economic value
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. Jabeen ◽  
T. Younis ◽  
S. Sidra ◽  
B. Muneer ◽  
Z. Nasreen ◽  

Abstract Chitin and its derived products have immense economic value due to their vital role in various biological activities as well as biomedical and industrial application. Insects, microorganism and crustaceans are the main supply of chitin but the crustaceans shell like shrimp, krill, lobsters and crabs are the main commercial sources. Chitin content of an individual varies depending on the structures possessing the polymer and the species. In this study edible crabs’ shells (Callinectes sapidus) were demineralized and deproteinized resulting in 13.8% (dry weight) chitin recovery from chitin wastes. FTIR and XRD analyses of the experimental crude as well as purified chitins revealed that both were much comparable to the commercially purchased controls. The acid pretreatment ceded 54g of colloidal chitin that resulted in 1080% of the crude chitin. The colloidal chitin was exploited for isolation of eighty five chitinolytic bacterial isolates from different sources. Zone of clearance was displayed by the thirty five isolates (41.17%) succeeding their growth at pH 7 on colloidal chitin agar medium. Maximum chitinolytic activity i.e. 301.55 U/ml was exhibited by isolate JF70 when cultivated in extracted chitin containing both carbon and nitrogen. The study showed wastes of blue crabs can be utilized for extraction of chitin and isolation of chitinolytic bacteria that can be used to degrade chitin waste, resolve environmental pollution as well as industrial purpose.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 867-879
Risal Rinofah ◽  
Pristin Prima Sari ◽  
Heni   Nur Amrina

The purpose of this study is to find out whether the effect of Market Value Added, Profitability, and Market Value Added on stock price. Sampling in this study is a purposive sampling method. Then the data is tested using multiple regression analysis. The results of the t test showed that the Economic Value Added has a signification value of 0,018 which means smaller than 0,05 and the calculated value of -2.441<t tablel 2.00758 then H1 is accepted. Profitability has a signification value of 0,034 greater than 0,05 and a calculated value of 2.182>t table 2.00758 then H2 is accepted, Market Value Added has significant  value of 0,223 greater than 0,05 and the value of t calculated -1.235<t table 2.00758 then H3 is rejected. The results of the F test showed that Economic Value Added, Profitability, Market Value Added have a calculated F value of 2,933 and sig. 0,042. Because the value F calculated 2.933>F table 2.773 and sig. value 0,042<0,05. It can be concluded that partially Economic Value Added has a significant negative effect on stock price, Profitability has a significant effect on stock price, Market Value Added has no significant effect on stock price and simultaneously Economic Value Added, Profitability, Market Value Added has a significant effect on stock price Keywords: Economic Value Added, Profitabilitas, Market Value Added, Stock Price

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qi Zhang ◽  
Jing Geng ◽  
Yanli Du ◽  
Qiang Zhao ◽  
Wenjing Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an essential crop with high economic value. The growth of this plant is sensitive to environmental stress. Heat shock factor (Hsf) is a family of antiretroviral transcription factors that regulate plant defense system against biotic and abiotic stress. To date, few studies have identified and bio-analyzed Hsfs in common bean. Results In this study, 30 Hsf transcription factors (PvHsf1–30) were identified from the PFAM database. The PvHsf1–30 belonged to 14 subfamilies with similar motifs, gene structure and cis-acting elements. The Hsf members in Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and common bean were classified into 14 subfamilies. Collinearity analysis showed that PvHsfs played a role in the regulation of responses to abiotic stress. The expression of PvHsfs varied across different tissues. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that most PvHsfs were differentially expressed under cold, heat, salt and heavy metal stress, indicating that PvHsfs might play different functions depending on the type of abiotic stress. Conclusions In this study, we identified 30 Hsf transcription factors and determined their location, motifs, gene structure, cis-elements, collinearity and expression patterns. It was found that PvHsfs regulates responses to abiotic stress in common bean. Thus, this study provides a basis for further analysis of the function of PvHsfs in the regulation of abiotic stress in common bean.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-99
Sudjana Sudjana

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of countermeasures against copyright piracy from a legal system perspective. The research method used is a normative juridical approach, starting from secondary data consisting of primary legal materials, secondary legal materials, and tertiary legal materials. The data collection technique was carried out through document study and qualitative normative data analysis. The legal structure is related to Law no. 28/2014 concerning Copyright still has obstacles related to the consistency of law enforcers (especially investigators, especially Civil Servant Investigators) who have carried out their functions but have not been effective due to internal and external constraints. In terms of legal substance, the Copyright Law has a normative weakness, namely adhering to a complaint offense against copyright crimes which causes law enforcement to take longer. Meanwhile, in terms of legal culture, the public has not fully respected the creations of other parties, as evidenced by the increasing number of piracy of copyright works and a way of thinking that considers intellectual property including copyright to only have a social function, even though it is also an individual right that has economic value. Therefore, the application of the legal system according to Friedman on the effectiveness of counter piracy of copyright works has not been effective.

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. e436
E. Plasquy ◽  
G. Blanco-Roldán ◽  
M.C. Florido ◽  
J.M. García

Small producers confront specific challenges when they opt to produce high-quality olive fruit. Limited resources for investing in harvest machinery and manpower are the main reasons for continuing a traditional harvest method that puts the final product and its economic value at risk. This paper discusses the efficiency of an integrated harvest system as a possible solution to these specific challenges. The system is formed by a newly designed manual harvesting device and the use of a cooling room near the olive grove. Both systems were evaluated to assess their feasibility for optimum conditions before processing. The combined effect of the harvesting method and cold storage on the fruit characteristics (incidence of decay, skin color, weight loss, firmness, respiration, and ethylene production) was evaluated on three different varieties (‘Arbequina’, ‘Picual’ and ‘Verdial’) and four different storage times (0, 4, 8, and 14 days). The results indicate that the proposed harvesting method in combination with an appropriate cooling system offers an affordable alternative for obtaining fruit with the best physiological characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Linhan Chen ◽  
Wenjun Yang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Pengfei Tu ◽  
Shengnan Hu ◽  

Abstract Traditional phytoremediation is one means for remediation of heavy metal pollution. For developing countries, the key factor in promoting the practical application of phytoremediation in polluted soils is selecting suitable plants tolerant to heavy metals and using these to produce products with economic value. A chicory-tobacco-peanut, three-season, rotation field experiment was carried on the utilization and remediation of cadmium (Cd) in contaminated farmlands. The results showed that all three crops had a strong capacity to accumulate Cd, with bioconcentration factors of chicory, tobacco, and peanut 6.61 to 11.97, 3.85 to 21.61, and 1.36 to 7, respectively. The yield of total dry biomass and phytoextraction efficiency for Cd reached 32.4 t ha-1 and 10.3% per year, respectively. The aboveground tissues of the three crops accounted for 83.9–91.2% of the total biomass in this rotation experiment. The content of peanut grain and oil met the National Food Safety Standard of China (0.5 mg kg-1, GB 2762-2017) and the Food Contaminant Limit of the European Union (0.1 mg kg-1, 18812006). Therefore, in addition to being used for phytoremediation in contaminated soils, this crop rotation system can also lead to economic benefits for local farmers.

2022 ◽  
Xiaozhong Wang ◽  
Tao Liang ◽  
Dunxiu Liao ◽  
Weilin Tao ◽  
Rui Jiang ◽  

Abstract Global warming has driven the expansion of cultivated land to high-altitude areas. Intensive vegetable production, which is generally considered to be a high economic value and high environmental risk system, has expanded greatly in high-altitude mountainous areas of China. However, the environmental cost of vegetable production in these areas is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated pepper production at low (traditional pepper production area) and high (newly expanded area) altitudes in Shizhu, a typical pepper crop area. The output and environmental cost at the two altitudes were identified. We evaluated the influence of resource inputs, climate, and soil properties on pepper production. There were obvious differences in output and environmental cost between the two altitudes. High-altitude pepper production achieved a 16.2% lower yield, and had a higher fertilizer input, resulting in a 22.3% lower net ecosystem economic benefit (NEEB), 23.0% higher nitrogen (N) footprint and 24.0% higher carbon (C) footprint compared to low-altitude farming. There is potential for environmental mitigation with both high- and low-altitude pepper production; Compared to average farmers, high yield farmers groups reduced their N and C footprints by 16.9–24.8% and 18.3–25.2%, respectively, with 30.6–34.1% higher yield. A large increase in yield could also be achieved by increasing the top-dress fertilizer rate and decreasing the plant density. Importantly, high-altitude pepper production was achieved despite less advanced technology and inferior conditions (e.g., a poor road system and uneven fields). It provides a reference for the study on environmental cost of other high-altitude regions or other crop systems at high altitude area.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262506
Weitai Li ◽  
Dengjing Huang ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  
Xuemei Hou ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  

As the main forms of carbohydrates, starch and sucrose play a vital role in the balance and coordination of various carbohydrates. Lanzhou lily is the most popular edible lily in China, mainly distributed in the central region of Gansu. To clarify the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and bulb development of Lanzhou lily, so as to provide a basis for the promotion of the growth and development in Lanzhou lily and its important economic value, we studied lily bulbs in the squaring stage, flowering stage, half withering stage and withering stage. The plant height, fresh weight of mother and daughter bulbs continued to increase during the whole growth period and fresh weight of stem and leaf began to decrease in the half withering stage. The content of starch, sucrose and total soluble sugar in the lily mother bulb accumulated mostly in the flowering, withering and half withering stages, respectively. Starch, sucrose and total soluble sugar accumulated in the daughter bulb with the highest concentration during the withering stage. In the transcription level, sucrose synthase (SuSy1) and sucrose invertase (INV2) expressed the highest in squaring stage, and the expression was significantly higher in the mother bulb than in the daughter bulb. In flowering stage, the expression levels of soluble starch synthase (SSS1), starch-branching enzyme (SBE) and adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP1) genes were higher in the mother bulb than in the daughter bulb. Altogether, our results indicate that starch and sucrose are important for the bulb growth and development of Lanzhou lily.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 495
Nives Jovičić ◽  
Alan Antonović ◽  
Ana Matin ◽  
Suzana Antolović ◽  
Sanja Kalambura ◽  

Globally, lignocellulosic biomass has great potential for industrial production of materials and products, but this resource must be used in an environmentally friendly, socially acceptable and sustainable manner. Wood and agricultural residues such as walnut shells as lignocellulosic biomass are one of the most affordable and important renewable resources in the world, which can partially replace fossil resources. The overall objective of the research is to provide background information that supports new applications of walnut shells in a biorefinery context and to increase the economic value of these non-wood forest products. This paper presents the properties characterization of liquefied biomass according to their chemical composition. All results were compared to liquefied wood. In this study, the liquefaction properties of five different walnut shell particle sizes were determined using glycerol as the liquefaction reagent under defined reaction conditions. The liquefied biomass was characterized for properties such as percentage residue, degree of liquefaction, and hydroxyl OH numbers. The chemical composition of the same biomass was investigated for its influence on the liquefaction properties. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to determine the liquefaction properties of different particle sizes as a function of their chemical composition, also in comparison with the chemical composition of wood. The study revealed that walnut shell biomass can be effectively liquefied into glycerol using H2SO4 as the catalyst, with liquefaction efficiency ranging from 89.21 to 90.98%.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 198
Kathryn Gazal ◽  
Ross Andrew ◽  
Robert Burns

Understanding the economic value of marine sanctuaries such as the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) is important to justify public and private investments and to provide information to support management activities and understand their role in the nation’s blue economy. Very few studies have employed economic contribution analysis in examining economic value, even though it is more useful in influencing the behaviors of decision makers. This study therefore employs such a methodology to determine the economic importance of tourism and visitor spending in the sanctuary to Monroe County, Florida’s economy. Visitors who came to the area for ocean recreation and tourism spent a total of USD 1.7 billion, which translates to a contribution of 19,688 total jobs, USD 752 million in total labor income, USD 1.2 billion in total value added, and USD 2 billion in total output to the region. With regard to the spending of snorkelers and divers only, total spending is about USD 1.07 billion, contributing about 12,441 total jobs, USD 466 million in total labor income, USD 767 million in total value added, and USD 1.2 billion in total output. Ocean recreation is therefore an important economic driver in the region and efforts should be directed at protecting the diverse and sensitive ecosystem of the sanctuary.

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