phase dynamics
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2022 ◽  
Daisy Achiriloaie ◽  
Christopher Currie ◽  
Jonathan Michel ◽  
Maya Hendija ◽  
K Alice Lindsay ◽  

Abstract The cytoskeleton of biological cells relies on a diverse population of motors, filaments, and binding proteins acting in concert to enable non-equilibrium processes ranging from mitosis to chemotaxis. The cytoskeleton’s versatile reconfigurability, programmed by interactions between its constituents, make it a foundational active matter platform. However, current active matter endeavors are limited largely to single force-generating components acting on a single substrate – far from the composite cytoskeleton in live cells. Here, we engineer actin-microtubule composites, driven by kinesin and myosin motors and tuned by crosslinkers, that restructure into diverse morphologies from interpenetrating filamentous networks to de-mixed amorphous clusters. Our Fourier analyses reveal that kinesin and myosin compete to delay kinesin-driven restructuring and suppress de-mixing and flow, while crosslinking accelerates reorganization and promotes actin-microtubule correlations. The phase space of non-equilibrium dynamics falls into three broad classes– slow reconfiguration, fast advective flow, and multi-mode ballistic dynamics – with structure-dynamics relations described by the relative contributions of elastic and dissipative responses to motor-generated forces.

2021 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Calum S. Skene ◽  
Kunihiko Taira

Phase-reduction analysis captures the linear phase dynamics with respect to a limit cycle subjected to weak external forcing. We apply this technique to study the phase dynamics of the self-sustained oscillations produced by a Rijke tube undergoing thermoacoustic instability. Through the phase-reduction formulation, we are able to reduce these dynamics to a scalar equation for the phase, which allows us to efficiently determine the synchronisation properties of the system. For the thermoacoustic system, we find the conditions for which $m:n$ frequency locking occurs, which sheds light on the mechanisms behind asynchronous and synchronous quenching. We also reveal the optimal placement of pressure actuators that provide the most efficient route to synchronisation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (4) ◽  
pp. 300-311
Yuri F. Babich ◽  
Andrey Y. Babich

Background: So far there is no confidence in the basics of acupoint/meridian phenomena, specifically in spatial and temporal electrical manifestations in the skin.Methods: Using the skin electrodynamic introscopy, the skin areas of 32 × 64 mm2 were monitored for spectral electrical impedance landscape with spatial resolution of 1 mm, at 2 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies. The detailed baseline and 2D test-induced 2 kHz-impedance phase dynamics and the 4-parameter time plots of dozens of individual points in the St32-34 regions were examined in a healthy participant and a patient with mild gastritis. Non-thermal stimuli were used: (1) (for the sick subject), microwaves and ultraviolet radiation applied alternately from opposite directions of the meridian; and (2) (for the healthy one) microwaves to St17, and cathodic/anodic stimulation of the outermost St45, alternately.Results: In both cases, the following phenomena have been observed: emergence of in-phase and/or antiphase coherent structures, exceeding the acupoint conditional size of 1 cm; collective movement along the meridian; reversible with a reversed stimulus; counter-directional dynamics of both whole structures and adjacent points; local abnormalities in sensitivity and dynamics of the 1 MHz and 2 kHz parameters indicating existence of different waveguide paths.Conclusion: It is assumed that these findings necessitate reconsideration of some basic methodological issues regarding neurogenic/acupuncture points as spatial and temporal phenomena; this requires development of an appropriate approach for identifying the acuzones patterns. These findings may be used for developing new approaches to personalized/controlled therapy/treatment.

GPS Solutions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Sergi Locubiche-Serra ◽  
Gonzalo Seco-Granados ◽  
José A. López-Salcedo

AbstractIonospheric scintillation is one of the most challenging sources of errors in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). It is an effect of space weather that introduces rapid amplitude and phase fluctuations to transionospheric signals and, as a result, it severely degrades the tracking performance of receivers, particularly carrier tracking. It can occur anywhere on the earth during intense solar activity, but the problem aggravates in equatorial and high-latitude regions, thus posing serious concerns to the widespread deployment of GNSS in those areas. One of the most promising approaches to address this problem is the use of Kalman filter-based techniques at the carrier tracking level, incorporating some a priori knowledge about the statistics of the scintillation to be dealt with. These techniques aim at dissociating the carrier phase dynamics of interest from phase scintillation by modeling the latter through some correlated Gaussian function, such as the case of autoregressive processes. However, besides the fact that the optimality of these techniques is still to be reached, their applicability for dealing with scintillation in real-world environments also remains to be confirmed. We carry out an extensive analysis and experimentation campaign on the suitability of these techniques by processing real data captures of scintillation at low and high latitudes. We first evaluate how well phase scintillation can be modeled through an autoregressive process. Then, we propose a novel adaptive, low-complexity autoregressive Kalman filter intended to facilitate the implementation of the approach in practice. Last, we provide an analysis of the operational region of the proposed technique and the limits at which a performance gain over conventional tracking architectures is obtained. The results validate the excellence of the proposed approach for GNSS carrier tracking under scintillation conditions.

Nonlinearity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-65
D J Ratliff

Abstract The study of hyperbolic waves involves various notions which help characterise how these structures evolve. One important facet is the notion of genuine nonlinearity, namely the ability for shocks and rarefactions to form instead of contact discontinuities. In the context of the Whitham modulation equations, this paper demonstrate that a loss of genuine nonlinearity leads to the appearance of a dispersive set of dynamics in the form of the modified Korteweg de-Vries equation governing the evolution of the waves instead. Its form is universal in the sense that its coefficients can be written entirely using linear properties of the underlying waves such as the conservation laws and linear dispersion relation. This insight is applied to two systems of physical interest, one an optical model and the other a stratified hydrodynamics experiment, to demonstrate how it can be used to provide insight into how waves in these systems evolve when genuine nonlinearity is lost.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0245405
Emiko Zumbro ◽  
Alfredo Alexander-Katz

Multivalent polymers are a key structural component of many biocondensates. When interacting with their cognate binding proteins, multivalent polymers such as RNA and modular proteins have been shown to influence the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) boundary to both control condensate formation and to influence condensate dynamics after phase separation. Much is still unknown about the function and formation of these condensed droplets, but changes in their dynamics or phase separation are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer’s Disease. Therefore, investigation into how the structure of multivalent polymers relates to changes in biocondensate formation and maturation is essential to understanding and treating these diseases. Here, we use a coarse-grain, Brownian Dynamics simulation with reactive binding that mimics specific interactions in order to investigate the difference between non-specific and specific multivalent binding polymers. We show that non-specific binding interactions can lead to much larger changes in droplet formation at lower protein-polymer interaction energies than their specific, valence-limited counterparts. We also demonstrate the effects of solvent conditions and polymer length on phase separation, and we present how modulating binding energy to the polymer can change the organization of a droplet in a three component system of polymer, binding protein, and solvent. Finally, we compare the effects of surface tension and polymer binding on the condensed phase dynamics, and show that both lower protein solubilities and higher attraction/affinity of the protein to the polymer result in slower droplet dynamics. This research will help to better understand experimental systems and provides additional insight into how multivalent polymers can control LLPS.

Hendrik Beck ◽  
Johanna J Schultz ◽  
Christofer J Clemente

Abstract Robotic systems for complex tasks, such as search and rescue or exploration, are limited for wheeled designs, thus the study of legged locomotion for robotic applications has become increasingly important. To successfully navigate in regions with rough terrain, a robot must not only be able to negotiate obstacles, but also climb steep inclines. Following the principles of biomimetics, we developed a modular bio-inspired climbing robot, named X4, which mimics the lizard’s bauplan including an actuated spine, shoulders, and feet which interlock with the surface via claws. We included the ability to modify gait and hardware parameters and simultaneously collect data with the robot’s sensors on climbed distance, slip occurrence and efficiency. We first explored the speed-stability trade-off and its interaction with limb swing phase dynamics, finding a sigmoidal pattern of limb movement resulted in the greatest distance travelled. By modifying foot orientation, we found two optima for both speed and stability, suggesting multiple stable configurations. We varied spine and limb range of motion, again showing two possible optimum configurations, and finally varied the centre of pro- and retraction on climbing performance, showing an advantage for protracted limbs during the stride. We then stacked optimal regions of performance and show that combining optimal dynamic patterns with either foot angles or ROM configurations have the greatest performance, but further optima stacking resulted in a decrease in performance, suggesting complex interactions between kinematic parameters. The search of optimal parameter configurations might not only be beneficial to improve robotic in-field operations but may also further the study of the locomotive evolution of climbing of animals, like lizards or insects.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1181
Guy R. Larocque ◽  
F. Wayne Bell

Environmental concerns and economic pressures on forest ecosystems have led to the development of sustainable forest management practices. As a consequence, forest managers must evaluate the long-term effects of their management decisions on potential forest successional pathways. As changes in forest ecosystems occur very slowly, simulation models are logical and efficient tools to predict the patterns of forest growth and succession. However, as models are an imperfect representation of reality, it is desirable to evaluate them with historical long-term forest data. Using remeasured tree and stand data from three data sets from two ecoregions in northern Ontario, the succession gap model ZELIG-CFS was evaluated for mixed boreal forests composed of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana L.), white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), American larch (Larix laricina [Du Roi] K. Koch), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamefera L.). The comparison of observed and predicted basal areas and stand densities indicated that ZELIG-CFS predicted the dynamics of most species consistently for periods varying between 5 and 57 simulation years. The patterns of forest succession observed in this study support gap phase dynamics at the plot scale and shade-tolerance complementarity hypotheses at the regional scale.

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