rna polymerase
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. U. Rehman ◽  
K. Muhammad ◽  
E. Novaes ◽  
Y. Que ◽  
A. Din ◽  

Abstract Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yongkang Yang ◽  
Haiquan Lu ◽  
Chelsey Chen ◽  
Yajing Lyu ◽  
Robert N. Cole ◽  

AbstractHypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that acts as a regulator of oxygen (O2) homeostasis in metazoan species by binding to hypoxia response elements (HREs) and activating the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to reduced O2 availability. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) initiates transcription of many HIF target genes under non-hypoxic conditions but pauses after approximately 30–60 nucleotides and requires HIF-1 binding for release. Here we report that in hypoxic breast cancer cells, HIF-1 recruits TRIM28 and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) to HREs to release paused Pol II. We show that HIF-1α and TRIM28 assemble the catalytically-active DNA-PK heterotrimer, which phosphorylates TRIM28 at serine-824, enabling recruitment of CDK9, which phosphorylates serine-2 of the Pol II large subunit C-terminal domain as well as the negative elongation factor to release paused Pol II, thereby stimulating productive transcriptional elongation. Our studies reveal a molecular mechanism by which HIF-1 stimulates gene transcription and reveal that the anticancer effects of drugs targeting DNA-PK in breast cancer may be due in part to their inhibition of HIF-dependent transcription.

2022 ◽  
Amy Switzer ◽  
Lynn Burchell ◽  
Panagiotis Mitsidis ◽  
Ramesh Wigneshweraraj

The canonical function of a bacterial sigma factor is to determine the gene specificity of the RNA polymerase (RNAP). In several diverse bacterial species, the sigma 54 factor uniquely confers distinct functional and regulatory properties on the RNAP. A hallmark feature of the sigma 54-RNAP is the obligatory requirement for an activator ATPase to allow transcription initiation. The genes that rely upon sigma 54 for their transcription have a wide range of different functions suggesting that the repertoire of functions performed by genes, directly or indirectly affected by sigma 54, is not yet exhaustive. By comparing the non-planktonic growth properties of prototypical enteropathogenic, uropathogenic and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains devoid of sigma 54, we uncovered sigma 54 as a determinant of homogenous non-planktonic growth specifically in the uropathogenic strain. Notably, bacteria devoid of individual activator ATPases of the sigma 54-RNAP do not phenocopy the sigma 54 mutant strain. It seems that sigma 54's role as a determinant of homogenous non-planktonic growth represents a putative non-canonical function of sigma 54 in regulating genetic information flow.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Manuel Ramírez ◽  
Alberto Martínez ◽  
Felipe Molina

The yeasts Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) may show a killer phenotype that is encoded in dsRNA M viruses (V-M), which require the helper activity of another dsRNA virus (V-LA or V-LBC) for replication. Recently, two TdV-LBCbarr genomes, which share sequence identity with ScV-LBC counterparts, were characterized by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). They also share some similar characteristics with Sc-LA viruses. This may explain why TdV-LBCbarr has helper capability to maintain M viruses, whereas ScV-LBC does not. We here analyze two stretches with low sequence identity (LIS I and LIS II) that were found in TdV-LBCbarr Gag-Pol proteins when comparing with the homologous regions of ScV-LBC. These stretches may result from successive nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels) that allow compensatory frameshift events required to maintain specific functions of the RNA-polymerase, while modifying other functions such as the ability to bind V-M (+)RNA for packaging. The presence of an additional frameshifting site in LIS I may ensure the synthesis of a certain amount of RNA-polymerase until the new compensatory indel appears. Additional 5′- and 3′-extra sequences were found beyond V-LBC canonical genomes. Most extra sequences showed high identity to some stretches of the canonical genomes and can form stem-loop structures. Further, the 3′-extra sequence of two ScV-LBC genomes contains rRNA stretches. The origin and possible functions of these extra sequences are here discussed.

Zoonoses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Clint A. Haines ◽  
Rafael K. Campos ◽  
Sasha R. Azar ◽  
K. Lane Warmbrod ◽  
Tiffany F. Kautz ◽  

Background: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an arbovirus endemic to the Americas, for which no vaccines or antiviral agents have been approved. TC-83 and V3526 are the best-characterized vaccine candidates for VEEV. Both are live-attenuated vaccines and have been associated with safety concerns, although fewer concerns exist for V3526. A previous attempt to improve the TC-83 vaccine focused on further attenuating the vaccine by adding mutations that alter the error-incorporation rate of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Methods: The research herein examined the effects of these RdRp mutations in V3526 by cloning the 3X and 4X strains, assessing vaccine efficacy against challenge in adult female CD-1 mice, examining neutralizing-antibody titers, investigating vaccine tissue tropism, and testing the stability of the mutant strains. Results: The V3526 RdRp mutants exhibited less tissue tropism in the spleen and kidney than the wild-type V3526, while maintaining vaccine efficacy. Illumina sequencing indicated that the RdRp mutations reverted to wild-type V3526 after five passages in murine pup brains. Conclusions: The observed genotypic reversion is likely to be of limited concern, because wild-type V3526 remains an effective vaccine capable of providing protection. Our results indicate that the V3526 RdRp mutants may be a safer vaccine design than the original V3526.

Computation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Simone Brogi ◽  
Mark Tristan Quimque ◽  
Kin Israel Notarte ◽  
Jeremiah Gabriel Africa ◽  
Jenina Beatriz Hernandez ◽  

The unprecedented global health threat of SARS-CoV-2 has sparked a continued interest in discovering novel anti-COVID-19 agents. To this end, we present here a computer-based protocol for identifying potential compounds targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Starting from our previous study wherein, using a virtual screening campaign, we identified a fumiquinazolinone alkaloid quinadoline B (Q3), an antiviral fungal metabolite with significant activity against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, we applied in silico combinatorial methodologies for generating and screening a library of anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates with strong in silico affinity for RdRp. For this study, the quinadoline pharmacophore was subjected to structural iteration, obtaining a Q3-focused library of over 900,000 unique structures. This chemical library was explored to identify binders of RdRp with greater affinity with respect to the starting compound Q3. Coupling this approach with the evaluation of physchem profile, we found 26 compounds with significant affinities for the RdRp binding site. Moreover, top-ranked compounds were submitted to molecular dynamics to evaluate the stability of the systems during a selected time, and to deeply investigate the binding mode of the most promising derivatives. Among the generated structures, five compounds, obtained by inserting nucleotide-like scaffolds (1, 2, and 5), heterocyclic thiazolyl benzamide moiety (compound 3), and a peptide residue (compound 4), exhibited enhanced binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, deserving further investigation as possible antiviral agents. Remarkably, the presented in silico procedure provides a useful computational procedure for hit-to-lead optimization, having implications in anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug discovery and in general in the drug optimization process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114065119
Juntaek Oh ◽  
Tiezheng Jia ◽  
Jun Xu ◽  
Jenny Chong ◽  
Peter B. Dervan ◽  

Elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) can be paused or arrested by a variety of obstacles. These obstacles include DNA lesions, DNA-binding proteins, and small molecules. Hairpin pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides bind to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner and induce strong transcriptional arrest. Remarkably, this Py-Im–induced Pol II transcriptional arrest is persistent and cannot be rescued by transcription factor TFIIS. In contrast, TFIIS can effectively rescue the transcriptional arrest induced by a nucleosome barrier. The structural basis of Py-Im–induced transcriptional arrest and why TFIIS cannot rescue this arrest remain elusive. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structures of four distinct Pol II elongation complexes (Pol II ECs) in complex with hairpin Py-Im polyamides as well as of the hairpin Py-Im polyamides–dsDNA complex. We observed that the Py-Im oligomer directly interacts with RNA Pol II residues, introduces compression of the downstream DNA duplex, prevents Pol II forward translocation, and induces Pol II backtracking. These results, together with biochemical studies, provide structural insight into the molecular mechanism by which Py-Im blocks transcription. Our structural study reveals why TFIIS fails to promote Pol II bypass of Py-Im–induced transcriptional arrest.

Chromosoma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Samadri Ghosh ◽  
Christian F. Lehner

AbstractIn many species, centromere identity is specified epigenetically by special nucleosomes containing a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, designated as CENP-A in humans and CID in Drosophila melanogaster. After partitioning of centromere-specific nucleosomes onto newly replicated sister centromeres, loading of additional CENP-A/CID into centromeric chromatin is required for centromere maintenance in proliferating cells. Analyses with cultured cells have indicated that transcription of centromeric DNA by RNA polymerase II is required for deposition of new CID into centromere chromatin. However, a dependence of centromeric CID loading on transcription is difficult to reconcile with the notion that the initial embryonic stages appear to proceed in the absence of transcription in Drosophila, as also in many other animal species. To address the role of RNA polymerase II–mediated transcription for CID loading in early Drosophila embryos, we have quantified the effects of alpha-amanitin and triptolide on centromeric CID-EGFP levels. Our analyses demonstrate that microinjection of these two potent inhibitors of RNA polymerase II–mediated transcription has at most a marginal effect on centromeric CID deposition during progression through the early embryonic cleavage cycles. Thus, we conclude that at least during early Drosophila embryogenesis, incorporation of CID into centromeres does not depend on RNA polymerase II–mediated transcription.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Jeremy R. Keown ◽  
Zihan Zhu ◽  
Loïc Carrique ◽  
Haitian Fan ◽  
Alexander P. Walker ◽  

AbstractInfluenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and global pandemics, representing a considerable burden to healthcare systems. Central to the replication cycle of influenza viruses is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which transcribes and replicates the viral RNA genome. The polymerase undergoes conformational rearrangements and interacts with viral and host proteins to perform these functions. Here we determine the structure of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase in transcriptase and replicase conformations using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We then structurally and functionally characterise the binding of single-domain nanobodies to the polymerase of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. Combining these functional and structural data we identify five sites on the polymerase which are sensitive to inhibition by nanobodies. We propose that the binding of nanobodies at these sites either prevents the polymerase from assuming particular functional conformations or interactions with viral or host factors. The polymerase is highly conserved across the influenza A subtypes, suggesting these sites as effective targets for potential influenza antiviral development.

MycoKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 19-46
Shun Liu ◽  
Tai-Min Xu ◽  
Chang-Ge Song ◽  
Chang-Lin Zhao ◽  
Dong-Mei Wu ◽  

Cyanosporus is a genus widely distributed in Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania. It grows on different angiosperm and gymnosperm trees and can cause brown rot of wood. Blue-tinted basidiomata of Cyanosporus makes it easy to distinguish from other genera, but the similar morphological characters make it difficult to identify species within the genus. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Cyanosporus were carried out based on worldwide samples with an emphasis on Chinese collections, and the species diversity of the genus is updated. Four new species, C. flavus, C. rigidus, C. subungulatus and C. tenuicontextus, are described based on the evidence of morphological characters, distribution areas, host trees and molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit of mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF). Our study expanded the number of Cyanosporus species to 35 around the world including 23 species from China. Detailed descriptions of the four new species and the geographical locations of the Cyanosporus species in China are provided.

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