A cantilevered pipe conveying fluid can lose stability via flutter when the flow velocity becomes sufficiently high. In this paper, a dry friction restraint is introduced for the first time, to evaluate the possibility of improving the stability of cantilevered pipes conveying fluid. First, a dynamical model of the cantilevered pipe system with dry friction is established based on the generalized Hamilton’s principle. Then the Galerkin method is utilized to discretize the model of the pipe and to obtain the nonlinear dynamic responses of the pipe. Finally, by changing the values of the friction force and the installation position of the dry friction restraint, the effect of dry friction parameters on the flutter instability of the pipe is evaluated. The results show that the critical flow velocity of the pipe increases with the increment of the friction force. Installing a dry friction restraint near the middle of the pipe can significantly improve the stability of the pipe system. The vibration of the pipe can also be suppressed to some extent by setting reasonable dry friction parameters.
The effect of the communication channel size on the transport and subsequent detection of chemical messengers is investigated on millimetric and micrometric channels. The transport of the information carriers, being characterized by an advective and a diffusive contribution, was simulated by varying the flow velocity and the diffusion coefficient. Then, to evaluate the information quality, the Intersymbol Interference (ISI) between two consecutive signals at a specific release delay was estimated. This allowed us to verify that operating under micrometric channel conditions has a larger flow velocity range to obtain completely separated successive signals and smaller release delays can be used between signals. The theoretical results were confirmed by developing a prototype molecular communication platform operating under microfluidic conditions, which enables communication through fluorescent nanoparticles, namely Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs).
Objective: The focus of our research was to create a fairly sensitive HPLC stratagem for determining telmisartan (TLM) and azelnidipine (AEL) in bulk and tablet types.
Methods: Analysis of TLM and AEL was performed on a “C18 Kromasil stationary column (5 µm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm)”. The mobile phase was made of 0.1M NaH2PO4 solution (pH 3.5) and methanol at a comparative volume ratio of 50% each. The analysis of TLM and AEL was isocratic, with the flow velocity adjusted at 1.0 ml/min and indeed, the TLM and AEL analysis was done at 256 nm using a PDA device sensor. TLM and AEL were stressed with acid, peroxide, dry heat, alkali, and sunlight-induced settings.
Results: The retention/elution periods for the TLM and AEL were observed at 2.225 min and 3.178 min, respectively. The HPLC stratagem developed have a straight-line relation with relative concentrations in the ranges of 20-60 µg/ml for TLM and 4-12 µg/ml for AEL. The LOQ’s for TLM and AEL were 0.2516 μg/ml and 0.0871 μg/ml, respectively. The validation investigational findings done for TLM and AEL with the established sensitive HPLC stratagem were passed out in conformity with the ICH standards.
Conclusion: The established sensitive HPLC stratagem was shown as competent for the quality check of bulk samples of TLM and AEL throughout batch release as well as in the course of TLM and AEL stability investigations.