Sodium Content
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Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2122
Pezhman Haghighi ◽  
Davood Habibi ◽  
Hamid Mozafari ◽  
Behzad Sani ◽  
Mehdi Sadeghishoae

Two field experiments were carried out during 2018–2019 at the Hamedan and Qom sites, which are different ecological locations of Iran. Hamedan was selected as a temperate climate and Qom as semi-arid to study some of the morphological and physiological traits of fodder beet in various climatic conditions. The experimental map was designed as a split–split-plot in the form of a randomized complete block with three replications. The main plots were assigned three levels of methanol (i.e., control, 15, and 30% by volume). The sub-plots were restricted to two glycine betaine (GB) concentrations (i.e., control and four grams per liter of methanol consumed, and the sub-sub-plots consisted of six different genotypes of fodder beet). The results showed that root length, root and foliage yield/ha, as well as sugar content increased with the incremental level of methanol and/or GB concentration. Foliar application of methanol and GB also significantly changed the qualitative parameters including sodium content, catalase value, crude protein percentage, and dry matter digestibility. It should be noted that two sites differed in most of the investigated traits, so that Hamedan treatment had a more active role on fodder beet growth, yield, and quality compared with Qom. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference between fodder beet genotypes. Generally, spraying fodder beet with 15% by volume methanol or GB with concentration of four grams per liter of methanol is the recommended treatment for raising forage yield under the ecological circumstances of this research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 371-382
Karem Muraro ◽  
Jamile Zeni ◽  
Rogério Luis Cansian ◽  
Juliana Steffens ◽  
Eunice Valduga ◽  

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the addition of swine skin on the technological characteristics of mortadella formulations produced on industrial scale. The effects of concentrations of swine skin (1.5 to 5.5 %) and sodium chloride (2 to 3 %) on total protein, total fat, starch, moisture, water activity, sodium, pH and texture profile (hardness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness) were evaluated and compared to a mortadella formulation without swine skin addition. The mortadella formulations with addition of 3.5 to 5.5 % swine skin and 2 to 2.5 % sodium chloride are in accordance with Brazilian legislation and provided an increase of approximately 12 % in protein content, a decrease of 14 % in sodium content and a water activity less than 0.9488. The swine skin and sodium chloride provided stability to the mortadella and influenced its texture, mainly in hardness, elasticity and chewiness.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1384
Jiajun Yang ◽  
Yongbo Wu

The salt tolerance of glycophytes is thought to be related to their ability to restrict sodium access to their aboveground parts. A previous study on the mulberry (Morus alba L.) revealed a phenomenon of explosive salt accumulation in the leaves after exceeding a certain treatment concentration. Here, we aim to observe the internal state of mulberry seedlings under salt stress by the proteomic method and to identify the possible inducements associated with salt bursts. In this study, the target treatments for TMT-label free quantitative analyses were determined by measuring the sodium content in the roots and leaves. The results showed that the expressions of proteins classified as “plant hormones”, “ion channels”, “REDOX homeostasis”, “cytoskeleton” and “cell wall” changed significantly after salt bursts. This phenotype is associated with the destruction of the apoplast, in which the assembly of the Casparian strip may be affected by the inhibition of some key proteins, indirectly increasing the rate of ion migration through the endodermis into the shoots.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1591
Chunfa Huang ◽  
Zhiguo Liu ◽  
Jianxian Huang ◽  
Qiwen Liu ◽  
Jianguo Li

To get an insight into the residual sodium content of Al–Mg alloys, three types of sodium-containing fluxes were introduced into the melt with different magnesium content. The increment, existing form and distribution of sodium in Al–Mg alloys with different magnesium content were analyzed. The results show that the influence of different sodium salts on the increment of sodium in Al–10Mg alloy is significantly different. The NaF raised the sodium level in Al–10Mg alloy to the highest extent, Na3AlF6 coming second, and NaCl did not have an obvious influence. The magnesium element in the aluminum melt was found to be the key factor leading to the increment of sodium level. After the salt fluxing treatment of aluminum alloy with different magnesium content, this increment would be proportional to the content of magnesium. EDS mapping indicates the sodium introduced by the fluxes was distributed in the form of Na-rich particles in Al–Mg alloys and preferentially located near Al3Mg2(β) phase in the situation of high magnesium content.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. e046412
Yuzhu Song ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Chunlei Guo ◽  
Yishan Wang ◽  
Liping Huang ◽  

IntroductionReducing sodium intake has been identified as a highly cost-effective strategy to prevent and control high blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular mortality. This study aims to compare the sodium content in processed meat and fish products among five countries, which will contribute to the evidence-base for feasible strategies of sodium reduction in such products.MethodsSodium content on product labels of 26 500 prepackaged products, 19 601 meat and 6899 fish, was collected in supermarkets from five countries using the FoodSwitch mobile application from 2012 to 2018. To be specific, it was 1898 products in China, 885 in the UK, 5673 in Australia, 946 in South Africa and 17 098 in the USA. Cross-sectional comparisons of sodium levels and proportions meeting 2017 UK sodium reduction targets were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis H and the χ2 test, respectively across the five countries.ResultsThe results showed that processed meat and fish products combined in China had the highest sodium level (median 1050 mg/100 g, IQR: 774–1473), followed by the USA, South Africa, Australia, with the lowest levels found in UK (432 mg/100 g, IQR: 236–786) (p<0.001). Similar variations, that is, a twofold to threefold difference of sodium content between the highest and the lowest countries were found among processed meat and fish products separately. Large sodium content variations were also found in certain specific food subcategories across the five countries, as well as across different food subcategories within each country.ConclusionProcessed meat and fish products differ greatly in sodium content across different countries and across different food subcategories. This indicates great potential for food producers to reformulate the products in sodium content, as well as for consumers to select less salted food.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3410
Marta Beltrá ◽  
Fernando Borrás ◽  
Ana B. Ropero

High sodium/salt intake is a risk factor for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Excess sodium intake has been associated with high coronary heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure. The sodium daily intake is above the recommendations in the world as well as in Spain. Reducing salt content in processed foods and ready meals is one of the main strategies for reducing sodium intake. The aim of the present work is to characterise the presence of sodium in foods sold in the Spanish market. We also study a possible shift in sodium content in products over the last few years. For this purpose, 3897 products included in the BADALI food database were analysed, classified into 16 groups (G). We found that 93.3% of all foods displayed the sodium/salt content in the nutrition declaration. Meat—processed and derivatives (G8) had the highest mean and median values for sodium content, followed by snacks (G15) and sauces (G14). Only 12.7% of foods were sodium-free (≤ 5 mg/100 g or 100 mL), 32.4% had very low sodium (≤ 40 mg/100 g or 100 mL) and 48.2% were low in sodium (≤ 120 mg/100 g or 100 mL). On the contrary, 47.2% were high in sodium according to the Pan American Health Organisation Nutrient Profile Model (PAHO-NPM), while there were 31.9% according to the Chile-NPM. The agreement between the two NPMs was considered ‘substantial’ (κ = 0.67). When sodium content was compared over the years, no decrease was observed. This analysis was performed in the entire food population, by food group and in matched products. Therefore, more effort should be made by all parties involved in order to decrease the sodium/salt intake in the population.

Mohamed Yafout ◽  
Hicham Elhorr ◽  
Ibrahim Sbai El Otmani ◽  
Youssef Khayati

Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and other properties of antacid drugs marketed in Morocco. Methods. Samples of 12 antacids were collected from pharmacies and were subjected to the test described in the US Pharmacopoeia in order to measure their ANC. Other properties such as price and sodium content were also studied.   Results. All the tested brands met the minimal requirement of 5 mEq. However, Aluminum hydroxide/Magnesium hydroxide combinations showed a superior acid-neutralizing capacity over other products and oral suspensions showed better results compared to other pharmaceutical forms. Regarding the cost of antacids, Aluminum hydroxide/Magnesium hydroxide combinations and calcium carbonate/magnesium carbonate combinations showed the most favorable ANC/price ratio. Some of the antacids studied contain a high amount of sodium. Conclusion. All the antacids marketed in Morocco meet the USP requirement regarding their ANC. However, the ANC value should be included in the antacids’ labels so that both patients and physicians can choose the most appropriate product. The ANC value should be evaluated according to the dose of the active substance instead of the minimum labeled dosage in order to allow a better result interpretation.  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0255794
Sami Abou Fayssal ◽  
Zeina El Sebaaly ◽  
Mohammed A. Alsanad ◽  
Rita Najjar ◽  
Michael Böhme ◽  

No previous study assessed the combined effect of olive pruning residues (OLPR) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) on P. ostreatus production and nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of P. ostreatus to degrade lignocellulosic nature of combined OLPR and SCG as well as their resultant nutrient composition. A complete randomized design was adopted with five treatments: S1:100%wheat straw (WS) (control), S2:33%WS+33%SCG+33%OLPR,S3:66%WS+17%SCG+17%OLPR,S4:17%WS+66%SCG+17%OLPR, and S5:17%WS+17%SCG+66%OLPR, and ten replicates per treatment. Substrate’s and mushroom’s composition were analyzed on chemical scale, including fatty acids and heavy metals profiles, following international standards. Only S1, S2, and S3 were productive, with comparable biological yield, economical yield, and biological efficiency. Organic matter loss decreased with increasing proportions of OLPR and SCG. Percentage lignin loss was higher in S1 than in S2 and S3 (53.51, 26.25, and 46.15% respectively). Mushrooms of S3 had some enhanced nutritional attributes compared to control: decrease in fat, increase in protein, increase in monounsaturated fatty acids, and lower zinc accumulation. Lead was less accumulated in S2 than S1 mushrooms. Sodium content of mushroom decreased in S2 and S3. The latter substrates yielded mushrooms with lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) contents. All mushrooms had a valuable PUFA/SFA. This study suggests using OLPR and SCG in low proportions as nutritional supplements to the commercial wheat straw.

2021 ◽  
Maria Sofia Amarra ◽  
Mario Capanzana ◽  
Glen Gironella ◽  
Francisco de los Reyes

Abstract Background In response to the global target for reduction in salt intake, several countries have implemented population sodium reduction strategies. These strategies include identification of major sources of sodium in the diet and reformulation of a set number of products available on the market. This study aimed to identify processed foods that can be targeted for reformulation and whose sodium content can be monitored over time in order to reduce sodium intake in the Philippines. The objectives were to: 1) Estimate per capita sodium intake from minimally processed and processed food groups by income quintile and urban/rural location; 2) Identify foods that contribute to the variance in per capita sodium intake that can be used as indicators for monitoring the sodium content of Philippine processed foods. One-day household food weighing data covering 4880 households from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey was used. Per capita sodium consumption from processed and minimally processed food categories and percentiles of sodium intake from these categories by income quintile and urban/rural location were obtained. The percentage contribution of different food categories to mean per capita sodium intake was calculated. Specific foods that contributed to the variance in sodium intake among Filipinos were identified. Results Foods which significantly accounted for 99.4% of the variance in sodium intake were 13 types of processed foods and 2 types of minimally processed foods. The category Processed Soup, Sauces, and Flavor Enhancers contributed the greatest proportion to per capita sodium intake. Specific processed foods that contributed to the variance in per capita sodium intake were instant noodles, traditional fermented condiments and sauces, dried and processed meat, fish, and poultry products, salted eggs, white bread and pan de sal (a traditional Filipino bread), wheat and egg noodles, crispy cereal chips and extruded snacks, butter and margarine, cheese, and chocolate-based beverages. Conclusion Identifying processed foods that significantly contribute to sodium intake, followed by reformulating and monitoring the sodium content of these foods over time should be considered as one strategy to reduce sodium intake in the Philippines.

2021 ◽  
Vol 218 (11) ◽  
Vishwas Mishra ◽  
Avipsa Bose ◽  
Shashi Kiran ◽  
Sanghita Banerjee ◽  
Idrees A. Shah ◽  

Activating mutations in receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), the target of gastrointestinal peptide hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins cause early-onset diarrhea and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GC-C regulates ion and fluid secretion in the gut via cGMP production and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. We characterize a novel mouse model harboring an activating mutation in Gucy2c equivalent to that seen in an affected Norwegian family. Mutant mice demonstrated elevated intestinal cGMP levels and enhanced fecal water and sodium content. Basal and linaclotide-mediated small intestinal transit was higher in mutant mice, and they were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Fecal microbiome and gene expression analyses of colonic tissue revealed dysbiosis, up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes, and misregulation of genes associated with human IBD and animal models of colitis. This novel mouse model thus provides molecular insights into the multiple roles of intestinal epithelial cell cGMP, which culminate in dysbiosis and the induction of inflammation in the gut.

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