257 article(s) in Acta Orientalia Vilnensia

Emergence Of A New Written Culture: The Use Of Hebrew Script Among The Krimchaks And The Karaim

conversion to a religion usually has a positive impact on the written culture of a given community. the conversion may or may not result in the adoption of a new writing system. in the turkic world, we find examples for both cases. the karaims, by their conversion into karaitism, adopted the hebrew script. they used the hebrew alphabet up till the beginning of the 20th century in their everyday life for writing; for example, private letters and secular and religious texts in karaim.another turkic speaking group, the heterogeneous rabbanite community of krimchaks (whose majority is of sephardic origin) also used the hebrew script to write their vernacular.some characteristics of the writing systems of the karaim and of the krimchaks have been described, but no comparative research has thus far been carried out. in this study, the peculiarities of the hebrew alphabet used by both turkic speaking peoples will be discussed and illustrated. for instance, the new characters, which were introduced in order to indicate specific turkic phonetic values, and the ways the same hebrew vowel sign or letter is used in the different krimchak and karaim manuscripts Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Everyday Life
  • 20Th Century
  • Comparative Research
  • Positive Impact
  • Writing System
The Ten Principles Of Karaite Faith In A Seventeenth-Century Hebrew Poem From Troki

the ten principles of karaite faith were originally compiled by medieval byzantine karaite scholars to sum up the basics of the karaite jewish creed. early modern karaites wrote poetic interpretations on the principles. this article provides an analysis and an english translation of a seventeenth-century hebrew poem by the lithuanian karaite, yehuda ben aharon. in this didactic poem, yehuda ben aharon discusses the essence of divinity and the status of the people of israel, the heavenly origin of the torah, and future redemption. the popularity of karaite commentaries and poems on the principles during the early modern period shows that dogma―and how to understand it correctly―had become central for the theological considerations of karaite scholars. the source for this attentiveness is traced to the byzantine karaite literature written on the principles and to the treatment of the maimonidean principles in late medieval rabbinic literature Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Seventeenth Century
  • English Translation
  • Early Modern Period
  • Late Medieval

it is with great pleasure and pride that vilnius university’s centre of oriental studies presents the latest special issue of acta orientalia vilnensia, featuring a collection of peer-reviewed articles on the religious and linguistic diversity of turkic-speaking peoples in eastern europe Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Eastern Europe
  • Linguistic Diversity
  • Special Issue
  • Great Pleasure
  • Oriental Studies
Ecclesiastical Terminology In TÖRE BITIGI: ARÏ

in this article the semantic field of the armeno-kipchak word arï/ari “holy, sacred” is examined on the basis of töre bitigi (wrocław version), which is an armeno-kipchak version of the old armenian law code datastanagirk’. this magistrative-juridical text was based in a large part on ecclesiastical prescriptions. accordingly it is possible to see a group of religious terms in the text and the word of arï/ari is one of them. this significant term shows parallelism with other historical turkic texts, which have been translated from the holy book.daγï da ne üčün emdi klädik yazmaga törälärni, ya ne säbäptän teprändi esimiz bu iškä [...] bu vaχtlarda erinčekliktän üvrämägä klämäslär eski u yäŋï törälärni ne markarẹlardan, ne awedarandan, ki bolgaylar edi ari bitiklerniŋ küčündän bilmägä könü töräni. anïŋ üčün klädik bu törä bitiki bilä oyatmaga alarnï, nečik kimsäni yuχudan.töre bitigi/ekinči, ne üčün yazdïq ya kimniŋ pričinasïndan 5r/160r Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Semantic Field
  • Significant Term
The Franciscans And Yaylaq Khatun

this study explores two issues. the first topic, as the title suggests, deals with the appearance of the franciscan order and its expansion at the expense of the dominicans on the southern russian steppe in the second half of the thirteenth century. the second question is tied to one of the successes of the franciscans: the conversion to christianity of one of the wives of nogay, the khanmaker, the powerful lord of the western regions of the golden horde. i will reconstruct what can be ascertained about this khatun, based on latin, muslim and byzantine sources Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Thirteenth Century
  • Franciscan Order
The Graphemes /Š/ And /Ŋ/ In The Religious Texts Of The CODEX CUMANICUS

the aim of the article is to point out the lack of research on palaeography and orthography of the codex cumanicus. the article deals with the use of symbols used to denote the consonants /š/ and /ŋ/ of the religious texts in the “german part” of the manuscript. the texts can be divided into two sections: the first being on folios 61r–63r, while the second on folios 69r–76r and 80r. this difference in use of the symbols may show that there were two different methods of writing consonants, which were foreign to the orthography of medieval latin writing, in the above-mentioned two sections of the text. the article stresses the importance of the palaeographical and orthographical analysis on the codex cumanicus, in order to be able to draw valid linguistic information from the codex Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Religious Texts
  • Linguistic Information
  • Medieval Latin
  • German Part
The Haunted Culture—Shamanic Heroes In The Cultural Content Industry Of South Korea

vytautas magnus universitykorea, with insufficient natural resources and a limited consumer market, began to take notice of the cultural content industry in the 21st century. this means that the cultivation of this industry has not taken place for a long time compared to japan, the usa or hong kong. yet korea has obtained an astonishing outcome in a short time. the popular culture of south korea, with the appellation of hallyu, boasted of an enormous strength initially in the asian market and subsequently stretched to markets in other countries, too. seeing that korean cultural archetypes do not play a successful role in the cultural content business of korea in general, the position of shamanism is truly trivial among the others. i would like to analyse and discuss the meaning, function and potential of korean shamanism in the field of the korean cultural content industry Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Cultural Content
  • South Korea
  • Hong Kong
  • Natural Resources
  • Asian Market
Indian Horror: The Western Monstrosity And The Fears Of The Nation In The Ramsay Brothers’ Bandh Darwaza

vilnius universitythis paper investigates indian horror films as a site of socio-economical tensions in india at the end of the 1980s through the employment of the postcolonial reading of the 1990 ramsay brothers’ horror film bandh darwaza. this paper argues that specific references to the european gothic tradition and employment of imagery and interpretation of a western monstrosity (dracula) in the film are not merely the exploitation of the exotic discourse, but an unconscious articulation of fears and anxieties summoned by the specific socio-economic conditions of india. the political turmoil and the economic changes at the end of the 1980s created a specific platform for fears and anxieties that were articulated through the deformed monsters of the western gothic tradition Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Horror Films
  • Economic Conditions
  • The Political
  • A Site
Demure Heroines Expressing Sexual Desire. Hints Of Traditional Motifs In Popular Hindi Cinema

università degli studi di milanoin some of the most successful and representative popular hindi films released between the 1990s and the early 2000s, the depiction of amorous feelings often takes traditional forms. the reference here is essentially to those films that come more or less within the broad category of classical family dramas: love stories that come up against all sorts of opposition, characterised by the celebration of the traditional hindu values and the sacrality of the indian joint-family institution. a particularly interesting aspect emerging here lies in the way in which the sexual desire of the heroine—typically a chaste and virtuous maiden—finds representation. on the strength of studied re-elaboration of traditional themes and motifs, these films achieve high levels of stylistic inventiveness and poetic refinement, albeit often limited to certain individual sequences. the apparent purpose of this aesthetic sophistication is to endow amorous feelings—always leading inexorably in the direction of marriage—with an aura of purity and authenticity. indeed, it is a matter of sentiments so noble and intenseas to win over the consent and blessing of the families by the end of the film. the paper proposes to identify and analyse the conscious use of these traditional motifs in some of the most representative films in this area Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sexual Desire
  • Interesting Aspect
  • Joint Family
  • Broad Category
  • Individual Sequences
Acculturation Of French Fashion In Japan After World War II: Fashion As A Device Constructing Identity

vytautas magnus university / mykolas romeris universityin our paper, we discuss how french fashion was acculturated in japan after wwii, a period in which japan rushed to modernise/occidentalise. through an analysis of the dominant discourse of japanese fashion magazines, we focus on the followingfrench fashion trend that spread throughout japan: a long, flared skirt inspired by a paris fashion. the skirt was a new look by french fashion designer christian dior just after wwii. the other focus of this paper is on the soaring popularity of european brand louis vuitton in 1970 and 1999. modernisation in the fashion realm following wwii could be said to be the localisation of the french fashions followed by americans; the manner by which french fashion was acculturated in japan after wwii changed according to the japanese social context. articles in the dressmaking fashion magazine soen promoted the new style blindly. in the 1970s when great economic growth was realised, japanese travellers shopping for real louis vuitton bags in france were attempting to belong to middle class society. featured articles on louis vuitton in 1999 presented several ways of localising the usage of this bag for all generations of women to find belonging in their own groups Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Economic Growth
  • Social Context
  • World War
  • Fashion Magazine
  • Fashion Designer

the editors of the acta orientalia vilnensia, in co-operation with the oriental library at vilnius university, highly welcome a regular exchange of scholarly periodicals publishing on asian and middle eastern studies. for exchange proposals, please contact the secretary of the editorial board. journals or serial publications received under the programme in 2014:• acta asiatica. bulletin of the institute of eastern studies• annals of the bhandarkar oriental research institute• archív orientální• asian ethnology• asian studies review• asiatische studien/études asiatiques• brahmavidya: the adyar library bulletin• bulletin of the deccan college post-graduate and research institute• cracow indological studies• dao: a journal of comparative philosophy• folia orientalia• indologica taurinensia• japanese journal of religious studies• journal of sukrtindra oriental research institute• journal of the asiatic society of mumbai• journal of the international college for postgraduate buddhist studies• journal of the oriental institute, m.s. university of baroda• linguistic and oriental studies from poznan• monumenta serica. journal of oriental studies• new zealand journal of asian studies• pacific world: journal of the institute of buddhist studies• pandanus• philosophy east and west• religion east and west• rocznik orientalistyczny• studia indologiczne• studia orientalia• wiener zeitschrift für die kunde südasiens• zinbun Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Research Institute
  • Asian Studies
  • Buddhist Studies
  • East And West
  • Oriental Studies
Books Reviews

guy podoler. monuments, memory, and identity: constructing the colonial past in south korea, welten ostasiens. worlds of east asia. mondes de l‘extrême- orient 18, bern: peter lang ag, 2011, 272 pp., num. ill. isbn 978-3-0343-0660-7 (hardbound), € 52.80 pauline c. lee. li zhi 李贽, confucianism and the virtue of desire, suny series in chinese philosophy and culture, albany: suny press, 2012, pp. 202. isbn 978-1-4384-3927-3 (hardcover), $75.00 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • South Korea
  • East Asia
  • Chinese Philosophy
  • Li Zhi
Framing The Body And The Body Of Frame: Item Songs In Popular Hindi Cinema

university of delhithe basic framework of this paper is to deliberate upon the emergence of item songs as a reinstatement of the dominance of the ‘song and dance sequences’ in popular hindi cinema, and its inferences as a sub-text in contemporary cultural forms. while doing so, the paper argues that the transition in consumption and the circulation/distribution of hindi film songs, and other visual/ audio media has affectively facilitated the course. in the given context, the paper further attempts to address shifts in the filmic techniques that have consistently regulated the production of such songs, revealing a spectrum of negotiations between and among the ‘body’, ‘performance’, and ‘frame’, with which the spectator becomes familiarized over a series of visual/ audio leaps that have taken place in the traditional media forms like that of television and in newer forms like the internet Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Body
  • Hindi Cinema
  • The Internet
  • Basic Framework
  • Audio Media
The Politics Around ‘B-Grade’ Cinema In Bengal: Re-Viewing Popular Bengali Film Culture In The 1980S‒1990S

jawaharlal nehru universitythe 1980–90s was a turbulent period for the bengali cinema, the events being triggered by a series of industrial problems, the anxiety of a new film public and the pressing necessity for newer forms of articulation. during this time, bengali popular cinema responded with newer genres of narratives (elaborated later) that emerged from dissimilar aesthetic positions and different social perspectives. but it is unfortunate that instead of engaging with this diverse range of film making practices, the journalistic and academic discourses on the 1980–90s bengali cinema present only the ‘crisis-ridden’ scenarios of the bengali film industry―suffering from multiple problems. interestingly, this marginalized and unacknowledged cinema of the 1980–90s almost became synonymous to the concept of the ‘b-grade’ cinema, although it is not similar in formation, circulation and reception like the other established b-circuit or b-grade cinemas across the world. this paper aims to criticize this simpler ‘crisis narrative’ scenario by looking at the categories of class and audience and questioning the relevance of issues related to the popularity of these films. in brief, our article aims to problematize the notion of what is ‘b-grade’ cinema in the context of the bengali cinema of the 1980–90s and by referring to this film culture, it tries to open up some other possibilities to which this notion can refer Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Film Culture
  • Film Industry
  • The Other
  • Diverse Range
  • The World
The Soft Power Implications Of The New South Korean Cinema: Approaching Audiences In East Asia And Lithuania

vytautas magnus universitysouth korea’s experience wielding soft power is usually associated with the korean wave, which swept the asian region off its feet predominantly during the first decade of this century. in this article i will however argue that the phenomenon of the korean wave has never been intended as a calculated attempt on the part of the south korean government to enhance the overall south korean image worldwide and thus increase south korean international might and prestige. to prove the validity of this hypothesis, i will provide a concise historical overview of the inception, development and spread of south korean popular culture, while at the same time tracing its underlying soft power implications. i will likewise attempt to discuss the popular reception of the korean wave in three east asian countries, i.e. mainland china, taiwan and japan, and one european country, i.e. lithuania. the scope of the endeavour has been largely restricted to the cinematic aspect of the korean wave, for i consider the creation of motion pictures and drama serials to be by far the most precious, influential and revealing form of art Show More ... ... Show Less

  • South Korean
  • Korean Wave
  • Soft Power
  • New South
  • The South

the editors of the acta orientalia vilnensia, in co-operation with the oriental library at vilnius university, highly welcome a regular exchange of scholarly periodicals publishing on asian and middle eastern studies. for exchange proposals, please contact the secretary of the editorial board. journals or serial publications received under the programme in 2012:• acta asiatica. bulletin of the institute of eastern studies• annals of the bhandarkar oriental research institute• archív orientální• asian ethnology• asian studies review• asiatische studien/études asiatiques• brahmavidya: the adyar library bulletin• bulletin of the deccan college post-graduate and research institute• cracow indological studies• dao: a journal of comparative philosophy• east and west• folia orientalia• indologica taurinensia• japanese journal of religious studies• journal of sukrtindra oriental research institute• journal of the asiatic society of mumbai• journal of the international college for postgraduate buddhist studies• journal of the oriental institute, m.s. university of baroda• linguistic and oriental studies from poznan• monumenta serica. journal of oriental studies• new zealand journal of asian studies• orientalia suecana• pandanus• philosophy east and west• religion east and west• rocznik orientalistyczny• studia indologiczne• studia orientalia• wiener zeitschrift für die kunde südasiens• zinbun Show More ... ... Show Less

  • East And West
  • Research Institute
  • Asian Studies
  • Oriental Studies
  • Oriental Institute
Introduction. From Highbrow To Lowbrow: Studies Of Indian B-Grade Cinema And Beyond

vilnius university cardboard skulls decorating the book of the dead’s pink cover―the necronomicon; intoxicated young ladies having a ‘kitty party’ then gang raping their male servant; secret agents 077 and 707 serving the nation; a shape-shifting monster’s head rotates 180 degrees while tracing a doomed bride in red and the list of similar images is far from exhaustive. the above mentioned aesthetical and narrative cinematic devises just happen to come from a variety of indian films―usually ascribed to the ‘lower’ cinematic cultures and labeled as exploitative, b-grade or even ‘trash’ cinema. often despised and ridiculed by academicians, critics, and the big budget film industries while at the same time enjoying vast popularity in smaller urban centers and towns, these indian low budget films co-exist with bollywood and other major industries―yet work by their own sets of rules and agendas. these films remain a part of the national as well as global film consumption, even if slightly overshadowed by the blockbuster or arthouse cinemas. despite the changing trends in india’s film productions and aesthetics, the low budget cinema retains its cult status throughout the country―and this is most evident while taking a stroll down the grant road in mumbai, lined up with numerous video stalls and offering enormous amounts of cheaply produced ‘3 films in 1’ type of dvds: the genre selection ranging from action (fight) to horror; from mythological to soft-core sex films Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Soft Core
  • Urban Centers
  • Changing Trends
  • Similar Images
  • To Come
Book Review

vilnius university, centre of oriental studies arthur kleinman, yunxiang yan, jing jun, sing lee, everett zhang, pan tianshu, wu fei, guo jinhua.deep china. the moral life of the person, what anthropology and psychiatry tell us about china today, berkeley, los angeles, london: university of california press, 2011, pp. 322. isbn 978-0-520-26945-3 (paperback), $29.95, £19.95 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Book Review
  • Los Angeles
  • Moral Life
  • University Of California
  • Vilnius University
Bodies, Bollywood And Bond. The Evolving Image Of Secret Agents In Hindi Spy Thrillers Inspired By The 007 Franchise

independent researcherin the 1960s, after the international commercial success of the james bond films, many imitations and parodies of the original were made in different parts of the world. in india popular hindi films were also inspired by the 007 franchise, beginning with the action thriller farz in 1967. from then on a new genre was formed in the bombay cinema: hindi bond films. these derivative productions were deliberately created to replicate the plot formula and narrative structure of the original bond series. they underwent considerable development from cheap, amateurish b-movies to big budget commercial hits such as ek tha tiger in 2012. also the leading characters in hindi bond films, the secret agents of the indian police and intelligence, evolved from the innocent, happy-go-lucky youngsters in the 1960s into the tough, world-weary men of action in the 2010s. one of the most important factors of this gradual change is the way the heroes’ bodies were shown on screen. the focus on the esthetics, the musculature, the physical abilities and sex appeal of the bombay bonds was different in every decade. this article concentrates on the evolution of hindi bond films: the genre as well as the leading characters Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The 1960S
  • Gradual Change
  • The World
  • Made In
  • Different Parts
Remembering The Atomic Bombing Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki: Collective Memory Of Post-War Japan

nanzan universitythis study examines the way in which tokyo has exploited the atomic bombing of hiroshima and nagasaki as a symbolic means of inducing post-war japanese collective identity. to consider an effort on tokyo’s part to integrate a-bomb memories into the country’s victim consciousness rather than to overcome the past, the study compares the a-bombed cities written with different japanese forms, the peace parks, and the peace memorials. it also analyses the news coverage by two national daily papers on the a-bomb memorial days. by doing so, the study shows how the nation has been guided in its memory by the government Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Post War
  • Collective Memory
  • Collective Identity
  • News Coverage
  • The Past
‘I Wasn’T Born With Enough Middle Fingers’: How Low-Budget Horror Films Defy Sexual M Orality And Heteronormativity In Bollywood

queen’s universityin the early 1980s the ramsay brothers gave bollywood a new genre of monster flicks with blockbusters like purana mandir, hotel, and veerana. following the work of the ramsay brothers, low-budget horror films that were made exclusively for the small towns and rural market increased in the decades of 1980s and 1990s. these films are primarily known for their unintentional humor owing to poor production and acting, but they have never been acknowledged for their actual content. this article argues that bollywood low-budget films fulfilled the basic function of horror movies—that is, they subverted mainstream moral order and sexual morality. these films opened up space for dialogues that the mainstream cinema had totally neglected; particularly, in the areas of incest, female lust, ‘othering’ of male sexuality, and transgendered identities. on a different register, the relationship between low-budget horror films and mainstream bollywood can be compared to folklore and canonical literature, where folklore repeatedly resists the conformities endorsed by the mainstream prescriptive texts Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Horror Films
  • Small Towns
  • Male Sexuality
  • Moral Order
  • Sexual Morality
Traditional And Popular Cultural Discourses Within The Post-War Development Of Japan’S Cultural Diplomacy

vytautas magnus universitythis paper analyses the development of post-war japan’s cultural diplomacy since 1945, dividing it into four stages. it raises questions about what government institutions have been conducting cultural diplomacy, what the main international challenges have been, what communication tools have been used, and what kind of cultural discourses were prevalent during a particular stage. special emphasis is put on the division of traditional versus popular cultural discourses within the cultural diplomacy of japan, mainly concentrating on the important shift in this aspect that occurred at the beginning of the 21st century. this shift was marked by the government’s increasing shift towards popular culture discourse and the deliberate exploitation of that to promote japan in the world Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Cultural Diplomacy
  • Cultural Discourses
  • Post War
  • Government Institutions
  • Important Shift
Japan As Fashion: Contemporary Reflections On Being Fashionable

university of hyogothis paper examines how japanese contemporary fashion has been accepted globally, especially in the case of london. the popularity of japanese fashion in the west started in the 19th century with kimono-style dressing gowns, but for the true design influence known as japan-shock, we had to wait for the appearance of the avantgarde japanese fashion designers who participated in the paris collection in the 1970s and 1980s. a new keyword for ‘fashionable japan’ today is kawaii, the notion of cute. this is intimately linked to street fashion and subculture and has been established and received as part of ‘cool japan’ through the worldwide popularity of japanese manga and anime. moreover, it could be said that japan is fashionable and the japanese are thought of as fashionable people, but who is described as fashionable, and by whom? to reflect upon this statement, ‘the japanese are fashionable’, as ideology, picking up the globally popular japanese street fashion magazine fruits, i would like to investigate the double meaning of fashion in the present and also what it means to be fashionable Show More ... ... Show Less

  • 19Th Century
  • The West
  • Fashion Magazine
  • Fashion Designers
  • Cool Japan
Introduction: Modern Japan And Korea Seen Through Various Media

vytautas magnus universitythis issue discusses cultural aspects of modern japan and korea seen through various media. media in this issue is not simple mass media like newspapers, journals, and tv, but media in a much broader meaning. according to helen katz, media has two roles: to inform and to entertain. newspapers inform but also entertain readers. literature could also be considered a medium to entertain readers. autobiographic literature or non-fiction literature informs a kind of reality. fashion could be also considered a medium for a human being to transmit information (occupation, taste, identity) and entertain (for example, the fashionable style of singers permits them to entertain tv spectators). in this issue, we approach some cultural aspects of modern japan and korea as seen through several types of media from popular culture, film, fashion and newspapers to cultural media as a tool of public diplomacy. our topics are as follows Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Modern Japan
  • Cultural Aspects
  • Popular Culture
  • Mass Media
  • Cultural Media
Shape Shifting Masculinities: Accounts Of Maleness In Indian Man-To-Animal Transformation Horror Films

university of delhiunlike the werewolf myth, on which there is a significant corpus of takes in hollywood cinema, indian horror films abound in snake-, tiger- and gorillatransformations. most of these shape-shifting monsters represent aberrant subjectivities that set in motion a cycle of destruction and redemption within these narratives. this article will explore how the male body in indian horror films acts as a site of different bodily discourses that permits a reading of socio-cultural crises within the societal framework. although there are almost a dozen indian horror films to date that deal with such shape-shifting monsters, this article will limit itself to studying one hindi film jaani dushman (1979, dir. raj kumar kohli) and one telugu film punnami naagu (1980, dir. a. rajasekhar). the following core questions will be explored: do these narratives challenge the constructions of hegemonic masculinity? what departures from normative masculinity, if such a thing exists at all, take place? how do these narratives use horror codes and conventions to map the emergence of different types of masculinities? how can these bodily discourses be correlated with various contemporary socio-political issues of india Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Horror Films
  • Hegemonic Masculinity
  • Male Body
  • Hollywood Cinema
  • Different Types

the editors of the acta orientalia vilnensia, in co-operation with the oriental library at vilnius university, highly welcome a regular exchange of scholarly periodicals publishing on asian and middle eastern studies. for exchange proposals, please contact the secretary of the editorial board. journals or serial publications received under the programme in 2012:• acta asiatica. bulletin of the institute of eastern studies• annals of the bhandarkar oriental research institute• archív orientální• asian ethnology• asian studies review• asiatische studien/études asiatiques• brahmavidya: the adyar library bulletin• bulletin of the deccan college post-graduate and research institute• cracow indological studies• dao: a journal of comparative philosophy• east and west• folia orientalia• indologica taurinensia• japanese journal of religious studies• journal of sukrtindra oriental research institute• journal of the asiatic society of mumbai• journal of the international college for postgraduate buddhist studies• journal of the oriental institute, m.s. university of baroda• linguistic and oriental studies from poznan• monumenta serica. journal of oriental studies• new zealand journal of asian studies• orientalia suecana• pandanus• philosophy east and west• religion east and west• rocznik orientalistyczny• studia indologiczne• studia orientalia• wiener zeitschrift für die kunde südasiens• zinbun Show More ... ... Show Less

  • East And West
  • Research Institute
  • Asian Studies
  • Oriental Studies
  • Oriental Institute
The Authority Of The Buddha: The Limits Of Knowledge In Medieval Indian Buddhist Epistemology

institute of buddhist studies at the graduate theological unionthe indian religious traditions, including buddhism, are generally characterised by an understanding of the problematic character of the human condition as ignorance (avidya) instead of sin, as in christianity.1 the centrality of ignorance in defining the problematic character of the human condition creates a dramatically different religious dynamic—a religious dynamic that is fundamentally concerned with epistemological issues rather than with moral ones. in indian discussions of the limits of religious knowledge, the shared intellectual framework was the idea of means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa). while other religio-philosophic traditions in india accepted testimony (śabda) as an autonomous (i.e., irreducible) means of valid knowledge, buddhist epistemologists rejected it. having rejected the idea that testimony is an autonomous means of valid knowledge (śabdapramāṇa), an alternative explanation for the authority of the buddha had to be created. against this background of epistemological discussion, particular attention is given here to dharmakīrti’s views on the authority of the buddha as a means of valid knowledge regarding the ground of human existence, the path of religious practice, and the goal of awakening Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Valid Knowledge
  • The Buddha
  • The Human Condition
  • Alternative Explanation
Actuality And Potentiality In Dignāga’S Understanding Of Immediate Perception (Nirvikalpaka Pratyakṣa) According To His Pramāṇasamuccaya And Ālambanaparīkṣā

institute of philosophy, russian academy of scienceson the one hand, dignāga supposes in his pramāṇasamuccaya (part 1) that immediate perceptual experience at every given moment has as its object something that never goes beyond its own actually present content and thus may characterise only itself (svalakṣaṇa). in that respect, svalakṣaṇa appears as a kind of mere presence, sheer momentary actuality. it cannot undergo any external influence or exercise its own influence on other svalakṣaṇas. in other words, it cannot be extended to things other than itself, as is the case of mental constructions. first, i would like to ask whether there is a potentiality in the act of immediate perception according to the pramāṇasamuccaya. on the other hand, in the ālambanaparīkṣā, cognition is an entirely interior process manifests itself as a sense organ to an internal cognisable form. second, i would like to dwell on the question concerning whether an immediate perception of svalakṣaṇas, free from mental constructions, is still possible in the ālambanaparīkṣā Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Perceptual Experience
  • Sense Organ
  • The Other
  • External Influence
  • Other Hand
The Collection Of Oriental Art At The Vilnius Museum Of Antiquities In 1862–1865

vilnius universitythe present article provides a discussion about the collection of oriental art acquired from kronstadt residents in 1862 and exhibited at the vilnius museum of antiquities. this was the first public collection of its kind in lithuania. for this reason, the article is devoted to an analysis of the meanings and provisions that the lithuanian scholarly community sought to impart to the exhibits of this collection as well as how they were perceived by the society at the time. a detailed discussion about the content of the collection, its attribution and donors is provided Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Present Article
  • Scholarly Community
  • Public Collection
Some Aspects Of Leadership In The Neo-Hindu Religious Movement: The Case Of The Art Of Living Foundation In Lithuania

vilnius universitythe leader in any new religious group is a very important person and a key feature in the establishment of the organized religion. the special role and place for the leader is found in the so-called spiritual groups—the neo-hindu religious movements. although such groups do not relate themselves to any religious phenomena in general, an analysis of their activities reveals the traditional importance of their leader in doctrinal and organizational development. the aim of this article is to analyze the role and place of ravi shankar, the leader of the art of living foundation (aolf), the process of his charismatization, as well as the attitudes of members toward the leader and his legitimization from the perspective of the sociology of religion. the work is based on the analysis of certain official documents of the organization and through narratives of members from lithuania and denmark. the article focuses on the case of lithuania, which is revealed through the comparison of the data from denmark. the analysis revealed that individuals expressed special attitudes toward the leader of the group: that, on the one hand, modern individuals sought liberation from institutionalized religion but at the same time they were searching for spiritual authority. interviews with members of the aolf revealed diverse concepts of the spiritual leader. contrary to the traditionally accepted understanding of a spiritual leader as the head of authority, the narratives revealed an understanding of the spiritual leader as both an advisor and a service provider Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Spiritual Leader
  • Art Of Living
  • Service Provider
  • Religious Movement
  • Special Role
Sa Skya Paṇḍita On The Defining Characteristic And Variegation Of Direct Perception (Based On His Tshad Ma Rigs Gter With His Auto-Commentary And Go-Rams Pa’S Sub-Commentary Providing Contextual And Subtextual Clarification

independent scholarthe present study focuses on the defining characteristic and variegation of direct perception (mngon sum, pratyakṣa) as laid out by sa-skya paṇḍita kun-dga’ rgyal-mtshan (1182–1251) in the first eight verses of the ‘direct perception’ chapter in his tshad-ma rigs pa’i gter. as is well known, direct perception along with inference (rjes dpag, anumāna) make up the two means of valid cognition (tshad ma, pramāṇa) according the buddhist system of epistemology initiated by the renowned buddhist philosopher dignāga (circa 480–540) and expanded and further developed by his indirect follower dharmakīrti (mid-7th century). each of these means of valid cognitionis restricted to its respective objects (prameya, gzhal bya); the specifically characterised object (rang mtshan, svalakṣaṇa) is the object of a direct perception and the generally characterised object (spyi mtshan, sāmānyalakṣaṇa) is the object for an inference Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Direct Perception
  • Sa Skya Paṇḍita
Books Reviews

yaroslav komarovski. visions of unity: the golden paṇḍita shakya chokden’s new interpretation of yogācāra and madhyamaka, albany: state university of new york press, 2011, pp. xii+451. isbn 978-1-4384-3909-9 (hardcover), $ 90.00 danuta stasik. the infinite story. the past and present of the rāmāyaṇas in hindi, new delhi: manohar, 2009, pp. 319. isbn 978-81-7304-815-9 (hardbound Show More ... ... Show Less

  • New York
  • New Delhi
  • State University
  • The Past
  • New Interpretation
Introduction: Towards The Understanding Of The Role Of Cognition In Indo-Tibetan Buddhism

special theme: through the looking-glass of the buddha-mind: strategies of cognition in indo-tibetan buddhism Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Tibetan Buddhism
  • The Buddha
  • Looking Glass
Candrakīrti’S Theory Of Perception: A Case For Non-Foundationalist Epistemology In Madhyamaka

university of tasmaniasome argue that candrakīrti is committed to rejecting all theories of perception in virtue of the rejection of the foundationalisms of the nyāya and the pramāṇika. others argue that candrakīrti endorses the nyāya theory of perception. in this paper, i will propose an alternative non-foundationalist theory of perception for candrakīriti. i will show that candrakrti’s works provide us sufficient evidence to defend a typical prāsagika’s account of perception that, i argue, complements his core non-foundationalist ontology Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sufficient Evidence
Books Reviews

heidrun brückner, gabriele zeller (hrsg.), otto böhtlingk an rudolf roth: briefe zum petersburger wörterbuch 1852–1885, bearbeitet von agnes stache-weiske, glasenapp-stiftung 45, wiesbaden: harrassowitz, 2008, pp. xxii+870. isbn 978-3-447-05641-0 / 3-447-05641-x (hbk), € 98.00 felix otter. residential architecture in bhoja’s samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra: introduction, text, translation and notes, delhi: motilal banarsidass, 2010, pp. xi+299. isbn 978-81-208-3447-7 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Residential Architecture
In Memoriam Linnart Mäll

tartu university no one departs this world without leaving a trace. every person or creature leaves behind a trace that is distinctive in terms of visibility, extent and influence. that trace may be ploughed into the soil of a field or carved in history by stone or the sword. it may, however, also at first glance be less noticeable but more influential than that recorded by plough, stone or sword—that is the case when the trace a person leaves is in the area of culture Show More ... ... Show Less

  • In Memoriam
Śāntarakṣita On Veridical Perception

william paterson universityśāntarakṣita, an 8th century indian buddhist philosopher, united the cittamātra and the madhyamaka views into a single system. consistently following nāgārjuna, from the point of view of absolute reality he proclaimed all things to be empty and beyond conception. from the point of view of the conventional, he stated that we should understand everything as awareness. nevertheless, when analysing cittamātra views on perception, he found them all to be inadequate. buddhism is usually described as based on two pillars, direct experience and inference. given śāntarakṣita’s sharp critique of the veracity of perception, upon which inductive premises are based, how are we to make sense of knowledge on the conventional level? i will attempt to answer this question through an analysis of the ideas of the 11th century philosopher rongzom and the 19th century philosophermipham. i will also show the relevance of śāntarakṣita’s critique of perception today, by comparing it with contemporary western cognitive science Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Point Of View
  • Cognitive Science
  • 19Th Century
  • Single System
  • Veridical Perception
The Lost Identity Of Mother India: Rape, Mutilation And A Socio-Political Critique Of Indian Society

vytautas magnus universitythe article discusses a film by deepa mehta, a filmmaker who is a part of the so-called indian parallel cinema, and a critic of indian culture and society. the main argument of the article is that in the landmark film earth, mehta portrays a character to personify the idea of mother india. mehta’s vision of mother india is rendered psychoanalytically as being raped by her sons—something that had started during the partition of india and continues till our times. the article introduces and re-thinks categories of indianness, rape, alienness, which are vital to our understanding of contemporary indian culture and society. one of the main operating categories of the article is identity—what it means in our modern times, and what it means to lose it—something that happened in 1947 during the partition, and is still continuing. the article also stands in opposition to the traditional understanding of the mother—in contemporary times, as it is argued, mother is not cherished by her sons, instead, she is raped and mutilated, as a consequence of ontological insecurity and desire for identity Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Indian Culture
  • Indian Society
  • Modern Times
  • Main Operating
  • Traditional Understanding
The First Lahu (Muhsur) Christians: A Community In Northern Thailand

universiti brunei darussalambetween 10 to 20 per cent of all the tibeto-burman-speaking lahu people now subscribe to one or another version of the christian religion.the largest proportion of present-day lahu christians inherited the genre of this western religion propagated by american baptist missionaries in the former kengtung state of burma (from 1901 to 1966), in yunnan (from 1920 to 1949), and in north thailand (from 1968 to 1990). for this reason, it is often thought that pioneer american baptist among the lahu, william marcus young (1861–1936), was the first to induct a representative of this people into the christian faith.in fact this is not the case. the first lahu christians lived in north thailand, baptised by long-time chiang mai-based american presbyterian missionary, daniel mcgilvary. this was in 1891, thirteen years before young’s first baptism of a lahu in kengtung, burma, in october 1904.the paper addresses three questions. why were lahu living in upland north thailand in the early 1890s? why did one small lahu community decide to embrace the christian religion? finally, why, in stark contrast to baptist christianity in the lahu mountains, did this fledgling lahu presbyterian community disappear, apparently without trace, sometime after 1920 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • North Thailand
  • American Baptist
  • Northern Thailand
  • Stark Contrast
  • Western Religion
Mimesis: Some Reflections On Bodhicitta Verses In The Second Chapter Of The Guhyasamājatantra

vilnius universityalthough the ultimate bodhicitta functions within a non-dual model of cognition where oppositions (good and evil, pure and impure, saṃsāra–nirvāṇa, etc.) do not exist, it is traditionally considered to be the wisdom cognising emptiness. in this paper i will try to explore the cognitive nature of the ultimate bodhicitta to answer the question ‘what kind of cognition is the cognising of emptiness?’ in the paper i also will make an attempt to describe the basics of ambivalent tantric ethics in terms of the phenomenological category of imitation or mimesis. verses on the ultimate bodhicitta in the second chapter of the guhyasamājatantra are a subject of commentaries written by various tibetan and indian authors. the paper is supplemented with a translation of bodhicittabhāvanā written by ācārya kamalaśīla. this short text is a commentary on verses proclaimed by tathagāgata vairocana in the second chapter of guhyasamājatantra Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Dual Model
  • Short Text
  • Good And Evil
Languages In Sub-Saharan Africa In A Broader Socio-Political Perspective

charles university this study deals with language policies in africa with a special focus on multi-ethnic and multi-lingual states including sudan, ethiopia, nigeria, cameroon, and democratic republic of congo. the study will thus examine relations between state and minorities, the status of major and marginalized languages, the roles of european languages in politics as well as theoretical frameworks. sub-saharan africa has undergone a remarkable process from linguistic imperialism to linguistic pluralism and revivalism. until the 1960s the superior position of the european languages (english, french, and portuguese) was evident, but after the africanization of politics and society in many african countries, a strong accent on linguistic emancipation was initiated. nowadays, many african countries follow the principle of linguistic pluralism where several languages enjoy the same rights and space in the media, administrative, education, etc. this study will discuss some important case studies and their specific language policies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sub Saharan Africa
  • Language Policies
  • African Countries
  • European Languages
Congruity (Li) As Ethical Notion In Zhu Xi’S Theory Of Renxing

vilnius universitythis article deals with the cosmology and ethics of zhu xi (朱熹) and reconstructs the relation between these two fields of inquiry in zhu xi’s philosophy. this article opposes the still common view in contemporary scholarship that portrays zhu xi as a metaphysical thinker who introduced metaphysical notions into the confucian discourse. the true originality and innovation of zhu xi was his attempt to appropriate the notion of li 理, which was the key term in the metaphysical speculations of chinese buddhism and was also adopted by the early song neo-confucians in their cosmological investigations, and to show its relevance and conformity to the classical confucian ethical thought. the article demonstrates how zhu xi turns li 理 into a key ethical concept through identifying it with the particular course of the growth (xing 性) of things and ultimately, with the particular course of human growth (renxing 人性 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Zhu Xi
  • Human Growth
  • Common View
  • Ethical Thought
  • Ethical Concept
Thinking In A Different Language: The Orientalist Senkovskii And ‘Orientalism

the wellcome library, london, institute of oriental studies, moscowthis article deals with the research methods of an alumnus of the university of wilno, the controversial russian orientalist osip ivanovich senkovskii (1800–1859). his attitude towards the scholarly and literary production of his contemporaries—the austrian orientalist von hammer-purgstall, russian historian karamzin, and russian poet zhukovskii—is reflected in his letters to his teacher joachim lelewel. senkovskii, at the time considered even a ‘literary clown’ in his popular writings, criticised the leading western theories of eastern culture. his views about the necessity to learn the east from inside as opposed to the theories of the european orientalists found support only 150 years later in the works of the palestinian scholar edward w. said (1935–2003 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Research Methods
  • Literary Production
  • Eastern Culture
  • The University
  • Oriental Studies
History And Ethnography Of Mongolian-Speaking Peoples In Materials Of O.M. Kowalewski In Library Holdings Of Vilnius University

buryat state universitythe article is devoted to a famous diary that was written by orientalist osip (józef) michailovich kowalewski and is being stored in the script department of the library of vilnius university. this article is one of the first attempts to introduce it to the scientific field. the document, entitled diary of pursuits in 1832, is an important source of the history and ethnography of mongolian-speaking peoples and is an essential supplement to well-known materials about these peoples Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Vilnius University
  • Scientific Field
Early History Of Oriental Studies At Vilnius University

university of warsawthe present paper was written as a contribution to the celebration of the 200th anniversary of oriental studies at vilnius university. the early history of oriental studies, covering the period 1805–24, is presented on the basis of archival materials from collections kept in the lithuanian state historical archives, vilnius university library, and czartoryskis’ library in kraków. two basic documents are published here for the first time. in the first quarter of the 19th century, three sequential attempts towards establishing a chair of oriental studies at vilnius university were undertaken, each one connected with a particular candidate: szymon żukowski (1782–1834), julius klaproth (1783–1835), and józef sękowski (1800–1858 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Vilnius University
  • Oriental Studies
  • Early History
  • 19Th Century
Professor O.M. Kowalewski—Mongolian Studies Scholar, Traveller And Enlightener: His Biographical Landmarks

kazan (volga region) federal universityinstitute of oriental manuscripts of russian academy of scienceuniversity of warsaw in this article, materials devoted to the basic stages of the life and activity of a graduate of vilna university (1821), professor osip mikhailovich kowalewski (1801–1878), are presented. he held the first chair of mongolian literature in russia and europe and served as dean and rector of kazan university. prof kowalewski made scientific trips to siberia, buryatia, mongolia and china (1828–1833); collected unique books, manuscripts, and ethnographic materials of the people of central asia; and became the author of classical works concerning buddhism and the history, languages, literature, religions, folklore, and ethnography of the mongolian people Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Central Asia
  • Volga Region
  • The People
At The Source Of Vilnius Altaic Studies

university of warsawthis paper presents the life and achievements of three polish orientalists connected with vilnius: mongolist józef kowalewski (1801–1878), turkologist antoni muchliński (1808–1877), and altaist and mongolist władysław kotwicz (1872–1944 Show More ... ... Show Less

Waldemar Jochelson—A Prominent Ethnographer Of North-Eastern Siberia

vilnius university this article overviews the biography and ethnographic research of prominent litvak anthropologist waldemar jochelson. it discusses his extensive and influential ethnographic fieldwork among indigenous people in eastern siberia. the author of the article argues that jochelson’s methodology, comparative research, theoretical approaches, and scientific results can have a distinctive value in history and, in particular, anthropology and ethnology studies in lithuania Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Eastern Siberia
  • Indigenous People
  • Comparative Research
  • Ethnographic Research
  • Theoretical Approaches
Marija Rudzinskaitė-Arcimavičienė’S Contribution To Egyptology (In Commemoration Of The 125Th Anniversary Of The Scholar’S Birth

m.k. čiurlionis national museum of art the article is devoted to the contribution of lithuania’s first professional egyptologist, marija rudzinskaitė-arcimavičienė (16 july 1885–4 may 1941), to the science of egyptology. the discussion is centred around the formation of rudzinskaitė-arcimavičienė’s interest in oriental studies, her academic activities at the university of lithuania, her scholarly and popular publications, her scientific and organisational activities, her participation in international congresses of orientalists, her collection of egyptian antiquities, the most relevant trends in her scholarly research, and a general overview of her activities within the sphere of egyptology Show More ... ... Show Less

  • National Museum
  • Scholarly Research
  • General Overview
  • 125Th Anniversary
  • The University
Andrzej Rudomina—Unforgettable Lithuanian Jesuit Missionary Scholar: From Vilnius University To China

jesuit university of philosophy and education ‘ignatianum’ this paper explores one of great lithuanian jesuit missionaries to china—andrzej rudomina (lith. andrius rudamina, chin. lu an de) 盧安德 (1595–1631)—also providing a look at the cultural and spiritual background of lithuania and poland in which he was brought up. it also shows the situation of the society of jesus in the 16th and 17th centuries, with particular focus on the lithuanian–polish–chinese context and connection. andrzej rudomina was the first lithuanian jesuit to set foot behind the great wall of china in the 17th century. in 1625 he reached goa, and then macau, before studying chinese literature in nankeen province. there he began to immerse himself in the complexities of chinese customs. the natives called him lu an de (the chinese name of andrzej rudomina). he reports participating in the kating conference (1627), at which was sought the chinese equivalent for the name of the lord our god, tian zhu 天主. he was very much valued by his jesuit brothers and by the chinese. he died prematurely at the age of 35 of tuberculosis. this article will explore the life of rudomina. we will try to understand this man of holiness, mobility and disponibility. he was a man on mission, but what was nature of the mission and who was it for? what does he have to tell us today in the 21st century? what kind of sign is he for us today Show More ... ... Show Less

  • 21St Century
  • Chinese Literature
  • Jesuit Missionaries
  • Jesuit Missionary
  • Great Wall