quaternary ammonium
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Desalination ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 526 ◽  
pp. 115519
Yang Xu ◽  
Huawen Peng ◽  
Hao Luo ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Zhitian Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 103918
Chenglong Li ◽  
Geng Liu ◽  
Shuang Wang ◽  
Di Wang ◽  
Fengxiang Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-47
Eva Salanci ◽  
Fils Andriamainty ◽  
Dominika Adamove ◽  
Roman Mikláš

The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the selected surfactant belonging to quaternary ammonium salts with chemical designation N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-((1R,5S)-1,8,8-trimethyl-2,4-dioxo-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3yl)propyl)hexadecane-1-amine bromide was determined. Simultaneously, the effect of the addition of various concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr salts on the CMC value of the substance was observed and compared with those obtained in an aqueous solution at T = 296,15 K. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that NaCl and KCl salts decreased the critical micelle concentration, while NaBr and KBr salts did not support micellization and CMC values therefore increased. In the case of solutions of a substance in the salt environment, when compared to the substance's solution in distilled water, a decrease in partial molar volume was observed. From the concentration density dependencies of the substance, an ionization degree of α was determined. Finally, the molar Gibbs energy ∆G° was also calculated and found negative for all salt solutions, while increase with their increasing concentration.

Latdamanee Phutthatham ◽  
Piyalak Ngernchuklin ◽  
Dolnapa Kaewpa ◽  
Preeyaporn Chaiyasat ◽  
Amorn Chaiyasat

Anupam Das ◽  
Balakondareddy Sana ◽  
Rama Bhattacharyya ◽  
Prakash Chandra Ghosh ◽  
Tushar Jana

2022 ◽  
Matthew Jordan ◽  
Tanmay Kulkarni ◽  
Dodangodage Senadheera ◽  
Revati Kumar ◽  
Yupo Lin ◽  

Abstract Most commercial anion exchange membranes (AEMs) deploy quaternary ammonium moieties. Alternative cation moieties have been explored in AEMs for fuel cells, but there are no studies focused examining alternative tethered cations in AEMs for ionic separations – such as organic acid anion transport via electrodialysis. H-cell and conductivity experiments demonstrate that tethered benzyl 1-methyl imidazolium groups in polysulfone AEMs enhance lactate conductivity by 49% and improved lactate anion flux by 24x when compared to a quaternary benzyl ammonium polysulfone AEM. An electrodialysis demonstration with the imidazolium-type AEM showed a 2x improvement in lactate anion flux and 20% improvement in permselectivity when benchmarked against the quaternary ammonium AEM. Molecular dynamics and 2D NOESY NMR revealed closer binding of lactate anions to the imidazolium cations when compared to the quaternary ammonium cation. It is posited that this closer binding is responsible to greater flux values observed with imidazolium-type AEM.

2022 ◽  
Ali A Kermani ◽  
Olive E. Burata ◽  
B Ben Koff ◽  
Akiko Koide ◽  
Shohei Koide ◽  

Proteins from the bacterial small multidrug resistance (SMR) family are proton-coupled exporters of diverse antiseptics and antimicrobials, including polyaromatic cations and quaternary ammonium compounds. The transport mechanism of the Escherichia coli transporter, EmrE, has been studied extensively, but a lack of high-resolution structural information has impeded a structural description of its molecular mechanism. Here we apply a novel approach, multipurpose crystallization chaperones, to solve several structures of EmrE, including a 2.9 Å structure at low pH without substrate. We report five additional structures in complex with structurally diverse transported substrates, including quaternary phosphonium, quaternary ammonium, and planar polyaromatic compounds. These structures show that binding site tryptophan and glutamate residues adopt different rotamers to conform to disparate structures without requiring major rearrangements of the backbone structure. Structural and functional comparison to Gdx-Clo, an SMR protein that transports a much narrower spectrum of substrates, suggests that in EmrE, a relatively sparse hydrogen bond network among binding site residues permits increased sidechain flexibility.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rebecca Bland ◽  
Joy Waite-Cusic ◽  
Alexandra J. Weisberg ◽  
Elizabeth R. Riutta ◽  
Jeff H. Chang ◽  

The effective elimination of Listeria monocytogenes through cleaning and sanitation is of great importance to the food processing industry. Specifically in fresh produce operations, the lack of a kill step requires effective cleaning and sanitation to mitigate the risk of cross-contamination from the environment. As facilities rely on sanitizers to control L. monocytogenes, reports of the development of tolerance to sanitizers and other antimicrobials through cross-resistance is of particular concern. We investigated the potential for six L. monocytogenes isolates from fresh produce handling and processing facilities and packinghouses to develop cross-resistance between a commercial sanitizer and antibiotics. Experimental adaptation of isolates belonging to hypervirulent clonal complexes (CC2, CC4, and CC6) to a commercial quaternary ammonium compound sanitizer (cQAC) resulted in elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (2–3 ppm) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (3–4 ppm). Susceptibility to cQAC was restored for all adapted (qAD) isolates in the presence of reserpine, a known efflux pump inhibitor. Reduced sensitivity to 7/17 tested antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, kanamycin, novobiocin, penicillin, and streptomycin) was observed in all tested isolates. qAD isolates remained susceptible to antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of listeriosis (i.e., ampicillin and gentamicin). The whole genome sequencing of qAD strains, followed by comparative genomic analysis, revealed several mutations in fepR, the regulator for FepA fluoroquinolone efflux pump. The results suggest that mutations in fepR play a role in the reduction in antibiotic susceptibility following low level adaptation to cQAC. Further investigation into the cross-resistance mechanisms and pressures leading to the development of this phenomenon among L. monocytogenes isolates recovered from different sources is needed to better understand the likelihood of cross-resistance development in food chain isolates and the implications for the food industry.

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