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Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (2) ◽  
pp. 301-329

Deep-water king crabs of the genus Paralomis White, 1856 collected during three cruises of the Fishery Oceanographic Research Vessel Sagar Sampada in the western Bay of Bengal (528–777 m depths), one cruise in the eastern Bay of Bengal off Great Nicobar Island (337 m depth), and four cruises in the southeastern Arabian Sea (315–1245 m) were identified. They are referred to Paralomis ceres Macpherson, 1989, recorded for the first time from Indian waters and P. indica Alcock & Anderson, 1899, reported for the first time from the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. In addition, this study reports the morphological variability among the P. indica populations in the shape of the carapace and dorsal rostral spines, nature of the branchial and cardiac regions and abdominal marginal spines, and the relative lengths of pereopods 2–4. Mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase I (594 base pairs) and 16S rRNA (503 bp) gene sequences of P. ceres and P. indica (602 and 497 bp, respectively) revealed that they formed distinct lineages. A key to the Indian Ocean species of Paralomis is provided.  

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Outi I. Mielonen ◽  
Diogo Pratas ◽  
Klaus Hedman ◽  
Antti Sajantila ◽  
Maria F. Perdomo

Formalin fixation, albeit an outstanding method for morphological and molecular preservation, induces DNA damage and cross-linking, which can hinder nucleic acid screening. This is of particular concern in the detection of low-abundance targets, such as persistent DNA viruses. In the present study, we evaluated the analytical sensitivity of viral detection in lung, liver, and kidney specimens from four deceased individuals. The samples were either frozen or incubated in formalin (±paraffin embedding) for up to 10 days. We tested two DNA extraction protocols for the control of efficient yields and viral detections. We used short-amplicon qPCRs (63–159 nucleotides) to detect 11 DNA viruses, as well as hybridization capture of these plus 27 additional ones, followed by deep sequencing. We observed marginally higher ratios of amplifiable DNA and scantly higher viral genoprevalences in the samples extracted with the FFPE dedicated protocol. Based on the findings in the frozen samples, most viruses were detected regardless of the extended fixation times. False-negative calls, particularly by qPCR, correlated with low levels of viral DNA (<250 copies/million cells) and longer PCR amplicons (>150 base pairs). Our data suggest that low-copy viral DNAs can be satisfactorily investigated from FFPE specimens, and encourages further examination of historical materials.

Neha Thakur ◽  
S.N. Vasudevan ◽  
B.V. Tembhurne ◽  
S.R. Doddagoudar

Background: Molecular markers are the landmarks on DNA that identifies a particular sequence of base pairs coding for a character. SCAR (Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region) markers are proving to be more effective in identification of genotypes as they are PCR based co-dominant markers. In view of plant variety registration under PPV and FRA, 2001 molecular characterization/ identification of the variety is essential to ascertain the trueness of the variety, hence present studies have been planned and executed. Methods: In present investigation CGMS based chilli hybrid UARChH42 and its parental lines were identified using molecular techniques. A line, B line, R line and hybrid seedlings were used for DNA extraction and characterized on the basis of polymorphism with respect to sterility or fertility by using SCAR markers. Result: P1 and P2 and coxII-SCAR which are sterility specific markers could amplify A line and hybrid showing a definite band. CRF-SCAR 870 is a fertility specific marker amplified R line and hybrid. Also CMS-SCAR 130 and CMS-SCAR 130/140 were able to identified A line, B line, R line and hybrid. Two of the markers viz. orf-456-SCAR atp6-SCAR and were not able to specify any case of parental lines or hybrid identification. Hybridity of UARChH42 (JCH42) chilli hybrid was determined by any similarity in the banding pattern with any of its parent. This study would help in the fulfillment of the requirements of protection of plant varieties and farmers’ rights authority (PPVFRA), New Delhi for registration purpose.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Rajeev Yadav ◽  
Julia R. Widom ◽  
Adrien Chauvier ◽  
Nils G. Walter

AbstractThe archetypical transcriptional crcB fluoride riboswitch from Bacillus cereus is an intricately structured non-coding RNA element enhancing gene expression in response to toxic levels of fluoride. Here, we used single molecule FRET to uncover three dynamically interconverting conformations appearing along the transcription process: two distinct undocked states and one pseudoknotted docked state. We find that the fluoride anion specifically snap-locks the magnesium-induced, dynamically docked state. The long-range, nesting, single base pair A40-U48 acts as the main linchpin, rather than the multiple base pairs comprising the pseudoknot. We observe that the proximally paused RNA polymerase further fine-tunes the free energy to promote riboswitch docking. Finally, we show that fluoride binding at short transcript lengths is an early step toward partitioning folding into the docked conformation. These results reveal how the anionic fluoride ion cooperates with the magnesium-associated RNA to govern regulation of downstream genes needed for fluoride detoxification of the cell.

2022 ◽  
Napakhwan Imklin ◽  
Pattaraporn Sripras ◽  
Narut Thanantong ◽  
Porntippa Lekcharoensuk ◽  
Rujikan Nasanit

Abstract The novel Escherichia phage vB_EcoM-RPN242 was isolated using a strain of Escherichia coli host originated from a diarrheal piglet. The phage was able to form plaques on the E. coli lawn at 15−45ºC. Moreover, it was stable over a wide pH (4−10) and temperature (4−70ºC) range. The vB_EcoM-RPN242 genome was found to be a linear, double-stranded DNA consisting of 154,840 base pairs. There were 195 protein-encoding genes and 2 tRNAs detected in the genome, however no unfavorable gene was found. According to the overall nucleotide sequence comparison, the vB_EcoM-RPN242 possibly represents a new phage species in the genus Agtrevirus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Nik Azwarina R Azmi ◽  
Lyena Watty Zuraine Ahmad ◽  
Roziah Kambol ◽  
Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad ◽  
Farizan Aris ◽  

One of the top species in the aquaculture sector, known as striped catfish or Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, is an important and valuable freshwater fish in many countries. Due to the high demand for this species, their number has declined to "threatened" levels.  Hence, the purpose of this study is to analyse the genetic variation of wild and cultured striped catfish collected from five producers in Asian countries; Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, and Philippines, by using mitochondrial DNA partial region data sequence; CO1 and cytochrome b gene. Population analyses using 395 base pairs length for CO1 and 275 base pairs length of cytochrome b partial region nucleotide sequence have shown no significance difference between wild and cultured striped catfish. Vietnam species had shown a wide range of genetic distance of the intrapopulation compared with other countries in the range of 0.000-0.040 for CO1 gene and 0.003-0.008 for cytochrome b gene. The Neighbour-joining method has also been used to construct phylogenetic trees using CO1 gene; the tree formed few subclades with mixed populations, and the tree using cytochrome b showed only Vietnam species divided into a few sub-populations. For the other four countries, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Philippines were in the same group. Hence, this study's findings may provide a reference for inter and intra-relationships of P. hypophthalmus that may help in the aquaculture activity of this striped catfish.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Igor Kochikov ◽  
Anna Stepanova ◽  
Gulnara Kuramshina

The model of Regularized Quantum Mechanical Force Field (RQMFF) was applied to the joint treatment of ab initio and experimental vibrational data of the four primary nucleobases using a new algorithm based on the scaling procedure in Cartesian coordinates. The matrix of scaling factors in Cartesian coordinates for the considered molecules includes diagonal elements for all atoms of the molecule and off-diagonal elements for bonded atoms and for some non-bonded atoms (1–3 and some 1–4 interactions). The choice of the model is based on the results of the second-order perturbation analysis of the Fock matrix for uncoupled interactions using the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The scaling factors obtained within this model as a result of solving the inverse problem (regularized Cartesian scale factors) of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine molecules were used to correct the Hessians of the canonical base pairs: adenine–thymine and cytosine–guanine. The proposed procedure is based on the block structure of the scaling matrix for molecular entities with non-covalent interactions, as in the case of DNA base pairs. It allows avoiding introducing internal coordinates (or coordinates of symmetry, local symmetry, etc.) when scaling the force field of a compound of a complex structure with non-covalent H-bonds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Preethi Basavaraju ◽  
Rubadevi Balasubramani ◽  
Divya Sri Kathiresan ◽  
Ilakkiyapavai Devaraj ◽  
Kavipriya Babu ◽  

Apolipoproteins (APO proteins) are the lipoprotein family proteins that play key roles in transporting lipoproteins all over the body. There are nearly more than twenty members reported in the APO protein family, among which the A, B, C, E, and L play major roles in contributing genetic risks to several disorders. Among these genetic risks, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), involving the variation of single nucleotide base pairs, and their contributing polymorphisms play crucial roles in the apolipoprotein family and its concordant disease heterogeneity that have predominantly recurred through the years. In this review, we have contributed a handful of information on such genetic polymorphisms that include APOE, ApoA1/B ratio, and A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster-based population genetic studies carried throughout the world, to elaborately discuss the effects of various genetic polymorphisms in imparting various medical conditions, such as obesity, cardiovascular, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, vascular complications, and other associated risks.

2022 ◽  
Jan Jamroskovic ◽  
Marco Deiana ◽  
Nasim Sabouri

Cytosine-rich DNA can fold into four-stranded intercalated structures, i-motif (iM), in acidic pH and require hemi-protonated C:C+ base pairs to form. However, its formation and stability rely on many other factors that are not yet fully understood. In here, we combined biochemical and biophysical approaches to determine the factors influencing iM stability in a wide range of experimental conditions. By using high resolution primer extension assays, circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the stability of three different biologically relevant iMs are not dependent on molecular crowding agents. Instead, some crowding agents affected overall DNA synthesis. We also tested a range of small molecules to determine their effect on iM stabilization at physiological temperature, and demonstrated that the G-quadruplex-specific molecule, CX-5461, is also a promising candidate for selective iM stabilization. This work provides important insights into the requirements needed for different assays to accurately study iM stabilization, which will serve as important tools for understanding biological roles of iMs and their potential as therapeutic targets.

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