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In this paper, we address the research question of to what extent is it possible to discern theories of change being built into the business practices of nascent social enterprises in ways that lay foundations for the subsequent upscaling of their social innovations? We argue that social enterprises that are ‘ready-to-upscale’ are those that clearly produce a solution to an underlying problem, and where their activities are clearly derived from the underlying problem, and also those activities clearly connect forward to deliver consistent solutions. We apply a Theories of Change approach to the concept of social entrepreneurship as a means of setting a criterion for ‘ready-to-upscale’, studying six Sri Lankan micro-social enterprises in which we can trace stories of impact. This provides a means to develop a model of the ways that social entrepreneurship creates the foundations for structural changes that reduce systematic inequalities, and offers social enterprise funders a framework to better stimulate emergence of social enterprises ready-to-upscale and deliver social innovation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-42
Kelsey Urgo ◽  
Jaime Arguello

Search systems are often used to support learning-oriented goals. This trend has given rise to the “search-as-learning” movement, which proposes that search systems should be designed to support learning. To this end, an important research question is: How does a searcher’s type of learning objective (LO) influence their trajectory (or pathway ) toward that objective? We report on a lab study (N = 36) in which participants gathered information to meet a specific type of LO. To characterize LOs and pathways , we leveraged Anderson and Krathwohl’s (A&K’s) taxonomy [ 3 ]. A&K’s taxonomy situates LOs at the intersection of two orthogonal dimensions: (1) cognitive process (CP) (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create) and (2) knowledge type (factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive knowledge). Participants completed learning-oriented search tasks that varied along three CPs (apply, evaluate, and create) and three knowledge types (factual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge). A pathway is defined as a sequence of learning instances (e.g., subgoals) that were also each classified into cells from A&K’s taxonomy. Our study used a think-aloud protocol, and pathways were generated through a qualitative analysis of participants’ think-aloud comments and recorded screen activities. We investigate three research questions. First, in RQ1, we study the impact of the LO on pathway characteristics (e.g., pathway length). Second, in RQ2, we study the impact of the LO on the types of A&K cells traversed along the pathway. Third, in RQ3, we study common and uncommon transitions between A&K cells along pathways conditioned on the knowledge type of the objective. We discuss implications of our results for designing search systems to support learning.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-57
Wojciech Otrebski ◽  
Agnieszka Czusz-Sudoł ◽  

According to Heller and Życiński (1980) the primary regulator of human behaviour is the system of values therefore its development should be in the centre of all educational and upbringing measures. Our focus here is on moral sensitivity understood as the ability of an individual to see social situations from the perspective of moral good and moral evil that represent values embodied in moral norms adopted by the world and internalised by humans as the principles of conduct. The main research question was the following: How morally sensitive are persons with ID and how is their sensitivity associated with the degree of intellectual disability and gender? A non-probability sample 267 of Polish residents aged 16-30 years with mild (58.42%) or moderate (41.58%) intellectual disability was assembled. Men and women were almost in equal proportion. The Moral Sensitivity Inventory (MSI; Otrębski, Sudoł, 2020) has been used to measure the moral sensitivity of people with ID. It consists of 10 illustrated stories presenting typical social situations containing moral dilemmas, and an evaluation form. The tested person’s task is to answer the following question “Who, in this story, did something right or wrong, and what was that?” and to indicate as many moral elements in the story and the picture as they can. The results imply that the study participants had different ability to discern moral good and moral evil. They were more sensitive to the manifestations of good and evil bad associated with Understanding one’s behaviour and its impact on others (more than one-fourth of them had high scores) and less perceptive of those relating to Respect for others’ property and Conformance to principles and norms. The results of the study expand the knowledge of the overall moral sensitivity of persons with intellectual disabilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-38
Yuan Tian ◽  
Ke Zhou ◽  
Dan Pelleg

User engagement is crucial to the long-term success of a mobile app. Several metrics, such as dwell time, have been used for measuring user engagement. However, how to effectively predict user engagement in the context of mobile apps is still an open research question. For example, do the mobile usage contexts (e.g., time of day) in which users access mobile apps impact their dwell time? Answers to such questions could help mobile operating system and publishers to optimize advertising and service placement. In this article, we first conduct an empirical study for assessing how user characteristics, temporal features, and the short/long-term contexts contribute to gains in predicting users’ app dwell time on the population level. The comprehensive analysis is conducted on large app usage logs collected through a mobile advertising company. The dataset covers more than 12K anonymous users and 1.3 million log events. Based on the analysis, we further investigate a novel mobile app engagement prediction problem—can we predict simultaneously what app the user will use next and how long he/she will stay on that app? We propose several strategies for this joint prediction problem and demonstrate that our model can improve the performance significantly when compared with the state-of-the-art baselines. Our work can help mobile system developers in designing a better and more engagement-aware mobile app user experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Archana Shrivastava ◽  
Ashish Shrivastava

Purpose This study aims to investigate the attributes of the online programme that are considered and compute their relative importance in the purchase decision. This study aims to identify the most lucrative bundling of these attributes and their levels that can be used by online education companies to craft their product design strategy to attract customers with the most attractive offering. Design/methodology/approach This research paper endeavours to identify the attributes of online education, which customers consider for making a purchase decision. Exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the key attributes of online education programmes. This paper uses the conjoint analysis technique to identify the most preferred bundling of attributes, which online education companies can package to attract customers. Findings Based on various attributes and their respective levels, it is evident the most lucrative design for attracting customers to buy online education programmes is to provide certification from a reputed international university, which requires an investment to the tune of 3,000–5,000. The duration of four weeks with asynchronous pedagogy and access to course material vial uniform resource locator (URL) is a preferred feature. Access via a mobile application is more preferred over Web access. A phone application is known to be optimised, and most people are using mobile phones to access the internet. Online certification or degrees that are considered as valid employment qualifications were most preferred over other reasons. Originality/value There is a dearth of studies on massive open online courses (MOOCs) from a product design perspective. There is a gap in the context of the features to be included in the MOOCs package so that the customer can find more value in it, and the companies can benefit by expanding their customer base. The research question which this study endeavours to explore is what attributes consumers of MOOCs consider when making a purchase decision. This study will also find the relative importance of these attributes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-106
Lamyaa Falah AlMohaya

The aim of this exploratory experimental quantitative is to investigate the impact of the learning environment and text types on the syntactic complexity of female Saudi students majoring in English language. Specifically, the study seeks to explore how and when the syntactic complexity of these students increases/decreases as a whole and across the fourteen measures of syntactic complexity (MLS, MLT.MLC.C/S, VP/T, C/T, DC/C, DC/T, T/S, CT/T, CP/T, CP/C, CN/T, CN/C) in two learning contexts: traditional learning context (TLC) and blended learning context (BLT) across three writing tasks (argumentative, classification ,and reaction). It purports, also, to find out when and which learning context leads to the most/least increase/decrease in the syntactic complexity (as a whole and across specific measures) of Saudi undergraduate in the three writing tasks. To answer such questions, 48 female Saudi EFL undergraduate students were recruited from the pool of level six students. The participants were randomly divided into the control and experimental groups. The control group consisted of 28 students; while the experimental group was comprised of 20 students. The 288 students’ writing productions were analyzed according to the fourteen measures of syntactic complex by using a paired t-test and an independent t test. For the first question, the results of this study show that there was no increase/decrease in syntactic complexity, either as a whole or partially across individual measures, for the control group for the three writing tasks (argumentation, classification, and reaction). This would suggest that traditional learning method does not reach to level to be significant to the participants in the control group. For the second research question, the t-tests showed that the syntactic complexity of the participants in the experimental group increased as a whole in both the classification and reaction essays. An increase in complexity was shown across the following measures for the classification essay: MLS, MLT, MLC, CN/T/VP/T, and CN/C. For the reaction essay, an increase in complexity was shown across MLS, MLT, MLC, and CN/T measures. Although the syntactic complexity of these participants did not increase/decrease as a whole for the argumentation essay, the CN/T measure did show some increase. Finally, the comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that, although the experimental group in this study showed more improvement in syntactic complexity than the control group, the degree of difference between the two groups was too small to draw any definite conclusion about the relative effectiveness of the two methods. This may be due to the comparatively short duration of the study: ten weeks. The findings of this research have significant implications for academic research and for Saudi EFL teachers at the university level.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rabea Schrage ◽  
Lasse Meißner ◽  
Reinhard Schütte ◽  
Peter Kenning

PurposeDue to recent developments of indoor location-tracking technologies, brick-and-mortar retailers are now able to add location-based marketing capabilities to their existing retail apps, providing retailers with new opportunities to interact with customers inside of their stores. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing the customers' adoption intention of location-based retail apps for stationary retailing.Design/methodology/approachBased on the technology acceptance model, a conceptual model was developed. A Web-based survey was conducted in Germany with a final sample of 501 cases. Structural equation modelling was performed to test the hypotheses.FindingsThe results confirmed the positive relationship between attitude and the customers' intention to use location-based retail apps. Perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment promote a positive attitude toward location-based retail apps, while privacy concerns and fear of spam hinder the formation of a favorable attitude. Subjective norms have a positive effect on customers' usage intention.Practical implicationsThe results help retailers who want to establish location-based retail apps at the point of sale (e.g. in the context of omni-channel strategies).Originality/valueAs previous research about location-based apps has mainly used empirical data from either Chinese or American samples, less is known about the perception of European customers. Research indicates that existing findings might not be transferable to European countries due to differences in values, social norms or regulations. Also, the failure of Shopkick in Germany illustrates the need for more research. Based on this, using a German sample to answer the research question, this study aims to provide a European perspective on location-based retail apps, and thereby extend existing research.

2022 ◽  
pp. 004912412110557
Ian Lundberg

Disparities across race, gender, and class are important targets of descriptive research. But rather than only describe disparities, research would ideally inform interventions to close those gaps. The gap-closing estimand quantifies how much a gap (e.g., incomes by race) would close if we intervened to equalize a treatment (e.g., access to college). Drawing on causal decomposition analyses, this type of research question yields several benefits. First, gap-closing estimands place categories like race in a causal framework without making them play the role of the treatment (which is philosophically fraught for non-manipulable variables). Second, gap-closing estimands empower researchers to study disparities using new statistical and machine learning estimators designed for causal effects. Third, gap-closing estimands can directly inform policy: if we sampled from the population and actually changed treatment assignments, how much could we close gaps in outcomes? I provide open-source software (the R package gapclosing) to support these methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Philjoo Moon ◽  
Emmanuel Bayle ◽  
Aurélien François

Research Question: Sustainability has become a pressing issue for a wide range of organizations, including sports' world governing bodies. This paper examines (1) how sustainability can be defined in the context of international sport federations and (2) how international federations implement social and environmental sustainability practices. We used an eight-dimensional analytical framework to analyze multiple case studies and drew on neo-institutional theory to interpret the recent changes international federations have made with regard to sustainability.Research Methods: Our methodology combined a multiple case study with analyses of official documents and in-depth semi-structured interviews.Results and Findings: Our six case studies revealed five approaches to sustainability: (a) implementing sustainability pilot events; (b) partnering with NGOs; (c) partnering with sustainability consultancies; (d) creating a sustainability committee; and (e) launching a comprehensive sustainability strategy with at least a full-time sustainability manager.Implications: In terms of theory, examining our data through the lens of neo-institutional theory provides insights into international federations' recent sustainability behaviors. Our findings enabled us to draw up a “sustainability ladder” of sport federations' responsibilities, which can be used to assess the degree to which they have embraced sustainability. In practical terms, our findings should encourage more sport federations to take concrete steps to improve their sustainability by implementing the five approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Marli Möller ◽  
Karine Dupré ◽  
Ruwan Fernando

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to provide a global snapshot of the current state of knowledge regarding attrition rates of women architects. The intended audience includes all the stakeholders of the profession, as well as those interested in professional attrition studies, with the aim to contribute to a social debate, which places increasing value on diversity, equal representation and retention in this field.Design/methodology/approachThis paper has utilized the structured analytical technique of a systematic review of the scholarship involving scholarship published over two decades between the years 2000 and 2020. Having selected research on this topic following a series of exclusionary and inclusionary criteria for relevancy and accuracy, this select research has been categorically and thoroughly analyzed using this technique.FindingsThis literature review identifies four main recurring themes among the literature, which address this research question, including: (1). cross-national differences and similarities; (2) demotivating factors leading to attrition; (3) graduate/architect terminology, which blurs the distinction between participants in architecture; and (4) implications of female architects as represented in professional publications and the “reward system.” Consequently, this literature review finds that to date no singular cause can be pinpointed as the sole cause of women's attrition, but rather a series of complex and intertwining factors, some of them specific to the profession.Originality/valueThis paper suggests areas for further study into the reduction of attrition rates of registered women in this discipline, with an emphasis that further research may expand to focus rather on positive aspects of the profession resulting in areas of retention, which has been of little focus in current research. Additionally, these findings make suggestions toward a series of recommendations that may assist in framing the industry toward more positive and equitable career and industry trajectories.

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