Content Validation
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Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3610
Aljazi Bin Zarah ◽  
Mary Carissa Feraudo ◽  
Jeanette Mary Andrade

Limited instruments are available to determine diet quality among US adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to develop a food frequency questionnaire, CKD SFFQ, for adults with CKD and (2) to validate the CKD SFFQ against two 24-h recalls in determining diet quality (DQ). A 57-item CKD SFFQ was developed through a content validation method. Adults with CKD (n = 46) completed the CKD SFFQ and 2–24-h recalls. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, frequencies, t-tests, Pearson correlations, and Bland–Altman plots. All data were analyzed using JMP SAS v15 with statistical significance detected at p < 0.05. Results showed no differences for the overall DQ (p = 0.11) and the nine whole-food components (p = 0.07 to p = 0.44) when comparing the CKD SFFQ to the 2–24-h recalls. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from −0.39 (refined grains) to 0.60 (greens and beans). Bland–Altman plots showed overall good agreement and there was a systematic trend towards higher estimates with the CKD SFFQ, particularly for overall DQ, total proteins, and dairy. The majority of participants rarely or never consumed grains, fruits, vegetables, seafood, and plant proteins. The CKD SFFQ was demonstrated to be an acceptable method to determine DQ for adults with CKD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Joy C. MacDermid

Content validity is a fundamental requirement of outcome measures. After reviewing operational needs and existing definitions, content validity we as defined as: the extent to which a measure provides a comprehensive and true assessment of the key relevant elements of a specified construct or attribute across a defined range, clearly and equitably for a stated target audience and context. ICF linkage rules from 2002, 2005, and 2019 have provide increasingly clear processes for describing and evaluating content of outcome measures. ICF Core Sets provide international reference standards of the core constructs of importance for different health conditions. Both are important as reference standards during content validation. To summarize their use as reference standards, the following summary indicators were proposed: (1) Measure to ICF linkage, (2) Measure to (Brief or Comprehensive) Core Set Absolute Linkage, (3) Measure to (Brief or Comprehensive) Core Set Unique Linkage, (4) Core Set Representation, and (5) Core Set Unique Disability Representation. Methods to assess how respondents engage with content are needed to complement ICF-linking. Cognitive interviewing is an ideal method since it used to explore how respondents interpret and calibrate response to individual items on an outcome measure. We proposed a framework for classifying these responses: Clarity/Comprehension, Relevance, Inadequate response definition, Reference Point, Perspective modification, and Calibration Across Items. Our analysis of 24 manuscripts that used ICF linking for content validation since updated linking rules were published found that authors typically used linking to validate existing measures, involved multiple raters, used 2005 linking rules, summarized content at a concept level (e.g., impairment, activity, participation) and/or use core sets as a reference standard. Infrequently, ICF linking was used to create item pools/conceptual frameworks for new measures, applied the full scope of the 2019 linking rules, used summary indicators, or integrated ICF-linking with qualitative methods like cognitive interviews. We conclude that ICF linkage is a powerful tool for content validity during development or validation of PROM. Best practices include use of updated ICF linking rules, triangulation of ICF linking with participant assessments of clarity and relevance preferably obtained using cognitive interview methods, and application of defined summary indicators.

Aaron Sujar ◽  
Graham Kelly ◽  
Marcos García ◽  
Franck P. Vidal

Abstract Purpose Traditional undergraduate radiographer training mixes academic lectures and clinical practice. Our goal is to bridge the current disconnection between theory and practice in a safe environment, avoiding the risk of radiation for both practitioners and patients. To this end, this research proposes a new software to teach diagnostic radiography using real-time interactive X-ray simulation and patient positioning. Methods The proposed medical simulator is composed of three main modules. A fast and accurate character animation technique is in charge of simulating the patient positioning phase and adapts their internal anatomy accordingly. gVirtualXRay is an open-source X-ray simulation library and generates the corresponding radiographs in real time. Finally, the courseware allows going through all the diagnostic radiology steps from the patient positioning and the machine configuration to the final image enhancing. Results A face and content validation study has been conducted; 18 radiology professionals were recruited to evaluate our software using a questionnaire. The results show that our tool is realistic in many ways (72% of the participants agreed that the simulations are visually realistic), useful (67%) and suitable (78%) for teaching X-ray radiography. Conclusions The proposed tool allows simulating the most relevant steps of the projectional radiography procedure. The virtual patient posing system and X-ray simulation module execute at interactive rates. These features enable the lectures to show their students the results of good and bad practices in a classroom environment, avoiding radiation risk.

Antonio Romero-Moreno ◽  
Alberto Paramio ◽  
Serafín J. Cruces-Montes ◽  
Antonio Zayas ◽  
Diego Gómez-Carmona ◽  

In recent decades, the study of psychotherapy effectiveness has been one of the pillars of clinical research because of its implication for therapeutic cure. However, although many studies have focused their interest on the patient’s perception, there are no instruments oriented to the study of psychotherapists’ attributions of effectiveness: to what factors psychotherapists attribute responsibility for the cure of the therapies they provide. The present study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for assessing the attribution of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in a population of 69 psychotherapists of different theoretical orientations. After an initial process of inter-judge content validation, 12 items were selected for validation in the targeted population, adequately fulfilling the quality requirements in the validity–reliability tests, and grouped into four factors after principal component analysis. These factors were as follows: (1) therapeutic alliance enhancers; (2) psychotherapist emotional characteristics; (3) therapy-specific variables; and (4) facilitators of patient engagement with therapy. This four-factor structure also showed a good fit for the fit indices checked in confirmatory factor analysis. In summary, we can conclude that the Psychotherapeutic Effectiveness Attribution Questionnaire (PEAQ-12) developed in our research can be helpful if tested on a larger number of individuals. The results can be replicated in other populations of psychotherapists.

Aileen J. ◽  
Sneha Mukherjee ◽  
Seema Bista ◽  
Manasa Reddy ◽  
Chitrasree S. ◽  

Background: The world health organization has declared COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency which has severely affected the health-care system, social networking and economic growth throughout the world. The aim of this study was to develop awareness strategy on knowledge, attitude and perception regarding COVID-19 vaccine among the general public in selected urban area of Bangalore.Methods: The survey was conducted among 400 respondents of Hebbal constituency, Bangalore, Karnataka (India) through a structured; open and close-ended questionnaire. Content validation was done to assess the validity and factor analysis for reliability. Collected data was analyzed by using ANOVA for testing the quantitative variables (age, gender, education level, employment status) and qualitative variables (knowledge, attitude and perception).Results: Our results indicate that there is difference of opinion in the aspect of knowledge and perception among various age groups.Conclusions: The study concluded that there is a sound knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine among the age group of 18-35 years whereas in the age group above 35 years, there is inadequate knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine facts and myths. Therefore, there is high need to create awareness and provide adequate information to the general public.

2021 ◽  
Emi Furukawa ◽  
Tsuyoshi Okuhara ◽  
Hiroko Okada ◽  
Ritsuko Shirabe ◽  
Rie Yokota ◽  

Abstract Background: The Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) systematically evaluates the understandability and actionability of patient education materials. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of PEMAT and verify its reliability and validity.Methods: After assessing content validation, experts scored healthcare-related leaflets and videos according to PEMAT, to verify inter-rater reliability. In validation testing with laypeople, the high-scoring material group (n=800) was presented with materials that received high ratings on PEMAT, and the low-scoring material group (n=799) with materials that received low ratings. Both groups responded to understandability and actionability of the materials and perceived self-efficacy for the recommended actions.Results: The Japanese version of PEMAT showed strong inter-rater reliability (PEMAT-P: % agreement= 87.3, Gwet’s AC1=0.83. PEMAT-A/V: % agreement=85.7%, Gwet’s AC1=.80). The high-scoring material group had significantly higher scores for understandability and actionability than the low-scoring material group (PEMAT-P: understandability 6.53 vs. 5.96, p<.001; actionability 6.04 vs. 5.49, p<.001; PEMAT-A/V: understandability 7.65 vs. 6.76, p<.001; actionability 7.40 vs. 6.36, p<.001). Perceived self-efficacy increased more in the high-scoring material group than in the low-scoring material group.Conclusions: Our study showed that materials rated highly on PEMAT were also easy for laypeople to understand and action. The Japanese version of PEMAT can be used to assess and improve the usability of patient education materials.

Nehad J. Ahmed

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate physicians' opinions on the required information about biosimilars and the need for biosimilars related education. Methodology: The study included a survey that was prepared using a survey from a previous study and after face validation and content validation, it was prepared as an online form using the SurveyMonkey platform. Results: The majority of physicians stated that the most important information about biosimilars are studies that provide clinical immunogenicity data for the biosimilar and reference product (93.33%) in addition to studies that directly compare clinical efficacy and safety between reference products and biosimilars (88.89%). The majority of physicians stated that tracking safety events with biosimilars (94.45%) and access to information on studies comparing biosimilars with reference biologics (91.11%) are important issues related to biosimilars in professional environments. Conclusion: The present study highlights the needs of physicians for biosimilar education. More efforts are needed to increase the awareness regarding biosimilars by different formats in order to integrate biosimilars into clinical practice and to counsel patients about biosimilars.

2021 ◽  
Mohsen Shafiee ◽  
Mostafa Shanbehzadeh ◽  
Zeinab Nassari ◽  
Hadi Kazemi-Arpanahi

Abstract Introduction: nursing documentation is a critical aspect of the nursing care workflow. There is a varying degree in how detailed nursing reporting is described in scientific literature and care practice, and no uniform structured documentation is given. Aims This study aimed to describe the process of designing and evaluating the content of an electronic nursing documentation system to provide consistent and unified reporting in this context. Methods A four-step sequential methodological approach was utilized. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) development process consisting of two phases, as follows: A literature review was performed to attain an exhaustive overview of relevant elements of nursing and map the available evidence underpinning the development of the MDS. Second, the data included from the literature review were analyzed using a two-round Delphi study with content validation by an expert panel. Next, the electronic nursing system (ENS) was developed according to the finalized MDS, and finally, its performance was evaluated by involved the end-users. Results The proposed MDS was divided into administrative and clinical sections; including nursing assessment and nursing diagnosis process. Then, a web-based system with modular and layered architecture was designed based on derived MDS. Finally, to evaluate it, a survey by participating 150 registered nurses (RNs) was conducted and the positive impacts and negative impacts of the system were identified. Conclusion The developed system is suitable for the documentation of patient care in nursing care plans. However, nurses need further training in documenting patient care according to the nursing process, and in using the standard reporting templates to increase patient safety and improve documentation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10333
Weonjin Shin ◽  
Fuhui Tong ◽  
Hsiang-Yu Chien ◽  
Myeongsun Yoon

In this research, we tested the psychometrics of a translated and adapted second language learning motivation instrument among Korean English learners. A total of 1373 college students from 9 universities and 11 majors in South Korea responded to the questionnaire. After the content validation, back-translation, and pilot study, 12 factors and 76 items were chosen for further construct validation. The data were then analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Through EFA, 11 factors and 55 items were extracted while CFA analysis indicated good fit (CFI > 0.9, SRMR = 0.05, RMSEA < 0.05) of the measurement model. The results of this study showed acceptable psychometrics properties of questionnaire which is culturally and structurally appropriate in a Korean college context.

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