169 article(s) in Verbum

К Вопросу О Речевой Агрессии И Инвективах В Современных Антилиберальных Новых Медиа
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 2

the article explores the use of verbal aggression by anti-liberal “new media”. this source material was selected following the infamous financial times interview with vladimir putin, where he proclaimed that liberalism had become obsolete. the study explores the purpose, objects, and means of expressing verbal aggression. this study highlights the main ways in which a holistic trend of political philosophy comes under a sustained attack. the research establishes that lexemes without a default negative connotation, rather than pejorative invectives, are the primary means of expressing aggression. the study further maintains the existence of certain verbal aggression discourse algorithm whereby the use of one potentially aggressive lexeme automatically triggers the use of another lexeme. the analysis shows that anti-liberal discourse is intertwined with antisemitism, homophobia, and negative sentiment towards the internet. anti-liberal environment is not limited to pro-government sentiment – occasionally the head of state alsocomes under its critique and its standard allegations. the source of verbal aggression is particularly crucial in the “new media” era: verbal aggression can originate both in governmental institutions and the demassified field. the origin of verbal aggression will further determine its consequences, ranging from impacting the fate of the object of verbal aggression to uniting the supporters sharing the sentiment behind the verbal aggression and/or pro-government opinion. here neutral lexemes without a default negative connotation take on the function of the means of verbal aggression. this way neutral words such as liberal, jew, gay become pejorative invectives. these words now carry a high potential for expressing aggression when used in conjunction with other words and phrases Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Verbal Aggression
  • New Media
  • Negative Connotation
  • Political Philosophy
  • The Internet
The Equivalents Of The Verbs Of Activity In The Spanish Translation Of “Metai” (“The Seasons”) By Kristijonas Donelaitis
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 3

the equivalence of translation has become a concern for many lithuanian researchers. the term equivalence is described in the monograph “contrastive semantics” (2007) by aloyzasgudavičius. lionginaspažūsis (2014) discusses problems that arise from the lack of equivalence at word level. there are many articles on approaches or strategies of equivalence (d. masaitienė 1996; a. leonavičienė 2010; l. černiuvienė 2013). some scholars choose to examine the strategies applied in the translation of some linguistic items in novels (v. končius& a. nausėda 2006; c. caro dugo 2010, 2014, 2015, 2016; a. cerri; i. janavičienė 2016). however, there is a lack of research that analyses the spanish translation of the poem “metai” or a particular linguistic aspect of this spanish text. recent years saw several attempts to fill this gap(c. caro dugo 2014, 2015, 2016; a. cerri 2015). the current research aims to examine the equivalents of the verbs of activity (vas) in the spanish translation of the poem. the paper focuses only on those vas that express actions performed by persons. the vas which denote actions performed by other living beings or forces of nature were excluded. the research covers 52 verses with verbs of activity, selected from the poem, and their equivalents in the translation into spanish, which are subjected to qualitative content analysis and means ofcomparative methodology. 52 constructions that express the concepts of work, damaging, speakon topic, motion, ingestion and entertainment were selected applying the qualitative content analysis. the spanish equivalents of these constructions are examined through the comparative methodology. the obtained results indicated that the translator is faithful to the original text. in order to preserve the expressiveness of the poem, the spanish translation uses an abundance of verbal lexemes. it was noticed that the equivalents of the same meaning or verbs with a more general meaning specified by an additional lexeme or construction were the main strategies adopted in va translation into spanish. in one case only was a lithuanian verb changed into a spanish noun. idioms and figurative words were also chosen as a va translation strategy in several instances. nonetheless, all of these lexemes, as derivative of verbs or verbal forms, preserve the verbal nature.this workshould be useful tothe semanticists and translators Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Spanish Translation
  • Qualitative Content Analysis
  • Comparative Methodology
  • Linguistic Aspect
Encyclopedic Information In Bilingual Dictionaries: Field Of Geography
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 4

when preparing a dictionary it is impossible to ignore outside world or so called encyclopedic knowledge. in megastructure level of a bilingual dictionary, various appendices are often addede.g. toponyms, anthroponyms, and ethnonyms. arranged before or after the corpus, these appendices are most commonly used for grammatical descriptions as well as toponyms (hydronyms and oikonims) and lists of commonly used abbreviations. at the macrostructure and microstructure level, the presentation of encyclopedic knowledge is even more evident: the nomenclature of the modern linguistic monolingual or bilingual dictionary includes a number of lexis related to a particular cognitive domain (ethnography, history, mythology, geography, economics, etc.); therefore, a lot of different encyclopedic information is provided in order to explain it. recently, many european lexicographers have been discussing the need to avoid any appendices to the vocabulary and to instead incorporate the information contained into the text of lexicographic publication wherever possible. researchers base this view on the fact that each additional source of information in the dictionary requires further time and energy from the user looking for the lexical unit they want. the user may also be unfamiliar or insufficiently familiar with the dictionary structure and simply be unaware that additional information can be found elsewhere rather than in the dictionary text itself. thus, the goal of this study is to examine, based on the analytical and descriptive method, four dictionaries published in lithuania (the great lithuanian-english dictionary (2006), lithuanian-russian dictionary (2015), the great lithuanian-french dictionary (2012) and lithuanian-norwegian dictionary (2001))in terms of geographical knowledge presentation: evaluate the presentation of this knowledge at megastructure, macrostructure and microstructure levels Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Bilingual Dictionary
  • Dictionary Structure
  • Russian Dictionary
  • Source Of Information
  • Descriptive Method
The Teaching Of Frozen Expressions Through The Graphic Novel Persépolis
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 5

the constant search for suitable teaching materials to achieve the linguistic skills provided by a language teaching course, finds in authentic documents an important instrument for teaching foreign languages. the scientific literature attesting to the effectiveness of the authentic material is wide and consolidated; indeed, a text conceived by a native for a native, and, therefore, not developed for the sole purpose of teaching a foreign language, is intrinsically carrying a cultural richness and a linguistic variety, which are rarely present in any didactic artifact. the authentic material therefore represents an opportunity to meet the fixed expressions that are part of the communicative potential of a language; their teaching is not always taken into account, or is considered, at most, as a positive side effect of the natural process of linguistic acquisition. a communicative act for it to be effective must be able to be understood by the interlocutor ; it is therefore necessary to ensure not only grammatical accuracy and correct pronunciation, but also the understanding and use of frozen sequences. the graphic novel can offer the opportunity to benefit from an authentic language rich in idiomatic expressions, because the effectiveness of dialogues is a transposition of the language spoken in everyday life and familiar expressions. the article aims to show the didactic advantages of a graphic novel in the teaching of the french language. we explain the importance of the text-image relationship and the potential of the verbal language of the graphic novel, and we talk about the need to learn frozen expressions for a good command of the language and the distinctive aspects specific to comics that contribute to their understanding and learning; we show, finally, how the adoption, within the framework of a contrastive analysis of the language, of the graphic novel persépolis by marjane satrapi could help the students to understand more easily the fixed expressions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Graphic Novel
  • Authentic Material
  • Fixed Expressions
  • Idiomatic Expressions
  • Communicative Act
A Pedagogical Perspective On The Definite And The Indefinite Article In The Romanian Language. Challenges For Foreign Learners
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 1

all romance languages have developed the definite and the indefinite article via the vulgar latin (classical latin did not use articles), the language of the roman colonists. according to joseph h. greenberg (1978), the definite article predated the indefinite one by approximately two centuries, being developed from demonstratives through a complex process of grammaticalization. many areas of nowadays` romania were incorporated into the roman empire for about 170 years. after two military campaign, the roman emperor trajan conquered dacia, east of danube.the romans imposed their own administration and inforced latin as lingua franca.the language of the colonists, mixed with the native language and, later on, with various languages spoken by the many migrant populations that followed the roman retreat resulted in a new language (romanian), of latin origins. the romanian language, attested in the 16th century, in documents written by foreign travellers, uses four different types of articles. being a highly inflected language, romanian changes the form of the articles according to the gender, the number and the case of the noun as compared to the other romance languages, romanian uses the definite article enclitically. thus, the definite article and the noun constitute a single word. the present paper aims at discussing, analysing and providing an overview of the use of definite and indefinite articles. the general norm and its various exceptions are examined from a broader perspective, synchronically and diachronically. the pedagogical perspective is meant to offer a comprehensible synthesis to foreign learners Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Romance Languages
  • Indefinite Article
  • The Other
  • 16Th Century
"Modern Hellenism": The Pragmatem
  • Verbum;
  • 2019;
  • Vol 10();
  • Pages 6

xavier blanco, salah mejri, les pragmatèmes. préface d’alain rey, paris, classiques garnier, 2018, 214 p Show More ... ... Show Less

Fossiles Lexicaux Dans Des Expressions Figées
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 9();
  • Pages 31-40

[straipsnis ir santrauka prancūzų kalba, santrauka anglų kalba Show More ... ... Show Less

Begegnungsschule Und Fremdsprache: Der Pädagogisch-Institutionelle Diskurs In Bezug Auf Die Mehrsprachige Und Plurikulturelle Kompetenzförderung In Einer Deutschen Auslandsschule
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 9();
  • Pages 41-50

[full article, abstract in german; abstract in english] im kapitel 8 des gemeinsamen europäischen referenzrahmens für sprachen (ger) wird die sogenannte mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle kompetenz als weiteres ziel des sprachenlernens erläutert. dementsprechend wird die allgemeine sprachkompetenz „nicht als schichtung oder als ein nebeneinander von getrennten kompetenzen verstanden, sondern vielmehr als eine komplexe oder sogar gemischte kompetenz“ (trim et al. 2001, p. 163) betrachtet. insgesamt werden 140 auslandsschulen mit ressourcen des deutschen auswärtigen amtes in 71 ländern gefördert. von 80.000 schülern besitzen ca. 73% weder die deutsche staatsbürgerschaft noch sprechen sie deutsch als erstsprache. meistens handelt es sich um private bildungsanstalten, welche als bikulturelle begegnungsschulen bezeichnet und von kindern und jugendlichen aus ökonomisch privilegierten elternhäusern besucht werden. in diesem zusammenhang stellt sich die kernfrage: inwiefern entspricht der dabei erwartete interkulturelle dialog den austauschdynamiken und identitätsprozessen, wie sie im schulalltag festgestellt werden können, und auch den prämissen des ger in bezug auf interkulturelle und mehrsprachige kompetenz? an welcher sprachlichen ideologie orientiert sich der diskurs und die pädagogische praxis in solchen binationalen schuleinrichtungen? die analyse des institutionellen diskurses der untersuchten einrichtung zeigt ihren ideologischen unterbau und die soziopolitische zielgruppe auf, die sie in den blick nimmt, sowie ihre einstellung zu interkulturalität und mehrsprachigkeit. die überwiegende spracheinstellung verweist noch auf den „nativitätsmythos“ (rajagopalan 1997, p. 226 f.), indem die sprachkompetenz des zweisprachigen individuums hinsichtlich eines anachronistischen, imaginären ‚muttersprachlers‘ bewertet wird. encounter schools and foreign language: the pedagogical-institutional discourse about multilingual and pluricultural competence promotion in a german school abroad among the 80,000 students attending the 140 german schools abroad, about 73% are not german or ‘native’ german speakers. these are usually private schools, called “bicultural schools of encounter” frequented by children and young people from the economically privileged classes. the purpose of this study is to analyze the permeability of the space of this encounter and between the internal structures of the same. we seek to elucidate the extent to which the model of intercultural dialogue envisaged by this political project corresponds to the dynamics of exchanges and identity re-elaborations that occur organically and to the assumptions of the common european framework of reference for languages (cefr) in relation to the development of intercultural and plurilingual competences. analyzing the presentation of the institutional profile and pedagogical plan in the homepage of one of these schools, we hope to counter the vestiges of this proposal of literacy in the school environment to the social and linguistic representations shared by these institutions and their target audience. in this context, the key question arises: to what extent does the expected intercultural dialogue correspond to the exchange dynamics and identity processes that can be identified in everyday school life, and to the premises of the cefr in relation to intercultural and multilingual competence? at which linguistic ideology is the discourse and pedagogical practice in such binational institutions oriented? the analysis of the institutional discourse of a bilingual german school located in brazil aims to reveal its ideological substructure and the socio-political target group that it looks at, as well as its attitude to interculturality and multilingualism. according to the results, the predominant language attitude still refers to the "myth of nativity" (rajagopalan 1997: 226 f.), in which the linguistic competence of the bilingual individual is evaluated in terms of an anachronistic, imaginary 'native speaker'. the theoretical basis for this study is presented in the first two chapters, followed by a brief discussion of the methodology applied on this research. afterwards, chapter 5 deals in depth with the institutional discourse on the examined school concept. chapter 6 deals with language attitudes and transcultural processes in reports on multidisciplinary activities and the following concluding chapter tries to reconstruct the challenges of a partly organic, partly planned development towards a multilingual (school) identity Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Institutional Discourse
  • Intercultural Dialogue
  • German School
  • Linguistic Ideology
  • Bilingual Individual
The Coda Voicing Contrast In Lithuanian Learners’ English
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 9();
  • Pages 11-20

[full article and abstract in english] vowel duration, though not belonging to the three main factors in the decription of vowels, plays an important role in the english language. alongside qualitative differences, it helps to distinguish between the meaning of such words as ‘ship’ and ‘sheep’. vowel duration has been recognised to be a complex phenomenon, which depends on a combination of factors: internal and external (delattre 1962). the present pilot study focuses on one of the factors belonging to the latter group, i.e. the influence of the postvocalic voicing on vowel duration in minimal pairs of one sylable cvc (consonant-vowel-consonant) words, a phenomenon reffered to as ‘pre-fortis clipping’ (wells 1990), ‘voicing effect’ (yoneyama and kitahara 2014), ‘consonantal voicing effect’ (beller-marino 2014), ‘vowel-length effect’ (ko 2007), ‘shortening’ (cruttenden 2014), ‘post-vocalic consonant voicing effect’ (taubeber and evanini 2009), etc. the scope of this research was limited to four checked unrounded english monophthongs: the front-central, close-mid /ɪ/, the front, mid /e/, the front, open /æ/, and the central, open-mid /ʌ/. the durational differences were analysed from a perceptive and productive perspectives. the obtained results indicated that the lithuanian learners showed an effect of voicing on vowel-duration, manifested in a number of languages: the mean duration of the examined vowels was shorter before a fortis than before a lenis coda. the analysis of individual students’ production data proved the importance of the individual variable Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Vowel Duration
  • Minimal Pairs
  • The Mean
  • Main Factors
  • Present Pilot Study
Le Dictionnaire: D'un Ouvrage De Partage À Un Objet Personnel Et Personnalisé
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 9();
  • Pages 1-10

[full article, abstract in french; abstract in english] au début des années 2000, avec l’informatisation, seuls les modes de recherche dans les dictionnaires avaient évolué. a cette période, on se réjouissait de pouvoir faire facilement des recherches thématiques dans les dictionnaires, grâce notamment à des outils de recherche « plein texte ». parallèlement, on s’inquiétait de la fiabilité des dictionnaires « collaboratifs », conçus grâce aux technologies du wiki et dans lesquels les utilisateurs pouvaient faire des modifications. aujourd’hui, de nouveaux dictionnaires apparaissent : des dictionnaires que l’on peut fabriquer soi-même, à l’aide d’outils simples d’utilisation, et qui permettent à chacun de personnaliser son dictionnaire. l’article montrera que la personnalisation des dictionnaires change de façon radicale notre rapport au savoir (nous construisons nous-même notre ouvrage de référence), notre rapport à l’expert (serions-nous tous des lexicographes ?) et notre rapport même à l’utilisation du dictionnaire, puisqu’il devient un outil personnel et non plus un outil de partage. mots-clés: lexicographie, dictionnaires, wiki, nouvelles technologies. dictionaries: from information-sharing tools to highly customized objects in the early 2000s, only search modes in dictionaries had evolved. in this period, it was challenging to be able to make easily thematic researches in dictionaries, due to “full text” research tools. at the same time, we were questioning about the reliability of the "collaborative" dictionaries, designed thanks to the technologies of the wiki and in which the users could make modifications. today, new dictionaries appear: dictionaries made by the user himself, for himself, by means of easy to use tools, and which allow every user to make his dictionary. the article will show that the customization of dictionaries changes in a radical way our relation to the knowledge (we build ourselves our reference book), our relation to the expert (would we be all lexicographers?) and our way of using the dictionary, because it becomes a personal tool and it is no more a way of sharing a language. Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Full Article
  • Information Sharing
  • Full Text
  • Reference Book
  • Article Abstract
Stance Taking In Social Media: The Analysis Of The Comments About Us Presidential Candidates On Facebook And Twitter
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 9();
  • Pages 21-30

[full article and abstract in english] the subject of the paper is the analysis of the expression of stance taking in an online environment, mainly in the comments of users of social networks such as facebook and twitter about the presidential candidates of the american presidential election in 2016. the empirical data analysis was carried out following the ideas of j. w. du bois (2007), d. barton & c. lee (2013) and r. englebretson (2007) on stance taking and j. w. du bois’ (2007) model of stance triangle, i.e. grouping instances of stance-taking into one of these groups: evaluation, affect or epistemicity, which served as the main framework of this study. the work of linguists d. barton & c. lee (2013) on the expression of stance-taking in an online environment were also taken into consideration. having in mind the fact that stance identification is a challenging task , i.e. it could be implicitly as well as explicitly expressed and that it should be inferred from different modes of its expression and interpreted with reference to many contextual and intertextual factors, in the current analysis the authors focused on interpretation of linguistic as well as other multimodal means of the expression of stance that were used by users of social networks in their writing spaces on the topic of the presidential election in the united states in 2016. it should also be mentioned that the analysis presented in this article offers only one of the many possible interpretations of the data. moreover, the current paper concentrates mainly on the presentation of the empirical data of the expression of affective stance. however, it should be indicated that in some cases stance types overlap, i.e. one instance could be treated as both taking an affective and an evaluative stance, as judgements and evaluation (i.e. evaluative stance) are often based on feelings (i.e. affective stance). the main source of the empirical data were the instances of stance taking taken from comments found on donald trump’s and hillary clinton’s verified facebook and twitter pages during their presidential campaigns in 2016. all in all, 147 examples of posts and comments from the social networks facebook and twitter were collected: 72 comments incorporating stance taking on donald trump‘s posts, and 75 comments including stance taking on hillary clinton‘s posts. the results of the empirical data analysis showed that the affective stance was expressed by linguistic as well as multimodal means Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Social Networks
  • Du Bois
  • Empirical Data Analysis
REPRESENTING POSTFEMINIST FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE CONTEMPORARY MEDIASCAPE: THE DISCURSIVE FUNCTION OF IRONY
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 40

addressing the interdisciplinary area of language & gender as applied to television and media stu­dies, this article summarises the detailed analysis of some extremely popular contemporary tv series and media. with all their specificities, these significant cultural products share a reinvention of the codes of romance, by representing an up-to-date, somehow fashionable version of the traditional, and traditionally female, genre of romance geared to postfeminist consumer culture. the femininities and sexualities enacted in these cultural narratives may appear to be unsparingly and humorously critical of conventionally female linguistic and cultural stereotypes, and could therefore be regarded as radical feminist embodiments. nevertheless, by means of an ironic and hyperbolic approach, they are in fact not only romantic and mainstream, but also ideologically biased, preserving a normative heterosexual white middle-class status quo, and restoring a patriarchal value system. a close critical scrutiny thus shows the stylistic and discursive strategies by which feminism has switched to postfemi­nist romance, and has thereby yielded to postfeminist backlash Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Female Characters
  • Value System
  • Cultural Products
  • Discursive Strategies
  • Class Status
REDRESSIVE ACTIONS FOLLOWING COMMISERATIONS IN ONLINE DISCUSSIONS
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 29

in brown and levinson’s (1978) seminal classification of positive politeness strategies, commiserating is listed in the subgroup referred to as human-relations wants. the qualitative and quantitative ana­lysis of a corpus consisting of five internet discussion boards has shown that it is also one of the most frequent positive politeness strategies used there. all the threads under examination are dedicated to the so-called women’s topics, such as dieting, pregnancy, infertility or mothering. the members of these close-knit communities formed upon the boards find it necessary to express sympathy in order to enhance each other’s (positive) face and avoid face-threatening acts arising from the sensitive nature of these topics. however, the analysis of the corpus has also revealed that to commiserate merely by saying they are sorry is not enough. the interlocutors find it necessary to add often complex redressi­ve actions to boost the illocutionary force of their statements. thus the aim of the paper is to explore the formulaic character of commiserations and categorise the numerous redressive actions following them, taking into account their two main functions, i.e. building rapport and facilitating smooth communication within online communities Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Politeness Strategies
  • Online Communities
  • Online Discussions
  • Human Relations
PRAGMATIC POTENTIAL OF THE NOMINATION OF THE SUBJECT-SOURCE OF FEAR (A MONSTROSITY) IN TEXTS OF HORROR DISCOURSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 20

the research is aimed at studying the pragmatic potential of nominations of the subject-source of fear (a monstrosity, in particular) in texts of horror discourse in english and ukrainian. the idea is that the expression of the communicative sense “fear” in a subjectively created world according to an author’s intention is explicated in the nomination of the subject-source of fear (ssf). generally, any ssf is a monster as far as its attributes and actions are harmful for the recipient of fear (srf), its essence contradicts the srf’s world creating norms. psychologically, a ssf-monstrosity is a metaphor that gives ground to a trend in the horror discourse (j. hartwell) and preconditions the modus of fear emphasis that lets the reader concentrate his empathy on the srf, revealing his hidden fears. in psychology this state is called dysmorphophobia, or an obsessive fear of deformities (both own and others). alogism of ssfs’ reference includes repellent appearance as the feature of external inconsistency with the norms of the srf’s world: in this sense it borders on the notion of otherness that, revealed to its fullest, may be perceived as horrific. on the other hand, deformities viewed as the features of some other world creation relate to the notion of novelty, and may be understood as not fearful. both sense variations mentioned above are present in texts of horror discourse and actualize such senses as “fear-disgust”, “fear of the unknown” and “fear of otherness”; their differentiation helps exclude from the analysis tautological notion “fear of fearful Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Subject
  • The Other
  • Other Hand
  • Hand Deformities
  • Other World
LES FRANCISMES DANS LES DICTIONNAIRES QUÉBÉCOIS
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 7

le but de cet article était d’analyser les francismes, relevés dans cinq dictionnaires du français québécois et d’évaluer leur rôle informatif pour les locuteurs du français standard et ceux du français québécois. le québécisme est un fait de la langue française, propre à sa variété régionale, parlée par les communautés francophones canadiennes au québec. elle se distingue du français standard par ses caractéristiques particulières au niveau phonétique, lexical et syntaxique. le québécisme existe en opposition avec le francisme et le français de france en général. le francisme (aussi appelé l’hexagonisme) est un fait de la langue française qui comporte les mots d’usage typique du français standard ou autrement, utilisé sur le territoire du canada. la recherche effectuée nous a permis de constater que le rôle de francisme dans les dictionnaires québécois est celui d’un connecteur ou d’une clé particuliers. en tant qu’un élément du dictionnaire, il peut fournir l’information sur le dictionnaire lui-même, sur son auteur, mais aussi sur les ressources linguistiques utilisées, reflétant l’état de la langue et de ses variantes régionales. malheureusement, il n’est pas encore défini d’une manière complètement claire et utilisé à son plein potentiel Show More ... ... Show Less

« JE REGRETTE L’EUROPE AUX ANCIENS PARAPETS » : ANALYSE LINGUISTIQUE ET TRADUCTOLOGIQUE DU POÈME BATEAU IVRE ET SA RECRÉATION BÉLARUSSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 72

le bateau ivre d’arthur rimbaud est considéré comme l’un des textes les plus significatifs de la litté­rature française, un texte montrant « la grandeur et la beauté » de sa langue. c’est aussi, et dans une plus grande mesure, un texte « rebelle » qui défie les règles du bon usage et les normes du bon goût de l’époque à cause de la rupture avec la métaphore romantique, de l’utilisation du lexique des registres opposés, de l’entrechoquement des champs sémantiques semblant incompatibles, etc. vu de cette perspective, la traduction en bélarusse d’un texte modèle mais en même temps insolent, écrit, en plus, dans une langue de prestige international comme le français ne peut pas être réduite à un exercice linguistique et littéraire, mais contribue aussi à l’affirmation de la langue d’arrivée. en nous inspirant des analyses structuralistes et centrées sur le langage, nous proposons une étude linguistique, concernant en particulier, le lexique, la syntaxe et les irrégularités de la combinatoire du texte rimbaldien mais aussi un de ses équivalents bélarusses, en ajoutant ainsi une dimension traduc­tologique et comparativiste à notre démarche Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Nous Proposons
  • Analyse Linguistique
TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 51

it is the purpose of this paper to examine some aspects of autonomy in language learning with a specific focus on the transition from high school to the first year at university. this transition can be problematic, in that study at a university level requires a degree of independence and initiative which is not generally required in the supportive learning environment of the school system. our starting point is identifying those characteristics which make a good language learner (naiman et al. 1978; johnson 2001; maftoon and seyyedrezaei 2012) and to demonstrate that these characteristics are largely an innate capacity of some and not all learners. among these characteristics there is the ability to establish a systematic and autonomous approach to the learning process on the basis of personal inclinations and individual life-skills (dublin descriptors 2005). in this sense the good learner is not a passive participant in the process, but, as schön (1987) claims, acts as a ‘problem-solver’, able to make decisions and put those decisions into practice. that is to say, learning is ‘the creation of knowledge’ (kolb 1984). finally, an approach to developing learner autonomy is illustrated, based on the personal experience of the author within the context of a first year esp course in communication studies at the university of cagliari (italy). the course makes extensive use of the new technologies through a moodle platform. it will be demonstrated that a blend of traditional teaching and e-learning can provide a ‘bridge’ between school and university, allowing the learner to move within a flexible environment and acquire the skills necessary for successful learning Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Language Learning
  • First Year
  • Language Learner
  • Communication Studies
  • University Level
INFLUENCE OF VIDEO GAMES ON THE ACQUISITION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 112

in the past decade or two, there has been an obvious increase in the number of school children profici­ent in english. one of the reasons is the number of english classes per week, but even more important­ly, it is the influence of the media. students are greatly exposed to video games. in this paper, a survey was conducted in order to find the connection between video-game playing and english proficiency. ninety six students filled out the survey answering a range of question on the quantity and quality of their video game playing. the conclusion drawn was that video games have a profound impact on language learning. the areas of most benefit were vocabulary and pronunciation. as a form of highly desirable entertainment, video games provide a positive and motivating atmosphere, which is perfect for adopting a foreign language Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Video Games
  • Video Game Playing
  • School Children
THE USE OF THEN IN LITHUANIAN LEARNERS’ ENGLISH
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 104

in linguistic literature, learner language has been extensively analysed from various perspectives. a number of studies have reported on the differences between non-native and native learner english. the former has been repeatedly characterised as showing the overuse of the features associated with spoken english (gilquin and paquot 2007, 2008; russell 2014; yoon 2015). though in linguistic ana­lysis, due to its polyfunctional nature, ‘then’ has been addressed under a number of various labels, from the quantitative perspective it is reported to be characteristic of spoken english (biber et al. 1999). the present study, limited to the analysis of non-native language data, aims at determining the roles of language mode and text genre on the use of ‘then’ in the lithuanian learners’ english. using quantitative and qualitative approaches three corpora representing the spoken (lindsei-lit) and written (licle-vu-lit and cale-lit) english produced by the lithuanian students were analy­sed. while the results indicate a direct correlation between language mode and the use of ‘then’, the role of genre proved to be less unequivocal Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Spoken English
  • Native Language
  • Qualitative Approaches
  • Language Data
ТЕЛЕДЕБАТЫ КАК СРЕДСТВО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ НА АУДИТОРИЮ
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 93

современная политическая наука рассматривает теледебаты как мощнейший инстру­мент воздействия на избирателя. практика показывает, что с каждым годом жанр те­ледебатов эволюционирует и наполняется новыми манипулятивными технологиями. автор статьи полагает, что как специалисту, так и обычному избирателю необходимо научиться декодировать стратегии и тактики, используемые политиками в данном виде речевого взаимодействия с избирателями и уметь противостоять не всегда честным изби­рательным технологиям. для исследования были выбраны последние президентские дебаты в сша, прошедшие в 2016 г. между д. трампом и х. клинтон. на основе проведенного лин­гвистического анализа аудио и видеоматериала автор выделяет ряд языковых средств до­стижения зрелищности, соревновательности и персонификации политического процесса, являющихся основными характеристиками данного вида политического дискурса. в ста­тье рассматриваются отличия между обычными репликами, комментариями участников, репликами «в зал», простыми наложениями реплик и умышленными прерываниями собесед­ника. автор подчеркивает как характеристики собственного коммуникативного стиля клинтон и трампа, так и универсальные тактики захвата инициативы, удержания роли, «игнорирования» собеседника, выделяет другие способы воздействия как на оппонента, так и на зрителя. подчеркивается, что записи теледебатов могут послужить прекрасным ра­бочим материалом для студентов международников и политологов, изучающих англий­ский язык для специальных целей Show More ... ... Show Less

РОЛЬ РАДИО В ФОРМИРОВАНИИ ITALIANO STANDARD В ПЕРИОД ФАШИСТСКОГО ДВАДЦАТИЛЕТИЯ
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 83

из-за позднего политического объединения италии письменно-литературным итальянским языком, сложившимся на основе литературной формы флорентийского наречия тосканского диалекта, вплоть до 50-х гг. xx в. владели только образованные тосканцы и узкая прослойка образованных людей в других регионах. неграмотные люди знали только свой ди­алект. распространение радиовещания в италии в начале 20-х гг. xxв. совпало с периодом фашистской пропаганды, нацеленной на формирование единого итальянского языка, из ко­торого следовало исключить диалектную вариативность и иностранные заимствования. в статье освещаются основные этапы языковой политики фашистского двадцатилетия – il ventennio (1925-1945 гг.) – от толерантного отношения к языковым различиям на тер­ритории италии к полному их неприятию, а также к регламентированному исключению иностранных слов из итальянского языка. политические цели – стабилизация внутренних отношений между ведущими политическими группами и народной массой, создание единого сплочённого государства, настроенного против общего врага – способствовали созданию итальянских организаций радиовещания, диктовавших нормы устной речи, которые были закреплены в справочнике по произношению и орфографии, изданном в 1939 г.. интересны­ми оказываются причины толерантного отношения к диалектам, проблемы закрепления заимствований в языке и связанные с этим образовательные радиопрограммы периода фа­шизма Show More ... ... Show Less

ОБУЧЕНИЕ АРАБОВ РУССКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ: ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ ЭЛЕКТРОННОЙ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 135

обучение фонетике – обязательный компонент изучения иностранного языка. фонетические трудности при обучении фонетике связаны с двумя аспектами – рецептивным (восприятие звучащей речи) и функциональным (порождение устного высказывания, соот­ветствующего фонетическим нормам языка). при создании фонетического курса необходи­мо учитывать фонетические особенности родного языка и проявление их в речи учащегося. явления, влияющие на русскую речь арабских студентов: диглоссия, противопоставление в арабском языке согласных по твердости/ мягкости, эмфатичности/ неэмфатичности, противопоставление гласных по долготе/ краткости, наличие в арабском языке гутту­ральных согласных, наличие в арабском языке фонологического противопоставления согла­сных по долготе/краткости и т.д. при овладении русской фонетикой арабами наблюдает­ся интерференция в следующих случаях: произношение арабского [b] на месте русских [б] и [п]; последовательное произношение удвоенных согласных в русских словах, где они чаще всего не произносятся; недостаточная количественная редукция гласных или слишком сильная редукция гласных вплоть до их выпадения и т.д. кроме того, важными факторами являются соотношения «звук-буква» и «фонема-буква»; интерферирующее влияние другого изучаемого языка с латинской графикой. указанные особенности родного языка и специфи­ка их фонетической реализации в русской речи арабов учитываются при создании фоне­тического тренажера, который направлен на формирование фонетических и графических навыков при изучении русского языка на начальном этапе Show More ... ... Show Less

MULTIMEDIA REPRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 129

the article focuses on academic presentations created with the help of multimedia programmes. the presentation is regarded as a special form of new academic knowledge representation. an academic presentation is explored as a multimodal phenomenon due to the fact that different channels or modes are activated during its perception. data perception constitutes a part of the context which in itself is a semiotic event involving various components (an addresser, an addressee, the message itself, the channel of communication and the code). the choice of the code and the channel depends on different factors (type of the audience, the nature of the message, etc). in this way, the information for non-professionals will be most likely presented through visualization with the help of infographics (schemes, figures, charts, etc). talking about the professional audience the speaker may resort to visualization to a lesser degree or he may not use it at all. his message will be transmitted only with the help of verbal means, which will not prevent the audience from perceiving and understanding new knowledge correctly. the presentation regime of rapid successive slide show may be regarded the heritage of ‘clip thinking’ which is characterized by a non-linear, simultaneous way of information perception. at the present stage of technology development visualization is becoming the most common means of transmitting information in academic discourse, due to peculiarities of data perception by the man of today Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Academic Discourse
  • New Knowledge
  • Slide Show
  • Representation Of Knowledge
  • Professional Audience
ПЕРСУАЗИВНЫЕ СТРАТЕГИИ В РОЖДЕСТВЕНСКОМ ОБРАЩЕНИИ ГЛАВЫ ГОСУДАРСТВА (АНАЛИЗ АУДИОВИЗУАЛЬНОГО МЕДИАТЕКСТА
  • Verbum;
  • 2018;
  • Vol 8(8);
  • Pages 142

рождественские обращения глав государств рассматриваются как особые аудиовизуаль­ные медиатексты, представляющие собой разновидность политической речи, обращенной к гражданам страны и направленной на достижение консенсуса в обществе. важнейшей чертой анализируемых медиатекстов является то, что они реферируют к идее одного из главных христианских праздников и одновременно к текущим политическим событиям, определяющим жизнь страны в целом и каждого индивидуума в отдельности. в таких ре­чах нет места полемике, а общая и частные стратегии персуазивности направлены на убеждение граждан в необходимости согласиться с основными идеями послания, которые связывают текст выступления в единое целое благодаря сквозной идее рождества. апел­ляция к христианским ценностям, использование широко известных цитат из автори­тетных источников, утверждающих значимость и незыблемость этих ценностей, наряду с другими вербальными средствами всех уровней языка относятся к основным способам убеждения в данных медиатекстах. подчеркивается, что важную роль в реализации стра­тегии убеждения играет весь комплекс механизмов воздействия на реципиента, каждый из которых решает свою частную коммуникативную задачу в рамках общей цели рождест­венского обращения Show More ... ... Show Less

ON SOME HUMOROUS ASPECTS OF CONCEPTUAL BLENDING IN POLITICIZED DISCOURSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 179

in this paper, a very dynamic linguistic phenomenon, humour, is analysed on the basis of the theory of conceptual blending developed by gilles fauconnier and mark turner (2002). it was discovered that in lithuanian politicized discourse during and after the period of elections (2012, 2016) the majority of political events and personalities were given an evaluative implicit assessment through hu­mour/irony, which can be seen as an emergent result of blending processes. in the paper, the tendency to ridicule politicians and political events on news websites is discussed focusing exceptionally on the processes of blending at the lexical level. the research reveals that the coinage of new lexical units by fusing at least two source words or splinters follows certain patterns. the structural analysis is based on the works of anita lehrer, michael kelly, stefan gries, and ekaterine bakaradze. the main claims of the paper are supported by 362 blends collected from the headlines and comments of delfi.lt, lrytas. lt, and blogs, during the period of 2012–2016 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Conceptual Blending
  • Political Events
  • Structural Analysis
  • News Websites
  • Linguistic Phenomenon
IL CITOYEN NEI DIZIONARI FRANCESI TRA XVII E XVIII SECOLO
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 165

è intenzione del presente studio esplorare la voce citoyen attraverso le entrate di alcuni fra i più rile­vanti dizionari, dal thresor de la langue françoyse di jean nicot, del 1606, all’edizione del diction­naire de l’académie françoise del 1798. si ha così l’occasione per censire i mutamenti semantici e culturali, l’étendue des sens, tra la pubblicazione del primo dizionario moderno della lingua francese e la quinta edizione dell’accademia, che precede la fine del periodo rivoluzionario, assunto dalla sto­riografia come spartiacque fra età moderna e età contemporanea. nel xvii secolo il termine citoyen rimanda, in modo pressoché costante, alla cultura giuridica greco-romana, per la quale cives erano gli abitanti di roma, atene, sparta etc. la concezione della città-stato, che caratterizza soprattutto il mondo greco, diverrà, seppur con qualità specifiche, un tratto tipico di roma anche successivamen­te all’espansione dell’impero, ragion per cui, pur in presenza di una forte estensione territoriale, il cittadino romano resta ancorato all’urbe. tale modo di concepire il cittadino è rinvenibile in tutti i dizionari francesi qui analizzati. non va dimenticato che il concetto di “stato”, nel suo significato moderno, si afferma convenzionalmente solo dopo il trattato di westphalia del 1648, quando sulla scena internazionale si affacciano gli stati nazionali. solo nel xviii secolo, e in particolare con la rivoluzione francese, si passa a un citoyen inteso come soggetto parte della nazione e depositario della sovranità popolare Show More ... ... Show Less

PROFESINĖS TERMINIJOS LOTYNŲ KALBA PAGRINDŲ MOKYMASIS: STUDENTŲ POŽIŪRIS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 208

mokymo veiksmingumas yra dažnai aptariamas, diskutuojamas ir vertinamas. akivaizdu, kad jis tiesiogiai susijęs su studentų mokymusi. bet kaip įvertinti mokymo (-si) kokybę? vienas iš indika­torių gali būti studentų požiūris, kadangi jie tiesiogiai dalyvauja šiame procese. tyrimo idėja kilo siekiant grįžtamojo ryšio iš studentų profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba pratybose ir studijų įvado pratybose. straipsnyje aptariami profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba mokymo ir mokymosi proceso veiksniai remiantis lietuvos sveikatos mokslų universiteto (lsmu) medicinos akademijos pirmo kurso studentų požiūrio pilotiniu tyrimu. tyrimo tikslas – remiantis lsmu medicinos akademijos pirmakursių požiūriu, gauti grįžtamąjį ryšį apie profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba mokymo ir mokymosi proceso teigiamus bei neigiamus veiksnius, kad būtų užtikrinta šio proceso kokybė. tyrimo rezultatai atskleidė teigiamus ir tobulintinus profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba pagrindų mokymo(-si) proceso aspektus Show More ... ... Show Less

EINSATZ VON GESCHLOSSENEN AUFGABEN BEIM PRÜFEN DES LESEVERSTEHENS IM FACHSPRACHENUNTERRICHT AN DER UNIVERSITÄT VILNIUS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 190

der vorliegende beitrag widmet sich der thematik der geschlossenen testaufgaben zur überprüfung der fertigkeit leseverstehen sowie ihrem einsatz im fachsprachenunterricht. in der fremdsprachen­didaktik wird die typologie der testaufgaben nach dem grad ihrer offenheit vorgenommen, wobei man offene, halboffene und geschlossene aufgaben unterscheidet. der vorliegende beitrag hat zum ziel geschlossene aufgaben zu analysieren, weil sie gut für die überprüfung des leseverstehens ge­eignet sind. beim lösen der geschlossenen aufgaben muss man unter den vorgegebenen antworten die richtige auswählen. dabei unterscheidet man multiple-choice-aufgaben, ja/ nein-aufgaben und zuordnungsaufgaben. im vorliegenden artikel werden zunächst spezifische erstellungsmerkmale der oben erwähnten aufgaben besprochen sowie ihre vorteile und nachteile beim überprüfen der fertigkeit lesen analysiert. des weiteren versucht man zu bestimmen, welcher aufgabentyp zur welcher leseart am besten passt. anschließend werden die ergebnisse einer von den verfassern an­gefertigten aufgabe, die speziell zum einsatz im fachspracheunterricht deutsch für die studierenden der medizinischen fachrichtungen der universität vilnius entwickelt wurde, vorgestellt und disku­tiert Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Multiple Choice
L’HYPERBOLE ET LA LITOTE DANS LE ROMAN DE F. RABELAIS « GARGANTUA ET PANTAGRUEL
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 150

« la langue de rabelais est une des plus imagéesqu’on ait jamais écrite »pierre de la juillièrequelques années avant l’édiction de l’ordonnance de villers-cotterêts (1539), l’acte fondateur de la primauté et de l’exclusivité du français dans les documents relatifs à la vie publique du royaume de france, françois rabelais publie ses romans gargantua (1532) et pantagruel (1534). un des grands fondateurs de cet idiome, cet auteur prend beaucoup de plaisir à jouer avec les mots, à écouter leur sonorité et à faire ainsi part de sa richesse prodigieuse. les signes les plus marquants de son style grotesque sont, de l’avis général, la profusion, l’excès et l’exagération. cet article est consacré à deux figures emblématiques de l’exagération, à savoir l’hyperbole et la litote. loin de prétendre traiter de manière exhaustive cette richesse inouïe de l’univers hyperbolique de rabelais, nous avons concentré notre attention sur les deux types productifs des hyperboles et des litotes, notamment sur celui qui est lié à l’emploi de nombres ainsi qu’à celui qui évoque des personnages historiques, des lieux et des monuments célèbres. dans cette étude nous avons analysé également la corrélation de ces figures macrostructurales avec les deux figures microstructurales, telles que la comparaison et l’énumération Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Nous Avons
  • Francois Rabelais
THE PHONOLOGICAL ILLUSION: THE QUALITY AND NUMBER OF EPENTHETIC VOWELS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 144

adult speakers tend to have difficulties in perceiving non-native sequences of sounds as their percep­tion is influenced by the features of their l1 phonological system. for example, previous studies have shown that japanese speakers perceptually insert an illusory vowel /u/ in consonant clusters, which are phonotoctically illegal structures in japanese. while the phenomenon of phonological illusion also occurs in other languages, such as brazilian portuguese or korean, the epenthetic vowels have been shown to be language-specific. despite these findings, many questions concerning the number of illusory vowels possible in a language and their quality remain open. in this study we will present recent work on the topic and provide a critical comparison of those findings, concentrating on the role of context-sensitivity in the determination of the features of the illusory vowel Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Recent Work
  • Context Sensitivity
  • Brazilian Portuguese
  • Critical Comparison
PASAULIO GARSAI, SUSTINGĘ KALBOJE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 261

melnikienė, danguolė, 2016. l’onomatopée, ou le « monstre hybride ».paris: hermann éditeurs. – 286 p Show More ... ... Show Less

PREPOSIZIONI ITALIANE E ARTICOLI: DIFFICOLTÀ E STRATEGIE NELL’APPRENDIMENTO AI LIVELLI PIÙ BASSI DEL QCER
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 252

in questo studio si affronta uno dei temi che procura maggiori ostacoli nell’apprendimento della lingua italiana da parte di studenti stranieri: le preposizioni, qui intese come preposizioni proprie. l’uso delle preposizioni italiane nella lingua è complicato da una casistica piuttosto vasta di varia­bili, a partire dalla presenza o meno degli articoli determinativi, che danno luogo alle preposizioni articolate. per gli studenti l2 nel livello a1 del qcer risulta spesso problematico usare le preposizioni con o senza l’articolo, dal momento che gli aspetti grammaticali che interessano questo tema sono molti e non facilmente gestibili. la difficoltà aumenta se si tratta di studenti la cui lingua madre non proviene dall’area delle lingue romanze, come nel caso del lituano, che è una lingua che non fa alcun uso di articoli.si propone, in questa sede, un excursus attraverso l’evoluzione di alcune preposizioni, comparando la teoria esposta in varie grammatiche storiche. poi si espongono alcune strategie di apprendimento dell’uso degli articoli con le preposizioni dell’italiano odierno, per fornire al docente l2 qualche spunto nel momento in cui deve introdurre questo tema nelle lezioni Show More ... ... Show Less

TRAITEMENT DE L’ADAPTATION DES EMPRUNTS DANS LE TRÉSOR DE LA LANGUE FRANÇAISE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 7

si l’emprunt figure parmi les multiples procédés permettant d’enrichir le fonds lexical d’une langue, son intégration totale dans un système linguistique n’intervient qu’au terme d’un long processus que peuvent retracer les dictionnaires. nous étudierons ici comment le trésor de la langue française, un dictionnaire très extensif à vocation scientifique, rend compte des évolutions formelles, graphiques, morphologiques, sémantiques susceptibles d’affecter les emprunts avant la captation lexicographique qui avalise leur présence dans la langue française. nous nous pencherons également sur les options retenues vis-à-vis des recommandations officielles, descriptives ou normatives, par les rédacteurs du tlf Show More ... ... Show Less

PERSON MARKERS IN NON-NATIVE STUDENTS’ WRITING
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 34

the present paper seeks to analyse person markers, which refer to “the use of first person pronouns and possessive adjectives” (hyland 2014(1999), p. 104), in university learner english. students are constantly encouraged to aim at academic register, one of the features of which is an attempt at objectivity. while this could be achieved by using an impersonal style, “writers gain credibility by projecting an identity invested with individual authority, displaying confidence in their evaluations and commitment to their ideas” (hyland 2002, p. 1091). writers, therefore, have to find the right level of balance between invisibility and visibility in their work. person markers, as one of the most important linguistic means to create authorial presence (burneikaitė 2013), being subjected to genre constraints, pose numerous problems to non-native students who have repeatedly been characterised as lacking in awareness of genre conventions and having problems with formal register (breeze 2007). though the topic of authorial stance has been researched widely, there has been little analysis of lithuanian learners’ english data (cf. burneikaitė 2008, 2013). in addition, no research has been found that analysed genre or institution variables in the use of person markers in lithuanian undergraduates’ writing. this shows a need for the present study, which focuses on genre, language proficiency, institutional, and l1 variables. the data for the study was retrieved from a number of corpora representing non-native (lithuanian) and native (english) university students’ language. the results indicate different roles of the variables in the explicit expression of authorial stance by person markers Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Native Students
  • University Students
  • Explicit Expression
  • Language Proficiency
  • Linguistic Means
LA TRADUCTION DES NOMS DE PROFESSION DANS UN SYSTÈME DE DICTIONNAIRES ÉLECTRONIQUES COORDONNÉS (ES-FR
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 66

dans cet article, nous nous attachons à la problématique posée par la traduction des noms de profes­sions de l’espagnol vers le français et ce, dans une perspective de traitement automatique des langues (tal). malgré la proximité linguistique des deux langues mises en regard, des obstacles d’ordre géné­ral comme la polysémie ou le figement et d’autres plus spécifiques comme le haut degré de technicité des termes concernés ou encore la structure interne complexe des syntagmes terminologiques peuvent entraver le processus de traduction automatique. c’est pourquoi il est nécessaire de fournir au système des descriptions linguistiques exhaustives, minutieuses et formalisées. c’est ce que nous proposons dans le dictionnaire électronique dicpro, où chaque lemme est associé à des champs lexicographiques de différents types (morphologique, sémantique, syntaxique, etc.) et ce, conformément au modèle de microstructure des dictionnaires électroniques conçus au sein du ldi (université paris 13). il convient de souligner que chaque entrée du dictionnaire correspond à une seule et unique unité lexicale et que les formes polysémiques sont donc automatiquement dédoublées. d’autre part, nous concevons le dic­tionnaire bilingue comme une paire de dictionnaires monolingues coordonnés (blanco : 1999), c’est pourquoi les équivalents de traduction que nous offrons servent de pointeurs vers le module français, dans lequel les lemmes sont munis de leurs propres descriptions linguistiques Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Nous Proposons
  • Traduction Automatique
VILKAVIŠKIO JAUNUOLIŲ KALBINĖ GIMTINĖ: RIBOS, TAISYKLINGUMO IR PATRAUKLUMO VERTĖS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 84

straipsnyje pristatomas vilkaviškio jaunuolių kalbinės gimtinės vaizdinių tyrimas. tiriamoji me­džiaga – pagal perceptyviosios dialektologijos metodologiniais principais parengtą anketą surinkti duomenys.moksleivių savimonėje susiformavęs nevienalytis gimtųjų apylinkių šnektos vaizdas – vilkaviškyje kalbama ir tarminiu, ir netarminiu, ir abiem kalbos variantais. kalbinės gimtinės kaip tarminės raiš­kos plotas paprastai apima gretimas sritis arba beveik sutampa su patarmės, regiono ribomis. kalbinė gimtinė kaip bendrinės kalbos zona, vilkaviškio jaunuolių požiūriu, neatsiejama nuo marijampolės, kurioje taip pat fiksuota trejopa kalbinė raiška.vilkaviškio apylinkėse vartojamos šnektos gyvybingumą ir tęstinumą rodo ne tik beveik pusės res­pondentų pasirinkimas kalbėti tarmiškai, palankus tarmės vertinimas ir jos vartojimas visuose do­menuose, tarmiškai kalbančio žmogaus siejimas su kilme, gyvenamąja vieta, praeitimi, vyriausiąja karta ir pagarba savam kraštui, tradicijoms, bet ir sudėtingas savajai šnektai būdingų tarminių ypa­tybių įvardijimas Show More ... ... Show Less

LA GRAMMAIRE DANS LA PREMIÈRE ÉDITION DU DICTIONNAIRE DE L’ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE (1694
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 54

la première édition du « dictionnaire de l’académie française », publiée en 1694, constitue un événe­ment capital, dans l’histoire de la langue française. la première fois, la langue se présente comme un système. en même temps, la langue française se propose comme une langue pour l’europe : c’est l’un des buts de la première édition. ce dictionnaire nous présente donc le premier grand exemple d’unification linguistique nationale, sous la protection de l’état, et la vision de l’europe unifiée. mais ce dictionnaire n’est qu’un recueil de 18000 mots. c’est aussi une grammaire dans laquelle la morp­hosyntaxe tient une large place la grammaire du dictionnaire de l’académie française mériterait un livre. ce serait le livre des grammairiens au xviie siècle, de vaugelas, bouhours, richelet et furetière aux linguistes de port-royal. ce dictionnaire est le projet des mots, fondé sur la force de la grammaire, et des liens entre les mots en synchronie. ayant une essence grammaticale, il est en effet aussi la gram­maire projetée dès 1635. le but de cet article est de réfléchir sur les véritables sources grammaticales de la première édition du dictionnaire de l’académie française et sur sa doctrine cohérente sur le plan grammatical Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Port Royal
  • Xviie Siecle
SPALVĄ REIŠKIANČIŲ BŪDVARDŽIŲ DERINIMAS SU DAIKTAVARDŽIAIS LIETUVIŲ IR PRANCŪZŲ KALBOSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 111

lietuvių ir prancūzų kalbose būdvardžiai plačiai vartojami tiek kasdienėje kalboje, tiek literatūroje, o bene svarbiausias taisyklingo jų vartojimo aspektas – būdvardžių derinimas su daiktavardžiais. šiame straipsnyje analizuojami minėtųjų kalbų spalvą reiškiantys būdvardžiai ir jų derinimas su daiktavardžiais, kuriuos apibūdina. tiriamos būdvardžių rūšys bei funkcijos minėtose kalbose, di­džiausią dėmesį sutelkiant ties spalvą reiškiančiais būdvardžiais. remiantis pavyzdžiais, analizuoja­ma kokiomis kategorijomis šie būdvardžiai derinami prancūzų bei lietuvių kalbose. šių dviejų kalbų būdvardžių derinimas su daiktavardžiais gerokai skiriasi. skiriasi ir spalvą reiškiančių būdvardžių pozicija daiktavardinėse frazėse, kas taip pat turi įtakos jų derinimui. straipsnio tikslas – atskleisti spalvą reiškiančių būdvardžių derinimo su daiktavardžiais lietuvių ir prancūzų kalbose panašumus bei skirtumus, iliustruojant juos surinktais pavyzdžiais Show More ... ... Show Less

RESTRUCTURER LA POLITIQUE LINGUISTIQUE DE L’UE ET DÉFENDRE LA DIVERSITÉ DU PATRIMOINE LINGUISTIQUE EUROPÉEN : PRÉVENIR LA TRAGÉDIE DES COMMUNS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 44

cet article explique comment la politique linguistique de l’ue en servant les exigences économiques des apprenants en langue contribue à la rapide éradication des langues minoritaires européennes. il reconnait ce problème comme un exemple classique de la « tragédie des biens communs » de hardin (1968) dans laquelle l’intérêt personnel détruit le bien commun. une solution différente a été présen­tée à la tragédie des biens communs par elinor ostrom et oliver williamson, lauréats du prix nobel en économie en 2009 émergeant des huit principes de gestion durable des biens communs proposés par ostrom en1990. cet article applique ces huit principes à la tragédie du bien commun linguistique de l’ue et suggère une restructuration de sa politique linguistique visant la dotation en ressources durables pour sauvegarder les biens communs irremplaçables que constituent les patrimoines linguis­tiques européens Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Politique Linguistique
LINGUISTIC AMBIGUITY VERSUS VAGUENESS IN BRITISH PROVERBS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 101

language, as the main communication tool, serves to deliver a desired message to the interlocutor. discourse, however, sometimes implies multiple or imprecise meaning, i.e. it is ambiguous or vague. many language areas and types of discourse are believed to employ the phenomena to achieve a desired effect. indeterminacy in language could also be unintentional and happen accidentally. the present study aims at analysing the use of linguistic ambiguity and vagueness in one hundred british proverbs. data for this research were chosen using a simple random sampling method from the internet page ‘learn english today’. the findings reveal only marginal differences in the quantitative use of these linguistic devices. the study also reports on the most prevalent functions performed by ambiguity and / vagueness Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sampling Method
  • Simple Random Sampling
  • The Internet
  • Communication Tool
AN INQUIRY INTO THE PROCESSES OF LEXICAL EXPANSION IN CURRENT ENGLISH
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 127

the current paper focuses on the study of novel lexical items, i. e. the processes involved in the making of new words, in order to discover which methods contribute to the expansion of the current english lexicon. the research is based on the new words coined since 2004 which are included in the oxford english dictionary (oed) online (ensuring that the items in the sample cover various semantic fields, are of diverse origins, and all are already accepted into the working vocabulary). two objectives are completed to explore the subject and achieve its aim: 1) to establish the concept of new words and to overview the processes of lexical expansion in the english language, and 2) to determine which methods are employed and which are absent in the creation of new words in current english by analyzing the novel lexical items retrieved from the oed online. quantitative and qualitative methods are applied in this study. the results indicate that the concept of new words is not straightforward in the english language. more often than not, the terms neologisms and new words are used synonymously to refer to recent, novel lexical items recognized and used by the language community. english has an extensive inventory of word-forming tools classified into these distinct categories: word-formation, semantic change, borrowing, and other; each further subdivided into various processes. overall, the subtypes of word-formation – derivation, shortening and compounding – are used the most in the creation of recent additions to the lexicon. predominantly, the findings are consistent with the tendencies of lexical expansion observed in previous studies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • New Words
  • Lexical Items
  • English Language
  • Word Formation
  • The Creation
LIETUVOS GIMNAZISTŲ POŽIŪRIS: IŠSILAVINIMAS BENDRINĖS KALBOS VAIZDINIUOSE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 17

straipsnis skirtas išsilavinimo kaip vieno iš bendrinės kalbos vaizdinio požymių integruotumo anali­zei pristatyti. tyrimo pagrindas – mokslinio projekto „bendrinės kalbos vieta mentaliniame lietuvių kalbos žemėlapyje“ duomenys. tyrimas vykdytas dešimtyje punktų, kurie, atsižvelgiant į užimamą plotą, proporcingai pasirinkti žemaičių (3) ir aukštaičių (7) geolektinėse ir regiolektinėse zonose. ben­dra tyrimo imtis – 1415 tiriamųjų. medžiagos tipas – sąmoningosios jaunuolių nuostatos, gautos at­likus anoniminį anketavimą. pagrindinis anketos klausimų ir užduočių blokas yra skirtas regioninio variantiškumo vertinimui, savo požiūrį į bendrinę kalbą tiriamieji atskleidė per mentalinį žemėlapį ir atsakydami į atvirąjį ketvirtąjį anketos klausimą, skirtą bendrine kalba kalbančio žmogaus asocia­tams išsiaiškinti. straipsnyje pristatomo tyrimo tikslui pasiekti yra svarbi bendrinės kalbos vartotojo asociatų užduoties medžiaga. analizuojant laikomasi nuostatos, kad varianto ir jo vartotojo bruožai paprastojo kalbos bendruomenės nario požiūriu iš esmės yra susiję. plėtojant įžvalgas apie išsilavini­mo kaip bendrinės kalbos požymio integruotumą lietuvos jaunuolių vaizdiniuose, nuosekliai išsklei­džiami visų dešimties tyrimo punktų duomenys, aiškinami juose fiksuoti bendrumai ir skirtumai Show More ... ... Show Less

LE DICTIONNAIRE QUI OFFRE LES « BRUITS DU MONDE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 265

enckell, pierre, rézeau, pierre, 2005. dictionnaire des onomatopées.deuxième édition, revue et augmentée. paris : puf. – 632 p.isbn 2 13 055363x Show More ... ... Show Less

О НОВОМ ИЗДАНИИ ПО РУССКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ КАК ИНОСТРАННОМУ
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 271

некипелова, и. м., 2016. шаг за шагом (русский язык как иностранный). часть 1: учебник [текст]. москва-ижевск: институт компьютерных исследований, ниц «регулярная и хаотическая динамика». – 116 с Show More ... ... Show Less

ADAPTATION DES METHODOLOGIES NON- CONVENTIONNELLES LORS DES PAUSES CREATIVES
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 241

cet article invite à se souvenir des méthodologies non-conventionnelles (mnc) et, en les innovant, à adapter dans l’enseignement moderne des langues étrangères afin d’en rendre l’enseignement / l’apprentissage plus attractif et moins ennuyeux, sans contrevenir aux programmes, au contrôle conti­nu, à la notation imposés par les institutions ainsi que d’autres éléments indispensables dans le cadre scolaire ou universitaire, qui rendent le travail routinière et entrainent les conséquences négatives tel­les que le désintérêt pour la discipline enseignée, une faible motivation. les auteurs de cet article cher­chent à retrouver dans la multitude des documents pédagogiques des alternatives à l’enseignement traditionnel. a cet égard, les pauses pourraient servir d’un outil novateur à apprendre et transmettre des savoirs avec plus d’effectivité et moins d’ennui. les auteurs se penchent sur les fondements du «mieux apprendre» de b. hourst, le français fluide de jason levêque, swingo d’alexander hau­pens tankara, la psychodramaturgie de bernand dufeu. toutes ces approches innovatrices, issues des méthodologies non-traditionnelles, favorisent une bonne ambiance physique et mentale, stimulent la créativité et l’imagination. ces nouvelles approches, selon les auteurs, pourraient servir d’efficaces outils complémentaires aux supports habituels à exploiter lors des pauses créatives ou récréatives.le but de cet article est de rappeler les mnc et d’encourager les professionnels à chercher de nouveaux défis et profits dans l’enseignement/ l’apprentissage des langues étrangères Show More ... ... Show Less

PRADINIŲ KLASIŲ MOKINIŲ KALBINIŲ GEBĖJIMŲ INTEGRUOTAS UGDYMAS ĮVAIRIŲ DALYKŲ PAMOKOSE: ISTORINIO LAIKO TĖKMĖS SUPRATIMO ATVEJIS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 223

geri kiekvieno asmens kalbiniai gebėjimai – pamatas kokybiškam mokymuisi, kokybiškam gyveni­mui. vienas iš pažangių kalbos gebėjimų ugdymo būdų – integruotas ugdymas, kai kalbos gebėjimai ugdomi ne tik kalbų, bet ir kitų dalykų pamokose. be to, tuo pat metu remiantis kalbiniais gebėjimais įsisavinamas dalykinis turinys, t. y. ugdomas tam tikro dalyko raštingumas. straipsnyje pateikiama kalbinių gebėjimų integruoto ugdymo teorinė ir studija, pagrindžianti tokio ugdymo galimybes bei rekomendacijas lietuvos ugdymo turinio tobulinimui. empirinis tyrimas atliktas aiškinantis pradi­nių klasių mokinių istorinio laiko tėkmės supratimo gebėjimus, pasireiškiančius vaikų argumentuota kalba Show More ... ... Show Less

PROFESINĖS TERMINIJOS LOTYNŲ KALBA PAGRINDŲ MOKYMASIS: STUDENTŲ POŽIŪRIS
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 208

mokymo veiksmingumas yra dažnai aptariamas, diskutuojamas ir vertinamas. akivaizdu, kad jis tiesiogiai susijęs su studentų mokymusi. bet kaip įvertinti mokymo (-si) kokybę? vienas iš indika­torių gali būti studentų požiūris, kadangi jie tiesiogiai dalyvauja šiame procese. tyrimo idėja kilo siekiant grįžtamojo ryšio iš studentų profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba pratybose ir studijų įvado pratybose. straipsnyje aptariami profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba mokymo ir mokymosi proceso veiksniai remiantis lietuvos sveikatos mokslų universiteto (lsmu) medicinos akademijos pirmo kurso studentų požiūrio pilotiniu tyrimu. tyrimo tikslas – remiantis lsmu medicinos akademijos pirmakursių požiūriu, gauti grįžtamąjį ryšį apie profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba mokymo ir mokymosi proceso teigiamus bei neigiamus veiksnius, kad būtų užtikrinta šio proceso kokybė. tyrimo rezultatai atskleidė teigiamus ir tobulintinus profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba pagrindų mokymo(-si) proceso aspektus.studentų požiūris į mokymąsi, profesinė terminija, mokymo(-si) pro­ceso kokybė, mokymosi aplinka, studentų požiūris į profesinės terminijos lotynų kalba pagrindų mokymą(-si Show More ... ... Show Less

О НОВОМ ИЗДАНИИ ПО РУССКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ КАК ИНОСТРАННОМУ
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 271

некипелова, и. м., 2016. шаг за шагом (русский язык как иностранный). часть 1: учебник [текст]. москва-ижевск: институт компьютерных исследований, ниц «регулярная и хаотическая динамика». – 116 с.в июне 2016 года вышла в свет первая часть учебника, предназначенного для обуче­ния русскому языку граждан зарубежных стран, желающих получить образование в вузах россии. к изданию учебник рекомендован умо рае (международной ассоциацией учёных, преподавателей и специалистов) по классическому универ­ситетскому и техническому образованию в качестве учебника для студентов всех специальностей очной формы обучения, обучающихся по образовательной про­грамме подготовительного отделения «русский язык как иностранный» (протокол № 575 от 30 мая 2016 г Show More ... ... Show Less

TRAITEMENT DE L’ADAPTATION DES EMPRUNTS DANS LE TRÉSOR DE LA LANGUE FRANÇAISE
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 7

si l’emprunt figure parmi les multiples procédés permettant d’enrichir le fonds lexical d’une langue, son intégration totale dans un système linguistique n’intervient qu’au terme d’un long processus que peuvent retracer les dictionnaires. nous étudierons ici comment le trésor de la langue française, un dictionnaire très extensif à vocation scientifique, rend compte des évolutions formelles, graphiques, morphologiques, sémantiques susceptibles d’affecter les emprunts avant la captation lexicographique qui avalise leur présence dans la langue française. nous nous pencherons également sur les options retenues vis-à-vis des recommandations officielles, descriptives ou normatives, par les rédacteurs du tlf Show More ... ... Show Less

NETRADICINIŲ UŽSIENIO KALBOS MOKYMO METODŲ TAIKYMAS KŪRYBINIŲ IR REKREACINIŲ PERTRAUKĖLIŲ METU
  • Verbum;
  • 2016;
  • Vol 7(7);
  • Pages 241

šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjami netradiciniai mokymo metodai užsienio kalbų dėstyme, kurie mo­kymosi procesą paverčia žymiai patrauklesniu, įdomesniu, padeda išvengti rutinos ir sustiprina besimokančiųjų motyvaciją. sudėtingame mokymosi programos, kontrolės ir vertinimo sistemos kontekste kūrybinės pauzės (pertraukėlės) atskleidžia efektyvų ir novatorišką požiūrį į užsienio kalbos mokymą, skatinantį kūrybiškumą ir žymiai palengvinantį įsiminimo procesą. trumpos rekreacinės pertraukėlės yra puiki tradicinių pamokų alternatyva, kurių metu be baimės ir streso, įdomaus žaidimo, ritmiško tam tikrų kalbos segmentų kartojimo, kūrybinių improvizacijų ar kitų metodų pagalba išlaisvinama besimokančiųjų vaizduotė ir sustiprinamos teigiamos emocijos. straipsnyje pateikiama išsami netradicinių užsienio kalbų mokymo metodų apžvalga ir visiškai naujas jų pritaikymas, ypatingą dėmesį kreipiant į judesio, balso, ritmo, muzikos vaidmenį šiame procese. autorės remiasi h. gardner, b. hourst, j. leveque, a. haupens tankara (swingo metodo autoriaus) b. dufeu (lingvistinės psichodramaturgijos puoselėtojo), g. lozanovo (sugestopdijos pradininko) novatoriškomis idėjomis, su kurių įgyvendinimu praktikoje joms teko susidurti pe­dagoginių stažuočių prancūzijos universitetuose metu. netradiciniai mokymo metodai, kurie ne visada duoda teigiamų rezultatų tradicinės pamokos metu, gali būti puikiai panaudojami kūrybinių rekreacinių pertraukėlių metu. šios trumpos pauzės, kaip papildoma mokymo proceso priemonė, yra efektyvus būdas sparčiai lavinti sklandų užsienio kalbos vartojimą, integruojantį sudėtingus kalbos reiškinius, ir palengvinti jų įsiminimą. tai sustiprina besimokančiųjų motyvaciją, keičia jų požiūrį į patį mokymąsi. pedagogui iškyla įdomi ir nelengva užduotis – surasti optimaliausią būdą, užtikrinantį šių kūrybinių mokymo metodų efektyvumą. neįprastas pedagoginės veiklos pobūdis, palankus besimokančiųjų įvertinimas ir betarpiški akivaizdūs mokymo rezultatai skatina pedagogus aktyviai siekti įgyvendinti šią užduotį ir pagerinti užsienio kalbų mokymo kokybę Show More ... ... Show Less