greenhouse gas emission
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2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107778
Tao Wang ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Yong Chen ◽  
Yong Fu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Denis Johnson ◽  
Brock Hunter ◽  
Jevaun Christie ◽  
Cullan King ◽  
Eric Kelley ◽  

AbstractWe address the low selectivity problem faced by the electrochemical nitrogen (N2) reduction reaction (NRR) to ammonia (NH3) by exploiting the Mars-van Krevelen (MvK) mechanism on two-dimensional (2D) Ti2N nitride MXene. NRR technology is a viable alternative to reducing the energy and greenhouse gas emission footprint from NH3 production. Most NRR catalysts operate by using an associative or dissociative mechanism, during which the NRR competes with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), resulting in low selectivity. The MvK mechanism reduces this competition by eliminating the adsorption and dissociation processes at the sites for NH3 synthesis. We show that the new class of 2D materials, nitride MXenes, evoke the MvK mechanism to achieve the highest Faradaic efficiency (FE) towards NH3 reported for any pristine transition metal-based catalyst—19.85% with a yield of 11.33 μg/cm2/hr at an applied potential of − 250 mV versus RHE. These results can be expanded to a broad class of systems evoking the MvK mechanism and constitute the foundation of NRR technology based on MXenes.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 551
Claudia Moraga-Contreras ◽  
Lorena Cornejo-Ponce ◽  
Patricia Vilca-Salinas ◽  
Edgar Estupiñan ◽  
Alejandro Zuñiga ◽  

Chile has set itself to achieve Greenhouse Gas emission neutrality, with at least 70% of electricity coming from renewable energy sources by 2050. To this end, institutional and regulatory frameworks have been improved, resulting in significant progress in medium and large-scale projects. However, solar energy production at residential level and its surplus injection to all distribution networks has been very limited. This paper analyzes the evolution of the regulatory energy policies in Chile in order to contrast it with an economic evaluation of residential projects. The analysis focuses on the city of Arica, one of the highest potential regions in terms of solar energy within the country. There, a particularly low penetration of residential solar energy usage has been observed. Based on the current situation, projections are made for Arica in 2050, through the identification of barriers and opportunities on a residential scale development. According to some recommendations, there is the need to design policies that take into account the particular characteristics of each region within the country.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ruiping Jiang ◽  
Meng Zou ◽  
Yu Qin ◽  
Guodong Tan ◽  
Sipei Huang ◽  

Fritillaria species, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2,000 years, have become rare resources due to excessive harvesting. In order to balance the economical requirement and ecological protection of Fritillaria species, it is necessary to determine (1) the important environmental variables that were responsible for the spatial distribution, (2) distribution change in response to climate change in the future, (3) ecological niche overlap between various Fritillaria species, and (4) the correlation between spatial distribution and phylogenies as well. In this study, the areas with potential ecological suitability for Fritillaria cirrhosa, Fritillaria unibracteata, and Fritillaria przewalskii were predicted using MaxEnt based on the current occurrence records and bioclimatic variables. The result indicated that precipitation and elevation were the most important environmental variables for the three species. Moreover, the current suitable habitats of F. cirrhosa, F. unibracteata, and F. przewalskii encompassed 681,951, 481,607, and 349,199 km2, respectively. Under the scenario of the highest concentration of greenhouse gas emission (SSP585), the whole suitable habitats of F. cirrhosa and F. przewalskii reach the maximum from 2021 to 2100, while those of F. unibracteata reach the maximum from 2021 to 2100 under the scenario of moderate emission (SSP370) from 2021 to 2100. The MaxEnt data were also used to predict the ecological niche overlap, and thus high overlap occurring among three Fritillaria species was observed. The niche overlap of three Fritillaria species was related to the phylogenetic analysis despite the non-significance (P > 0.05), indicating that spatial distribution was one of the factors that contributed to the speciation diversification. Additionally, we predicted species-specific habitats to decrease habitat competition. Overall, the information obtained in this study provided new insight into the potential distribution and ecological niche of three species for the conservation and management in the future.

Peiran Zhao ◽  
Abbas Tamadon ◽  
Dirk Pons

CONTEXT– Energy is widely involved in human activity and corresponding emissions of SOX, NOX and CO2 from energy generation processes affect global climate change. Clean fuels are desired by society because of their reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is once such candidate fuel. Much hydrogen is produced from fossil fuel, with biomass being an alternative process. OBJECTIVE– The project compared the environmental impact of hydrogen production by natural gas steam reforming vs. biomass gasification. METHOD–Environmental impact was calculated from the input and output data from life cycle inventory analysis. The impact assessment was focused on greenhouse gas emission, acidification, and eutrophication. Models of the two processes were developed and analysed in OpenLCA. The agribalyse database was used to connect inventory flow data to environmental impacts. FINDINGS– For all three metrics, biomass gasification had lower impacts than natural gas steam reforming, sometimes by large margins. For biomass gasification the silica sand production contributes most to all three impact categories, whereas for natural gas steam reforming it is the LPG extraction.

2022 ◽  

<p>Carbon footprint (CF) is a measure of greenhouse gas emissions generated from daily human-induced activities as carbon dioxide equivalent. This study is an attempt to represent a consumption-based CF study from the scope of transportation, electricity, and waste generation for University of the Punjab (PU), Lahore under the WRI/WBCSD greenhouse gas protocol corporate standards. Data acquired through fieldwork, questionnaire surveys, direct sampling, and existing records for the year 2019-20 suggested that electricity is the greatest contributor of CO2 emissions at 59%, followed by transportation at 36%, and waste generation at approximately 5%. The total CF(CO2_eq) generated from different sources is about 18360.62MT for one year. The recent COVID-19 lockdown has offered inimitable prospect to compare the carbon footprint of one of the largest higher education institutes of Pakistan before and during this pandemic. The data can serve for tracking, assessing, and setting goals for greenhouse gas emission reduction programs in future.</p>

Hans von Storch

AbstractGood intentions by the middle class are not always well guided and do not always lead to measurable or significant results. For example, efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions may hold broad appeal but can still have negligible impact. Therefore, it is suggested to embark on “Apollo projects”, which bundle the potential and willingness of the middle class. These projects should focus on the development of specific technologies, with economic advantages to support their spread throughout the world. Doing so will harness the middle class in support of greenhouse gas emission reductions in the gigaton-range. Such pan-national projects, for example, could address emission-free ship- or air-propulsion, the electrification of heating or of processes in the chemical industry.

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