Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.
Electrochemical detection of metal cations at paper-based sensors has been suggested as an attractive alternative to current spectroscopic and chromatographic detection techniques due to the ease of fabrication, disposable nature, and low cost. Herein, a novel carbon black (CB), dimethylglyoxime (DMG) ink is designed as an electrode modifier in conjunction with 3-electrode inkjet-printed paper substrates for use in the adsorptive stripping voltammetric electroanalysis of nickel cations in water samples. The developed method provides a novel, low-cost, rapid, and portable adsorptive stripping detection approach towards metal analysis in the absence of the commonly used toxic metallic films. The study demonstrated a novel approach to nickel detection at paper-based sensors and builds on previous work in the field of paper-based metal analysis by limiting the use of toxic metal films. The device sensitivity is improved by increasing the active surface area, electron transfer kinetics, and catalytic effects associated with non-conductive dimethylglyoxime films through CB nanoparticles for the first time and confirmed by electroanalysis. The first use of the CB-DMG ink allows for the selective preconcentration of analyte at the electrode surface without the use of toxic Mercury or Bismuth metallic films. Compared to similarly reported paper-based sensors, improved limits of detection (48 µg L-1), selectivity, and intermetallic interferences were achieved. The method was applied to the detection of nickel in water samples well below World Health Organization (WHO) standards.
AbstractThe relationship between metal levels in the Olt River ecosystem in southern Romania (measured during 2018‒2019, with 1064 sediment and water samples) and daily climate data were explored to assess the need for targeted source identification and mitigation strategies. In 2018, there was a strong relationship between the sediment Pb, As, Cd, and Hg contents and temperature (r > 0.8, p < 0.001). Mercury in sediments had a positive correlation with precipitation, and Hg in the water correlated with minimum temperature in May 2018 (p < 0.01). In July 2019, heavy metals were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature. According to nonsymmetrical correspondence analysis, the four climate parameters analyzed were linearly correlated with the frequency of metal detection (p < 0.001) in both years. The statistical analysis showed strong relationships between heavy metal levels and climatic factors and attributed the discrepancies in elemental concentrations between 2018 and 2019 to climate warming.