monte carlo code
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2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 108687
Steven P. Hamilton ◽  
Thomas M. Evans ◽  
Katherine E. Royston ◽  
Elliott D. Biondo

2022 ◽  
Yoshie Yachi ◽  
Takeshi Kai ◽  
Yusuke Matsuya ◽  
Yuho Hirata ◽  
Yuji Yoshii ◽  

Abstract Magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) has been developed and installed in recent decades for external radiotherapy in several clinical facilities. The Lorentz force modulates dose distribution by charged particles in MRgRT; however, the impact by this force on low-energy electron track structure and early DNA damage induction remain unclear. In this study, we estimated features of electron track structure and biological effects in a static magnetic field (SMF) using a general-purpose Monte Carlo code, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) that enables us to simulate low-energy electrons down to 1 meV by track-structure mode. The macroscopic dose distributions by electrons above approximately 300 keV initial energy in liquid water are changed by both perpendicular and parallel SMFs against the incident direction, indicating that the Lorentz force plays an important role in calculating dose within tumours. Meanwhile, DNA damage estimation based on the spatial patterns of atomic interactions indicates that the initial yield of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is independent of the SMF intensity. The DSB induction is predominantly attributed to the secondary electrons below a few tens of eV, which are not affected by the Lorentz force. Our simulation study suggests that treatment planning for MRgRT can be made with consideration of only changed dose distribution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ioanna Kyriakou ◽  
Dimitris Emfietzoglou ◽  
Sebastien Incerti

The development of accurate physics models that enable track structure simulations of electrons in liquid water medium over a wide energy range, from the eV to the MeV scale, is a subject of continuous efforts due to its importance (among other things) in theoretical studies of radiation quality for application in radiotherapy and radiation protection. A few years ago, the Geant4-DNA very low-energy extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code had offered to users an improved set of physics models for discrete electron transport below 10 keV. In this work we present refinements to this model set and its extension to energies up to 1 MeV. Preliminary comparisons against the existing Geant4-DNA physics models with respect to total and differential ionization cross sections of electrons in liquid water are reported and discussed.

Victor Merza ◽  
Christian HRANITZKY ◽  
Andreas STEURER ◽  
Franz Josef MARINGER

Abstract In this article, the proposal of ICRU/ICRP, that the ISO slab phantom should continue to be used as calibration phantom for the new ICRU Report 95 operational quantity personal dose should be legitimized by simulation and performance of experiments to determine backscatter factors on the ISO slab phantom and, in comparison, on an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom. The scope of this work was restricted to the photon energy range of radiation qualities commonly used in X-ray diagnostics. For this purpose, a shadow-free diagnostic (SFD) ionization chamber was used to measure backscatter factors for X radiation in the energy range of 24 keV to 118 keV. The Monte Carlo code MCNP 6.2 was used to validate measurement results on the ISO slab phantom. Additionally, the influence of varying the SFD position on the Rando phantom on the backscatter factor was determined. Since backscatter factors on the ISO slab phantom differ only up to 5 % from those on the Rando phantom, it could be concluded that it is not necessary to develop a new phantom for calibrations in terms of personal dose. A position variation of the detector by few centimeters on the surface of the Rando phantom causes similarly large deviations and thus alone represents an equally large uncertainty contribution in practical personal dosimetry than that arising from the dissimilarity of the real human body to the ISO slab phantom.

2022 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 46-51
Kengo Ito ◽  
Noriyuki Kadoya ◽  
Yoshiyuki Katsuta ◽  
Shohei Tanaka ◽  
Suguru Dobashi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2155 (1) ◽  
pp. 012020
I V Prozorova

Abstract A standard procedure for characterizing the high-purity germanium detector (HPGe), manufactured by Canberra Industries Inc [1], is performed directly by the company using patented methods. However, the procedure is usually expensive and must be repeated because the characteristics of the HPGe crystal change over time. In this work, the principles of a technique are developed for use in obtaining and optimizing the detector characteristics based on a cost-effective procedure in a standard research laboratory. The technique requires that the detector geometric parameters are determined with maximum accuracy by the Monte Carlo method [2] in parallel with the optimization based on evolutionary algorithms. The development of this approach facilitates modeling of the HPGe detector as a standardized procedure. The results will be also beneficial in the development of gamma spectrometers and/or their calibrations before routine measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 108627
Mona Ajami ◽  
Ali Kamkar ◽  
Mahdi Zangian ◽  
Abdolhamid Minuchehr ◽  
Ahmadreza Zolfaghari

2021 ◽  
Juri Romazanov ◽  
Andreas Kirschner ◽  
Sebastijan Brezinsek ◽  
Richard A Pitts ◽  
Dmitriy V. Borodin ◽  

Abstract The Monte-Carlo code ERO2.0 was used to simulate steady-state erosion and transport of beryllium (Be) in the ITER main chamber. Various plasma scenarios were tested, including a variation of the main species (hydrogen, deuterium, helium), plasma conditions (density, temperature, flow velocity) and magnetic configurations. The study provides valuable predictions for the Be transport to the divertor, where it is expected to be an important contributor to dust formation and fuel retention due to build-up of co-deposited layers. The Be gross and net erosion rates provided by this study can help identifying first wall regions with potentially critical armour lifetime.

Erika Kollitz ◽  
Haegin Han ◽  
Chan Hyeong Kim ◽  
Marco Pinto ◽  
Marco Schwarz ◽  

Abstract Objective: As cancer survivorship increases, there is growing interest in minimizing the late effects of radiation therapy such as radiogenic second cancer, which may occur anywhere in the body. Assessing the risk of late effects requires knowledge of the dose distribution throughout the whole body, including regions far from the treatment field, beyond the typical anatomical extent of clinical CT scans. Approach: A hybrid phantom was developed which consists of in-field patient CT images extracted from ground truth whole-body CT (WBCT) scans, out-of-field mesh phantoms scaled to basic patient measurements, and a blended transition region. Four of these hybrid phantoms were created, representing male and female patients receiving proton therapy treatment in pelvic and cranial sites. To assess the performance of the hybrid approach, we simulated treatments using the hybrid phantoms, the scaled and unscaled mesh phantoms, and the ground truth whole-body CTs. We calculated absorbed dose and equivalent dose in and outside of the treatment field, with a focus on neutrons induced in the patient by proton therapy. Proton and neutron dose was calculated using a general purpose Monte Carlo code. Main Results: The hybrid phantom provided equal or superior accuracy in calculated organ dose and equivalent dose values relative to those obtained using the mesh phantoms in 78% in all selected organs and calculated dose quantities. Comparatively the default mesh and scaled mesh were equal or superior to the other phantoms in 21% and 28% of cases respectively. Significance: The proposed methodology for hybrid synthesis provides a tool for whole-body organ dose estimation for individual patients without requiring CT scans of their entire body. Such a capability would be useful for personalized assessment of late effects and risk-optimization of treatment plans.

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