Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles (e.g., metals and oxides) have been considered as a promising working fluid in microreactors for achieving significant process intensification. Existing examples include their uses in microflow as catalysts for enhancing the reaction efficiency, or as additives to mix with the base fluid (i.e., to form the so-called nanofluids) for heat/mass transfer intensification. Thus, hydrodynamic characterization of such suspension flow in microreactors is of high importance for a rational design and operation of the system. In this work, experiments have been conducted to investigate the flow pattern and pressure drop characteristics under slug flow between N2 gas and colloidal suspensions in the presence of TiO2 or Al2O3 nanoparticles through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary microreactors. The base fluid consisted of water or its mixture with ethylene glycol. The slug flow pattern with nanoparticle addition was characterized by the presence of a lubricating liquid film around N2 bubbles, in contrast to the absence of liquid film in the case of N2-water slug flow. This shows that the addition of nanoparticles has changed the wall wetting property to be more hydrophilic. Furthermore, the measured pressure drop under N2-nanoparticle suspension slug flow is well described by the model of Kreutzer et al. (AIChE J 51(9):2428–2440, 2005) at the mixture Reynolds numbers ca. above 100 and is better predicted by the model of Warnier et al. (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 8(1):33–45, 2010) at lower Reynolds numbers given a better consideration of the effect of film thickness and bubble velocity under such conditions in the latter model. Therefore, the employed nanoparticle suspension can be considered as a stable and pseudo single phase with proper fluid properties (e.g., viscosity and density) when it comes to the pressure drop estimation.
In the future application of nuclear fusion, the liquid metal flows are considered to be an attractive option of the first wall of the Tokamak which can effectively remove impurities and improve the confinement of plasma. Moreover, the flowing liquid metal can solve the problem of the corrosion of the solid first wall due to high thermal load and particle discharge. In the magnetic confinement fusion reactor, the liquid metal flow experiences strong magnetic and electric, fields from plasma. In the present paper, an experiment has been conducted to explore the influence of electric and magnetic fields on liquid metal flow. The direction of electric current is perpendicular to that of the magnetic field direction, and thus the Lorentz force is upward or downward. A laser profilometer (LP) based on the laser triangulation technique is used to measure the thickness of the liquid film of Galinstan. The phenomenon of the liquid column from the free surface is observed by the high-speed camera under various flow rates, intensities of magnetic field and electric field. Under a constant external magnetic field, the liquid column appears at the position of the incident current once the external current exceeds a critical value, which is inversely proportional to the magnetic field. The thickness of the flowing liquid film increases with the intensities of magnetic field, electric field, and Reynolds number. The thickness of the liquid film at the incident current position reaches a maximum value when the force is upward. The distribution of liquid metal in the channel presents a parabolic shape with high central and low marginal. Additionally, the splashing, i.e., the detachment of liquid metal is not observed in the present experiment, which suggests a higher critical current for splashing to occur.
Capillary instability of a two-layer liquid film lining a rigid tube is studied computationally as a model for liquid plug formation and closure of human airways. The two-layer liquid consists of a serous layer, also called the periciliary liquid layer, at the inner side and a mucus layer at the outer side. Together, they form the airway surface liquid lining the airway wall and surrounding an air core. Liquid plug formation occurs due to Plateau–Rayleigh instability when the liquid film thickness exceeds a critical value. Numerical simulations are performed for the entire closure process, including the pre- and post-coalescence phases. The mechanical stresses and their gradients on the airway wall are investigated for physiologically relevant ranges of the mucus-to-serous thickness ratio, the viscosity ratio, and the air–mucus and serous–mucus surface tensions encompassing healthy and pathological conditions of a typical adult human lung. The growth rate of the two-layer model is found to be higher in comparison with a one-layer equivalent configuration. This leads to a much sooner closure in the two-layer model than that in the corresponding one-layer model. Moreover, it is found that the serous layer generally provides an effective protection to the pulmonary epithelium against high shear stress excursions and their gradients. A linear stability analysis is also performed, and the results are found to be in good qualitative agreement with the simulations. Finally, a secondary coalescence that may occur during the post-closure phase is investigated.
Immobilised chitosan on glass plates was used as an adsorbent for metallic ions from aqueous solutions in a batch adsorption system. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time and initial metallic ions concentration. The adsorption efficiency increased with increasing initial metallic ions concentration (5 – 20 mg L-1) and the observed trend was: Ag2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Fe3+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+. The experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle, and liquid film diffusion kinetic models. The applicability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model indicated that the adsorption behaviour was ascribed by chemisorption. Further data analysis by the diffusion kinetic models suggested that the metallic ions adsorption was controlled by more than one step; adsorption at the active sites, intra-particle, and liquid film diffusion.
Applying a constant electric field on a suspended film of liquid that carries an electric current, either by the transport of ions or surface charges, induces a rotation in the film. This system is known as “liquid film motor”. So far, the effect of permittivity of the liquid on its rotation has been ignored. We showed that the permittivity of the liquid can significantly affect the dynamics of rotation. Using an experimental approach, we studied the liquid film rotation for a broad range of pure liquids with diverse permittivities and surface tensions. We observed two different regimes of rotation depending on the permittivity of the liquids. We also found that there is no correlation between the surface tension of the liquid and the angular velocity of the rotation. We considered a theoretical framework and suggested scenarios to explain our experimental observations. These results help in better understanding the physics of liquid film motors and suggest opportunities for new flow manipulation techniques at small scales.