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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Z. Ashraf ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
F. Shafique ◽  
M. U. Hassan ◽  
N. Asim ◽  
...  

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Md. Tawhidul Islam ◽  
Md. Elias Hossain

Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world. With a total population of around 165 million, the country has constantly been facing food security challenges and other problems. Therefore, increasing food production is one of the feasible solutions to this challenge, and proper agricultural land use for food production bears critical importance. Adopting sustainable irrigation systems and viable technologies would be vital for ensuring efficient use of agricultural land in Bangladesh to safeguard the country's food security. Solar irrigation pumps (SIPs) can be a reliable option in this regard. However, Bangladesh has experienced a prolonged growth rate of SIP installation in the last decade.  The countryhas set a target to install 10000 SIPs by the year 2027, albeit it is a tiny share of the 1.57 million conventional irrigation pumps operating in the country. This study aims to investigate the economic feasibility of the SIPs operating in the northern region of Bangladesh in terms of estimating financial feasibility and environmental benefits. The study is mainly based on primary data collected from the users of SIPs from two Upazilas of Dinajpur and Rangpur districts. A total of 14 SIPs, categorized into large, medium, and small pumps, are selected randomly from the available SIPs in the study areas. The financial analysis reveals that small SIPs are the most profitable option (20% IRR) for investment. Large SIPs are moderately profitable (10% IRR), and their profitability can be improved (10.50% IRR) by introducing additional uses of solar energy. However, medium SIPs are the worst (5% IRR) option for investment. In the study areas, large and medium SIPs are designed for the 'fees for service model', and small SIPs are designed for the 'fees for ownership model'. It is found that the 'fees for ownership model' is more profitable than the 'fees for service model'. Moreover, the net environmental benefit for all SIPs is found almost equal to the given subsidy for installing them. Also, the net environmental benefit per kilowatt peak (kWp) is highest for the small SIPs. This paper recommends that additional use (e.g., husking, grinding, supply excess electricity to grid, and so on) of solar energy can improve the profitability of investmenton SIPs. Further, the government should continue giving grants for installing SIPs and promote 'fees for ownership model' (small SIPs) for personal use. It would speed up the dissemination rate of SIPs and help increase the country's agricultural production and improve the environmental conditions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 63-71
Author(s):  
Skydan et al. ◽  

The systematization of European experience in the formation of food safety through research and analysis of European regulations and strategies. The key principles of the European Green Deal on food safety were analyzed, namely the implementation of the principle of sustainability of food systems and policies for adaptation to climate change. The levels of food safety of Ukraine and Poland were compared according to the main components: food availability, access to food, food safety conditions. According to the results of a sociological study, the level of food safety of Ukraine in terms of the introduction of the land market was assessed. A portrait of a landowner was formed, and the presence of a land plot affects the state of food supply. Based on the analysis of the main provisions of the European Green Deal and food safety policy (on the example of Poland), the areas of increasing the level of food safety in Ukraine were identified: completion of land reform and lifting the moratorium on the sale of agricultural land; ensuring the production of value-added products; adaptation to climate change, development, and implementation of a national program for rural development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Author(s):  
Lina Galinskaitė ◽  
Alius Ulevičius ◽  
Vaidotas Valskys ◽  
Arūnas Samas ◽  
Peter E. Busher ◽  
...  

Vehicle collisions with animals pose serious issues in countries with well-developed highway networks. Both expanding wildlife populations and the development of urbanised areas reduce the potential contact distance between wildlife species and vehicles. Many recent studies have been conducted to better understand the factors that influence wildlife–vehicle collisions (WVCs) and provide mitigation methods. Most of these studies examined road density, traffic volume, seasonal fluctuations, etc. However, in analysing the distribution of WVC, few studies have considered a spatial and significant distance geostatistical analysis approach that includes how different land-use categories are associated with the distance to WVCs. Our study investigated the spatial distribution of agricultural land, meadows and pastures, forests, built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds, to highlight the most dangerous sections of roadways where WVCs occur. We examined six potential ‘hot spot’ distances (5–10–25–50–100–200 m) to evaluate the role different landscape elements play in the occurrence of WVC. The near analysis tool showed that a distance of 10–25 m to different landscape elements provided the most sensitive results. Hot spots associated with agricultural land, forests, as well as meadows and pastures, peaked on roadways in close proximity (10 m), while hot spots associated with built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds peaked on roadways farther (200 m) from these land-use types. We found that the order of habitat importance in WVC hot spots was agricultural land < forests < meadows and pastures < built-up areas < rivers < lakes and ponds. This methodological approach includes general hot-spot analysis as well as differentiated distance analysis which helps to better reveal the influence of landscape structure on WVCs.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nure Alam Siddiky ◽  
Shariful Islam ◽  
Md Samun Sarker ◽  
Ruhena Begum ◽  
Mohammed A. Samad

Abstract The poultry farming is considered one of the hotspots for the use of antimicrobials. The knowledge, attitude and practices of poultry farmers are closely associated with the prudent use of antimicrobials in poultry farm practices. A cross sectional study was conducted among seventy-four commercial poultry farms using a pretested structured questionnaire survey to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of the poultry farmers regarding antimicrobial use, resistance and farm hygiene management. According to demographics, more farmers were secondary holders (29.72%), followed by higher secondary (22.97%) and illiterate (12.16%) with least number (13.51%) had training on antibiotics but no one had training on AMR. Farmers had sufficient knowledge about antibiotics (86.49%) but inadequate knowledge about antimicrobials (14.86%), AMR (51.35%), and animal and fish feed act (20.27%). The majority of farmers strongly agreed that AMR had a negative impact on production (40.54%), human health (36.49%), environment (33.78%) and economy (52.7%). Farm hygiene management revealed that most of them (90.54%) thrown the expired and leftover antibiotics in the open environments. Furthermore, the farm litter was managed diversely with 39.19% kept in open pit; 33.78% used in fish farm and 5.41% used for agricultural land. It was observed that the dead birds were disposed in a variety of ways, buried into ground (58.10%), thrown into field (9.45%), thrown into bush (6.75%), thrown into garbage (9.45%) and thrown in the water (13.51%). A significant higher association was found between the level of education and knowledge; level of education with farm practices such as choice of antibiotics, determining doses and duration of antibiotics, disposal of farm wastages, disposal of dead birds, farm biosecurity and vaccination coverage (p<0.05). Continuous education, hands-on training, awareness, and motivation of farmers along with good biosecurity, mass vaccination and proper hygienic measures can minimize the uses of antimicrobials in farm operations.


Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Author(s):  
Vicky Shettigondahalli Ekanthalu ◽  
Satyanarayana Narra ◽  
Tommy Ender ◽  
Edward Antwi ◽  
Michael Nelles

Phosphorus (P) recovery from alternative P-rich residues is essential to meet the growing demands of food production globally. Despite sewage sludge being a potential source for P, its direct application on agricultural land is controversial because of the obvious concerns related to heavy metals and organic pollutants. Further, most of the available P recovery and sludge management technologies are cost-intensive as they require mandatory dewatering of sewage sludge. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has gained great attention as a promising process to effectively treat the wet sewage sludge without it having to be dewatered, and it simultaneously enables the recovery of P. This study was conducted to analyse and compare the influence of acid (H2SO4) addition during and after HTC of sewage sludge on P leaching and the characteristics of hydrochar. The obtained results suggested that despite using the same amount of H2SO4, P leaching from solid to liquid phase was significantly higher when acid was used after the HTC of sewage sludge in comparison with acid utilization during the HTC process. After HTC, the reduction in acid-buffering capacity of sewage sludge and increase in solubility of phosphate precipitating metal ions had a greater influence on the mobilization of P from solid to liquid phase. In contrast, utilization of H2SO4 in different process conditions did not have a great influence on proximate analysis results and calorific value of consequently produced hydrochar.


Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Author(s):  
Abdelaziz M. Okasha ◽  
Eman M. Eldib ◽  
Adel H. Elmetwalli ◽  
Aitazaz Ahsan Farooque ◽  
Zaher Mundher Yaseen ◽  
...  

Egypt has limited agricultural land, associated with the scarcity of irrigation water and rapid population growth. Hydroponic farming, seawater desalination and magnetic treatment are among the practical solutions for sustaining rapid population growth. In this regard, the main objective of the present research study was to design and construct a hierarchical engineering unit as a hydroponic farming system (soilless) to produce an iceberg lettuce crop using magnetically treated saline water. The treatments included four types of irrigation water: common irrigation water (IW1) with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.96 dS/m as a control treatment, magnetically treated common irrigation water (IW2) with an EC of 0.96 dS/m, saline water (IW3) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m and magnetically treated saline water (IW4) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m; three depletion ratios (DR) of field capacity (DR0 = 50%, DR1 = 60% and DR2 = 70%) and three slopes of hydroponic pipes (S1 = 0.0%, S2 = 0.025% and S3 = 0.075%). The results revealed that seawater contributed 7.15% to produce iceberg lettuce in the hydroponic system. The geometric parameter, the slope of the pipes, influenced the obtained luminous intensity by an average increase of 21% and 71% for S2 and S3, respectively, compared with the zero slope (horizontal pipes). Magnetization of irrigation water increased the total soluble solids (TSS) and enhanced the fresh weight and water productivity of both iceberg lettuce varieties used. The maximum percentages of TSS were 5.20% and 5.10% for lemur and iceberg 077, respectively, for the combination IW4DR2S2. The highest values of fresh weight and water productivity of 3.10 kg/m and 39.15 kg/m3 were recorded with the combinations IW3DR2S3 and IW4DR1S3, respectively, for lemur and iceberg lettuce. The percentages of these increases were 109.46% and 97.78%, respectively, when compared with the combination IW1DR0S1. The highest values of iceberg lettuce 077 fresh weight and water productivity were 2.93 kg/m and 36.15 kg/m3, respectively, which were recorded with the combination IW4DR1S3. The percentages of these increases were 112.32% and 120.56%, respectively, when compared with IW1DR0S1 (the control treatment).


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Laju Gandharum ◽  
Djoko Mulyo Hartono ◽  
Asep Karsidi ◽  
Mubariq Ahmad

Uncontrolled urban expansion resulting from urbanization has a disastrous impact on agricultural land. This situation is being experienced by the densely populated and fertile island Java in Indonesia. Remote sensing technologies have developed rapidly in recent years, including the creation of Google Earth Engine (GEE). Intensity analysis (IA) is increasingly being used to systematically and substantially analyze land-use/land-cover (LULC) change. As yet, however, no study of land conversion from agriculture to urban areas in Indonesia has adopted GEE and IA approaches simultaneously. Therefore, this study aims to monitor urban penetration to agricultural land in the north coastal region of West Java Province by applying both methods to two time intervals: 2003–2013 and 2013–2020. Landsat data and a robust random forest (RF) classifier available in GEE were chosen for producing LULC maps. Monitoring LULC change using GEE and IA has demonstrated reliable findings. The overall accuracy of Landsat image classification results for 2003, 2013, and 2020 were 88%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. IA outputs at interval levels for all categories showed that the annual change-of-area rate was higher during 2013–2020 than during 2003–2013. At the category level, IA results showed that the area of agricultural land experienced net losses in both periods, with net loss in 2013–2020 being 2.3 times greater than that in 2003–2013 (∼1,850 ha per year). In contrast, the built-up area made net gains in both periods, reaching almost twice as much in the second period as in the first (∼2,030 ha per year). The transition-level IA performed proved that agricultural land had been the primary target for the expansion of built-up areas. The most extensive spatial distribution of land conversion from agriculture to built-up area was concentrated in the regencies of Bekasi, Karawang, and Cirebon. These findings are intended to provide stakeholders with enrichment in terms of available literature and with valuable inputs useful for identifying better urban and regional planning policies in Indonesia and similar regions.


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