde

AbstractMineralogical and chemical variations were studied in the upper half of a 1 m thick discontinuous bentonite bed interlaminated in the Lower Cenomanian sedimentary formations of the northern Aquitaine basin (France). X-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the <2 mm fraction in the Ca and K-saturated states were decomposed and compared to those calculated from decomposition parameters. They revealed the presence of two highly expandable illite-expandable (I-Exp) mixedlayer minerals (MLMs). The relative proportions of the two MLMs evolve steadily with depth leading to the decrease of the cation exchange capacity and of the (Na + Ca) content towards the centre of the bentonite bed. However, the system is essentially isochemical and Mg, Al, Si, K and Fe are roughly constant in the bulk samples. It is thought that the mineralogical zonation results from the initial stages of the smectite formation in an ash layer.In the Ca-saturated state, the expandable component of these MLMs was for the most part homogeneous with the presence of 2 sheets of ethylene glycol molecules in the interlayer. However, the heterogeneous hydration behaviour of these expandable layers was enhanced by the K-saturation test. From this test, the presence of three layer types with contrasting layer charge was evidenced from their contrasting swelling abilities. The C12-alkylammonium saturation test applied to samples in which the octahedral charge had previously been neutralized (Hofmann-Klemen treatment) showed that the tetrahedral charge is located on specific layers. These layers are responsible for the heterogeneous hydration behaviour. Low-charge smectite layers are mostly octahedrally substituted, whereas for intermediate- and high-charge layers this montmorillonitic charge is complemented by additional tetrahedral substitutions (0.30 and 0.35–0.40 charge per O10(OH)2, respectively).

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