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Author(s):  
Magdel le Roux

Hendel (2004) states that “the remembered past is the material with which biblical Israel constructed its identity as a people, a religion, and a culture. It is a mixture of history, collective memory, folklore, and literary brilliance. In Israel’s formative years, these memories circulated orally in the context of family and tribe. Over time they came to be crystallized [mainly] in various written texts” (my insertion). The experiential dimension of religion of ancient Israel and that of the Lemba (the so-called ‘Black “Jews” of Southern Africa’ and other African tribes) is expressed orally and textually, but also in art. It is in no small part also created by them, as they formulate new or altered conceptions of the sacred past. Guidance by stars, the ancestors and the ngoma lungundu (sacred drum of the ancestors) play a major role in the expression of Lemba and early Israelite religion, culture and art.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0251559
Author(s):  
Domicele Jonauskaite ◽  
Adam Sutton ◽  
Nello Cristianini ◽  
Christine Mohr

In Western societies, the stereotype prevails that pink is for girls and blue is for boys. A third possible gendered colour is red. While liked by women, it represents power, stereotypically a masculine characteristic. Empirical studies confirmed such gendered connotations when testing colour-emotion associations or colour preferences in males and females. Furthermore, empirical studies demonstrated that pink is a positive colour, blue is mainly a positive colour, and red is both a positive and a negative colour. Here, we assessed if the same valence and gender connotations appear in widely available written texts (Wikipedia and newswire articles). Using a word embedding method (GloVe), we extracted gender and valence biases for blue, pink, and red, as well as for the remaining basic colour terms from a large English-language corpus containing six billion words. We found and confirmed that pink was biased towards femininity and positivity, and blue was biased towards positivity. We found no strong gender bias for blue, and no strong gender or valence biases for red. For the remaining colour terms, we only found that green, white, and brown were positively biased. Our finding on pink shows that writers of widely available English texts use this colour term to convey femininity. This gendered communication reinforces the notion that results from research studies find their analogue in real word phenomena. Other findings were either consistent or inconsistent with results from research studies. We argue that widely available written texts have biases on their own, because they have been filtered according to context, time, and what is appropriate to be reported.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 202-217
Author(s):  
Heidi Elmgren

This article examines recognition relations between students and teachers in Finnish music schools. The research is based on written texts by music school students. The texts are analysed for difficulties in recognition relations, namely, hindrances to recognition in music schools. In the texts, some of the respondents describe situations that can be analysed as hindrances to recognition. The author analyses four different types of recognition-related problems in the data, the main issue being a tension between caring for people (respecting them) and promoting musical values (emphasising esteem). In addition to discerning problems, the article attempts to alleviate this tension. This might be achieved if different kinds of excellence, rather than just one, were to be developed in music schools. Students’ different abilities and motivations might then have a chance to emerge. Caring for people in the context of studying music would mean helping them to find the musical values they can and want to promote.


Movoznavstvo ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 317 (2) ◽  
pp. 36-54
Author(s):  
H. V. Aleksiayevych ◽  

The article assesses the role of the Old Belarusian and the Old Ukrainian languages in the development of Czech-Eastern Slavonic linguistic relations in the 14th–18th centuries. There were both direct and indirect ways of Czech language influence on the Old Belarusian and the Old Ukrainian written languages. The 15th century saw favourable conditions for military-political alliance between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Bohemia. The emergence and development of these relations was accompanied by diplomatic activity: for instance, Grand Dukes Vitovt and Svidryhailo had correspondence in Latin and Old Czech with the Czech Hussites. Contacts in the military-political, socio-religious and cultural-educational spheres contributed to the development of Czech-East Slavic language ties. Translations of the Czech written texts into Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian («The Life of Alexei the Man of God», «The Story of Apollo of Tyre», «Lucidarius», «The Song of Songs», «The Tale of Toadal», «The Tale of the Prophetess Sibylline», «The Trojan Story»), use of the Czech legal texts in writing Galicia-Volyn letters in the 14th and early 15th centuries. The use of Czech legal texts in Galicia-Volyn monuments (Norman Statute of 1438–1439, Statutes of 1529, 1566, 1588, Lithuanian Metric Acts) contributed to the direct penetration of Bohemianisms into the Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian writing. Although there were channels through which Czech linguistic elements could be directly borrowed into Old-Belarusian and Old-Ukrainian, the main channel for their penetration was Polish. Through the Polish mediation Bohemian loanwords were borrowed from various lexical-semantic groups, mainly from religious, military, socio-political and economic, everyday life vocabulary. The similar conditions of borrowing of Bohemianisms in Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian are obviously the main reason why Bohemianisms in both languages are close in number and chronology of written fixation. This similarity is especially noticeable against the background of Old Russian data, where bohemisms were recorded later and in smaller numbers


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 92-110
Author(s):  
Galip Kartal ◽  
Özgül Balci

Abstract Introduction: In the related literature, knowledge of vocabulary is mentioned to be crucial as one of the crucial parts of language learning. Measuring learners’ vocabulary knowledge is regarded to be essential in that it provides both teachers and learners knowledge of the problematic areas and suggests some practical ways to improve the vocabulary learning process. It could be said that an autonomous learner is a leading actor in his own language learning process because, as stated by Nation (1998), learning is performed by the individual learner. Little (1995) asserts that learner autonomy should be set as an explicit goal in language learning contexts in that autonomy on the part of the learners plays a vital role in student success. So, we hypothesize that vocabulary learning autonomy has a significant influence on the learners’ vocabulary size. Methods: This study aims to investigate Turkish ELT student teachers’ vocabulary learning autonomy, vocabulary size, and the potential relationships between these two variables. Ninety-five student teachers in an ELT teacher education program at a university in Turkey participated in the study. The data were collected via two quantitative data collection instruments: Vocabulary Learning Autonomy (VLA) questionnaire and The Vocabulary Size Test (VST). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. As for the VST, the correct answers were counted, and an overall score was found. The participants’ scores were multiplied by 100 to get their total vocabulary size up to the 14th 1000 word-family level. As for the questionnaire, descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, standard deviation) were conducted. Results: The findings revealed that student teachers held a moderate level of vocabulary learning autonomy. The vocabulary size mean score was 77.14, which means that the participants had approximately enough vocabulary to deal with unsimplified written texts, and enough vocabulary to deal with unsimplified spoken texts. Additionally, there were significant and positive relationships between the responsibility and ability dimensions of the VLA scale. However, the findings revealed non-significant correlations among all the VLA’s dimensions and the vocabulary size. Discussion: The findings regarding the participants’ vocabulary learning autonomy showed that the participants held a moderate level of vocabulary learning autonomy. This finding is essential in that one of the most important goals of education is encouraging learners to work more independently both in and out of the classroom (Moir & Nation, 2002). There were significant and positive relationships between the responsibility and ability dimensions of the VLA scale. This finding, which is in line with Koller (2015), suggests that the participants feel capable of learning vocabulary items when they perceive themselves as responsible people instead of a teacher. Based on the results regarding vocabulary size, it is reasonable to conclude that the participants had approximately enough vocabulary for comprehension of unsimplified written texts and enough vocabulary for spoken texts based on Nation’s (2006) research reporting that learners need 8000 to 9000 word-family vocabulary for comprehension of unsimplified written texts and 6000 to 7000 word-family vocabulary for unsimplified spoken texts. Limitations: The research is limited to only first-year student teachers of English and the data consist of only quantitative data. Conclusion: The findings of the present study imply the need to foster vocabulary learning autonomy of learners in teacher education programs. Student teachers hold two identities as learners and teachers of the future. It is crucial to examine their readiness because there is a bulk of evidence in the literature that teachers’ readiness for autonomy affects their ability to foster their students’ autonomy. The findings of the present study imply the need to foster vocabulary learning autonomy and utilizing some strategies to improve vocabulary size.


Author(s):  
Fiber Yun Almanda Ginting

This research is written to achieve an objective as follow: (1) to find out the progression of transitional in writing text has been made by the second semester of English Education Study Program in academic 2018/2019. The writer used descriptive qualitative research to give description systematically and factually about facts of a certain population. The researcher determines that the design is descriptive quantitative method because it describes the data that is taken from the sample, and the results of the data were tabulated in the form of percentage. There were 18 students (90%) agreed that transition words were used to connect the sentences. There were 20 (100%) students (90%) agreed that transition words were used to organize the sentences. There were 17 students (85%) agreed that transition words were used to remember about the topic. There were 20 (100%) students agreed that transition words were used to tell the experience, and there were 20 (100%) students agreed transition words were used to enhance the connections between facts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 94-111
Author(s):  
Shayna M. Silverstein

Given the salient role of embodied tactics in contemporary networked protests in performance, in this essay I listen for how the embodied sonic praxis of protests during the Arab revolutions translates into the audio, visual, and text modalities of digital media. I propose audibility, or the appearance and perceptibility of sound objects, as that which translates the “live” sound that occurs in physical spaces into representational spaces, and, in so doing, alters the temporality and spatiality of the sonic experience. Interrogating who and what are rendered audible as part of the political contestations that drive protest actions, I demonstrate how audibility is a technological condition, sensory force, and social process through which affective publics emerge in networked spaces. I begin with social media posts from the first months of non-violent protest actions in 2011, in Egypt and Syria, analyzing the translation of sonic objects into written texts that narrativize the subjects and spaces of the Arab revolutions. I then shift to the sonic praxis of revolutionary mourning in a discussion of the audibility of the crowd in footage of protest funerals that reclaimed martyrs of the Syrian revolution in 2018 and 2019, interrogating how the sounds of the crowd enable the mythologization of the martyrs’ bodies and help mobilize the cause for which they died. Both approaches to audibility – as expressing voice and documenting sounds – underscore how audibility, I argue, is crucial for understanding the affect-rich intensities that drive networked protest performances, and that forge political possibilities as imaginable, sensible, and perceptible.


Author(s):  
Alex Chengyu Fang ◽  
Min Dong

Abstract This article provides a corpus-based investigation into shell nouns. Shell nouns perform a variety of referential functions and express speaker stance. The investigation was motivated by the fact that past research in this area has been primarily based on written texts. Very little is known about the use of shell nouns in speech. The study used the ICE-GB corpus of contemporary British English and investigated cataphoric shell nouns complemented by appositive that-clauses across fine-grained spoken and written registers. It has revealed that the deployment of shell nouns is governed by the principle of register formality definable in terms of contextual configurations of the Field-Tenor-Mode complex rather than the mode of production. Additionally, the study has uncovered the frequent use of a small core set of shell nouns common across speech and writing. Hence it argues that shell nouns are part and parcel of spoken and written discourse and that they pertain more to grammar than to lexis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 53-71
Author(s):  
Remilekun Iyabo Adeyemi

This study explores the influence of L1 culture on Nigerian tertiary learners’ use of first-person plural personal pronouns we, us and our in written texts to indicate the collective, i.e., the writers’ social community. The quantitative and semantic analysis of the learners’  use of the pronouns was done using the Nigerian learner English corpus (NLEC) in comparison to Louvain corpus of native English student essays (LOCNESS). The quantitative analysis indicates the overuse of first-person plural pronouns by Nigerian learners  compared to their LOCNESS counterparts. The study reports on the semantic analysis and reveals that the learners’ overuse of these pronouns can be traced to their cultural background of collective shared experience, communality, inclusiveness and solidarity. This is evident in the collocates of the pronouns, e.g., ‘we live,’ ‘we have,’ ‘technology has helped us,’' ‘it gives us’, ‘our society,’ ‘our nation.’ The student-writers’ use of these pronouns indicates their involvement in issues of discourse and they emphasize collective  experience. The findings of the study confirm writers make discoursal choices that align them with their L1 community which is traceable in their L2 written texts. Keywords: pronouns; culture; undergraduates; academic writing; student-writers; second language


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