dna supercoiling
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Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Neveen M. Saleh ◽  
Yasmine S. Moemen ◽  
Sara H. Mohamed ◽  
Ghady Fathy ◽  
Abdullah A. S. Ahmed ◽  

DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are proven to be validated targets in the design of novel antibacterial drugs. In this study, we report the antibacterial evaluation and molecular docking studies of previously synthesized two series of cyclic diphenylphosphonates (1a–e and 2a–e) as DNA gyrase inhibitors. The synthesized compounds were screened for their activity (antibacterial and DNA gyrase inhibition) against ciprofloxacin-resistant E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates having mutations (deletion and substitution) in QRDR region of DNA gyrase. The target compound (2a) that exhibited the most potent activity against ciprofloxacin Gram-negative clinical isolates was selected to screen its inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase displayed IC50 of 12.03 µM. In addition, a docking study was performed with inhibitor (2a), to illustrate its binding mode in the active site of DNA gyrase and the results were compatible with the observed inhibitory potency. Furthermore, the docking study revealed that the binding of inhibitor (2a) to DNA gyrase is mediated and modulated by divalent Mg2+ at good binding energy (–9.08 Kcal/mol). Moreover, structure-activity relationships (SARs) demonstrated that the combination of hydrazinyl moiety in conjunction with the cyclic diphenylphosphonate based scaffold resulted in an optimized molecule that inhibited the bacterial DNA gyrase by its detectable effect in vitro on gyrase-catalyzed DNA supercoiling activity.

2021 ◽  
Willem Vanderlinden ◽  
Enrico Skoruppa ◽  
Pauline J. Kolbeck ◽  
Enrico Carlon ◽  
Jan Lipfert

DNA supercoiling is a key regulatory mechanism that orchestrates DNA readout, recombination, and genome maintenance. DNA-binding proteins often mediate these processes by bringing two distant DNA sites together, thereby inducing (transient) topological domains. In order to understand the dynamics and molecular architecture of protein induced topological domains in DNA, quantitative and time-resolved approaches are required. Here we present a methodology to determine the size and dynamics of topological domains in supercoiled DNA in real-time and at the single molecule level. Our approach is based on quantifying the extension fluctuations -in addition to the mean extension- of supercoiled DNA in magnetic tweezers. Using a combination of high-speed magnetic tweezers experiments, Monte Carlo simulations, and analytical theory, we map out the dependence of DNA extension fluctuations as a function of supercoiling density and external force. We find that in the plectonemic regime the extension variance increases linearly with increasing supercoiling density and show how this enables us to determine the formation and size of topological domains. In addition, we demonstrate how transient (partial) dissociation of DNA bridging proteins results in dynamic sampling of different topological states, which allows us to deduce the torsional stiffness of the plectonemic state and the kinetics of protein-plectoneme interactions. We expect our approach to enable quantification of the dynamics and reaction pathways of DNA processing enzymes and motor proteins, in the context of physiologically relevant forces and supercoiling densities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Carlo A. Klein ◽  
Marc Teufel ◽  
Carl J. Weile ◽  
Patrick Sobetzko

AbstractTranscription, the first step to gene expression, is a central coordination process in all living matter. Besides a plethora of regulatory mechanisms, the promoter architecture sets the foundation of expression strength, timing and the potential for further regulatory modulation. In this study, we investigate the effects of promoter spacer length and sequence composition on strength and supercoiling sensitivity in bacteria. Combining transcriptomics data analysis and standardized synthetic promoter libraries, we exclude effects of specific promoter sequence contexts. Analysis of promoter activity shows a strong variance with spacer length and spacer sequence composition. A detailed study of the spacer sequence composition under selective conditions reveals an extension to the -10 region that enhances RNAP binding but damps promoter activity. Using physiological changes in DNA supercoiling levels, we link promoter supercoiling sensitivity to overall spacer GC-content. Time-resolved promoter activity screens, only possible with a novel mild treatment approach, reveal strong promoter timing potentials solely based on DNA supercoiling sensitivity in the absence of regulatory sites or alternative sigma factors.

2021 ◽  
Stuart Sevier ◽  
Sahand Hormoz

All biological processes ultimately come from physical interactions. The mechanical properties of DNA play a critical role in transcription. RNA polymerase can over or under twist DNA (referred to as DNA supercoiling) when it moves along a gene resulting in mechanical stresses in DNA that impact its own motion and that of other polymerases. For example, when enough supercoiling accumulates, an isolated polymerase halts and transcription stops. DNA supercoiling can also mediate non-local interactions between polymerases that shape gene expression fluctuations. Here, we construct a comprehensive model of transcription that captures how RNA polymerase motion changes the degree of DNA supercoiling which in turn feeds back into the rate at which polymerases are recruited and move along the DNA. Surprisingly, our model predicts that a group of three or more polymerases move together at a constant velocity and sustain their motion (forming what we call a polymeton) whereas one or two polymerases would have halted. We further show that accounting for the impact of DNA supercoiling on both RNA polymerase recruitment and velocity recapitulates empirical observations of gene expression fluctuations. Finally, we propose a mechanical toggle switch whereby interactions between genes are mediated by DNA twisting as opposed to proteins. Understanding the mechanical regulation of gene expression provides new insights into how endogenous genes can interact and informs the design of new forms of engineered interactions.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1724
Li Huang ◽  
Zhenfeng Zhang ◽  
Roger McMacken

E. coli histone-like protein HU has been shown to interact with different topological forms of DNA. Using radiolabeled HU, we examine the effects of DNA supercoiling on HU–DNA interactions. We show that HU binds preferentially to negatively supercoiled DNA and that the affinity of HU for DNA increases with increases in the negative superhelical density of DNA. Binding of HU to DNA is most sensitively influenced by DNA supercoiling within a narrow but physiologically relevant range of superhelicity (σ = −0.06–0). Under stoichiometric binding conditions, the affinity of HU for negatively supercoiled DNA (σ = −0.06) is more than 10 times higher than that for relaxed DNA at physiologically relevant HU/DNA mass ratios (e.g., 1:10). This binding preference, however, becomes negligible at HU/DNA mass ratios higher than 1:2. At saturation, HU binds both negatively supercoiled and relaxed DNA with similar stoichiometries, i.e., 5–6 base pairs per HU dimer. In our chemical crosslinking studies, we demonstrate that HU molecules bound to negatively supercoiled DNA are more readily crosslinked than those bound to linear DNA. At in vivo HU/DNA ratios, HU appears to exist predominantly in a tetrameric form on negatively supercoiled DNA and in a dimeric form on linear DNA. Using a DNA ligase-mediated nick closure assay, we show that approximately 20 HU dimers are required to constrain one negative supercoil on relaxed DNA. Although fewer HU dimers may be needed to constrain one negative supercoil on negatively supercoiled DNA, our results and estimates of the cellular level of HU argue against a major role for HU in constraining supercoils in vivo. We discuss our data within the context of the dynamic distribution of the HU protein in cells, where temporal and local changes of DNA supercoiling are known to take place.

2021 ◽  
Alexander Zhang ◽  
Yan Yan ◽  
Fenfei Leng ◽  
David Dunlap ◽  
Laura Finzi

The histone-like protein from E. coli strain U93 (HU) is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein that contributes to the compaction of the bacterial genome as well as to the regulation of many of its transactions. Despite many years of investigations, the way and extent to which HU binding alters the DNA double helix and/or generates hierarchical structures using DNA as a scaffold is not completely understood. Here we combined single-molecule magnetic measurements with circular dichroism studies to monitor structural changes in the DNA-HU fiber as HU concentration was increased from 0 to 1000 nM under low and physiological monovalent salt conditions. We confirmed that DNA compaction correlated with HU concentration in a biphasic manner but DNA unwinding varied monotonically with HU concentration in 100 mM KCl. Instead, in more physiological 200 mM salt conditions, DNA compaction was monotonic while HU-induced DNA unwinding was negligible. Differential compaction and unwinding of DNA may be part of the response of bacteria to large variations in salt concentrations.

2021 ◽  
Wilber Lim ◽  
Ferdinando Randisi ◽  
Jonathan P. K. Doye ◽  
Ard A. Louis

AbstractThymine dimers are a major mutagenic photoproduct induced by UV radiation. While they have been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigations, questions of how DNA supercoiling affects local defect properties, or, conversely, how the presence of such defects changes global supercoiled structure, are largely unexplored. Here we introduce a model of thymine dimers in the oxDNA forcefield, and validate it by comparison to melting experiments and structural measurements of the thymine dimer induced bend angle. We performed extensive molecular dynamics simulations of double-stranded DNA as a function of external twist and force. Compared to undamaged DNA, the presence of a thymine dimer lowers the supercoiling densities at which plectonemes and bubbles occur. For biologically relevant supercoiling densities and forces, thymine dimers can preferentially segregate to the tips of the plectonemes, where they enhance the probability of a localized tip-bubble. This mechanism increases the probability of highly bent and denatured states at the thymine dimer site, which may facilitate repair enzyme binding. Thymine dimer-induced tip-bubbles also pin plectonemes, which may help repair enzymes to locate damage. We hypothesize that the interplay of supercoiling and local defects plays an important role for a wider set of DNA damage repair systems.

2021 ◽  
Martyna Gongerowska-Jac ◽  
Marcin Jan Szafran ◽  
Jakub Mikołajczyk ◽  
Justyna Szymczak ◽  
Magdalena Bartyńska ◽  

Bacterial gene expression is controlled at multiple levels, with chromosome supercoiling being one of the most global regulators. Global DNA supercoiling is maintained by the orchestrated action of topoisomerases. In Streptomyces, mycelial soil bacteria with a complex life cycle, topoisomerase I depletion led to elevated chromosome supercoiling, changed expression of significant fraction of genes, delayed growth and blocked sporulation. To identify supercoiling-induced sporulation regulators, we searched for S. coelicolor transposon mutants that were able to restore sporulation despite high chromosome supercoiling. We established that transposon insertion in genes encoding a novel two-component system named SatKR reversed the sporulation blockage resulting from topoisomerase I depletion. Transposition in satKR abolished the transcriptional induction of the genes within the so-called supercoiling-hypersensitive cluster (SHC). Moreover, we found that activated SatR also induced the same set of SHC genes under normal supercoiling conditions. We determined that the expression of genes in this region impacted S. coelicolor growth and sporulation. Interestingly, among the associated products is another two-component system (SitKR), indicating the potential for cascading regulatory effects driven by the SatKR and SitKR two-component systems. Thus, we demonstrated the concerted activity of chromosome supercoiling and a hierarchical two-component signalling system that impacts gene activity governing Streptomyces growth and sporulation.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1249
Commodore St Germain ◽  
Hongchang Zhao ◽  
Jacqueline H. Barlow

Transcription-replication interactions occur when DNA replication encounters genomic regions undergoing transcription. Both replication and transcription are essential for life and use the same DNA template making conflicts unavoidable. R-loops, DNA supercoiling, DNA secondary structure, and chromatin-binding proteins are all potential obstacles for processive replication or transcription and pose an even more potent threat to genome integrity when these processes co-occur. It is critical to maintaining high fidelity and processivity of transcription and replication while navigating through a complex chromatin environment, highlighting the importance of defining cellular pathways regulating transcription-replication interaction formation, evasion, and resolution. Here we discuss how transcription influences replication fork stability, and the safeguards that have evolved to navigate transcription-replication interactions and maintain genome integrity in mammalian cells.

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