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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ioanna Kyriakou ◽  
Dimitris Emfietzoglou ◽  
Sebastien Incerti

The development of accurate physics models that enable track structure simulations of electrons in liquid water medium over a wide energy range, from the eV to the MeV scale, is a subject of continuous efforts due to its importance (among other things) in theoretical studies of radiation quality for application in radiotherapy and radiation protection. A few years ago, the Geant4-DNA very low-energy extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code had offered to users an improved set of physics models for discrete electron transport below 10 keV. In this work we present refinements to this model set and its extension to energies up to 1 MeV. Preliminary comparisons against the existing Geant4-DNA physics models with respect to total and differential ionization cross sections of electrons in liquid water are reported and discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 924 (2) ◽  
pp. L29
Shuo Xiao ◽  
Shao-Lin Xiong ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Shuang-Nan Zhang ◽  
He Gao ◽  

Abstract Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been identified as one of the most promising sources for Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) studies due to their cosmological distance and energetic emission in wide energy bands. However, the arrival-time difference of GRB photons among different energy bands is affected not only by the LIV effect but also by the poorly known intrinsic spectral lags. In previous studies, assumptions of spectral lag have to be made which could introduce systematic errors. In this paper, we used a sample of 46 short GRBs (SGRBs), whose intrinsic spectra lags are much smaller than long GRBs, to better constrain the LIV. The observed spectral lags are derived between two fixed energy bands in the source rest frame rather than the observer frame. Moreover, the lags are calculated with the novel Li–CCF method, which is more robust than traditional methods. Our results show that, if we consider LIV as a linear energy dependence of the photon propagation speed in the data fit, then we obtain a robust limit of E QG > 1015 GeV (95% CL). If we assume no LIV effect in the keV–MeV energy range, the goodness of data fit is equivalently as well as the case with LIV and we can constrain the common intrinsic spectral lags of SGRBs to be 1.4 ± 0.5 ms (1σ), which is the most accurate measurement thus far.

M. V. Korzhik

The most probable scenario for the development of experimental high-energy physics in the next 50 years is the creation of a family of Future Circular Colliders (FCC) at CERN, a Circular Electron–Positron Collider at China, and a Future Electron-Ion Collider at Brookhaven (USA), which continue the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scientific program within the framework of the Standard Model and beyond it. The first generation of colliders to be put into operation will utilize the electron beam as one of the colliding species to provide precise mass spectroscopy in a wide energy range. Similarly to the measurements at the high luminosity phase of the LHC operation, the most important property of the detectors to be used in the experimental setup is a combination of the short response of the detectors and their high time resolution. The radiation tolerance to a harsh irradiation environment remains mandatory but not the main factor of the collider’s experiments using electronic beams. A short response in combination with high time resolution ensures minimization of the influence of the pile-up and spill-over effects at the high frequency of collisions (higher than 50 MGz). The radiation hardness of the materials maintains the long-term high accuracy of the detector calibration. This paper discusses the prospects for using modern inorganic scintillation materials for calorimetric detectors at future colliders.

R. Pronishin ◽  
B. Pustovitenko

The instrumental and macroseismic data of the Teresvа-II earthquake on July 19, 2015 with the energy class KR=11.1, МSH=3.4 are considered. The earthquake occurred in the seismically active Tyachevo-Sigetskaya zone of Transcarpathia in the upper part of the Earth's crust and caused shaking intensity of I0=6 in the epicentral zone near the village of Teresva. The data on the focal mechanism solution, intensity distribution, parameters of the strongest aftershocks are presented. The release of seismic energy continued for 35 days. During this time, 306 earthquakes were recorded in a wide energy range. The space-time and energy properties of the complex sequence of the Teresvа earthquakes in 2015 have been investigated. The tectonics and previous seismi-city of the area are described.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Makoto Asai ◽  
Miguel A. Cortés-Giraldo ◽  
Vicent Giménez-Alventosa ◽  
Vicent Giménez Gómez ◽  
Francesc Salvat

A translation of the penelope physics subroutines to C++, designed as an extension of the Geant4 toolkit, is presented. The Fortran code system penelope performs Monte Carlo simulation of coupled electron-photon transport in arbitrary materials for a wide energy range, nominally from 50 eV up to 1 GeV. Penelope implements the most reliable interaction models that are currently available, limited only by the required generality of the code. In addition, the transport of electrons and positrons is simulated by means of an elaborate class II scheme in which hard interactions (involving deflection angles or energy transfers larger than pre-defined cutoffs) are simulated from the associated restricted differential cross sections. After a brief description of the interaction models adopted for photons and electrons/positrons, we describe the details of the class-II algorithm used for tracking electrons and positrons. The C++ classes are adapted to the specific code structure of Geant4. They provide a complete description of the interactions and transport mechanics of electrons/positrons and photons in arbitrary materials, which can be activated from the G4ProcessManager to produce simulation results equivalent to those from the original penelope programs. The combined code, named PenG4, benefits from the multi-threading capabilities and advanced geometry and statistical tools of Geant4.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 (12) ◽  
Igor D. Kakorin ◽  
Konstantin S. Kuzmin ◽  
Vadim A. Naumov

AbstractWe suggest an empirical rule-of-thumb for calculating the cross sections of charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) and CCQE-like interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos with nuclei. The approach is based on the standard relativistic Fermi-gas model and on the notion of neutrino energy dependent axial-vector mass of the nucleon, governed by a couple of adjustable parameters, one of which is the conventional charged-current axial-vector mass. The inelastic background contributions and final-state interactions are therewith simulated using GENIE 3 neutrino event generator. An extensive comparison of our calculations with earlier and current accelerator CCQE and CCQE-like data for different nuclear targets shows good or at least qualitative overall agreement over a wide energy range. We also discuss some problematical issues common to several competing contemporary models of the CCQE (anti)neutrino–nucleus scattering and to the current neutrino interaction generators.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. P12011
D. Ponomarev ◽  
D. Filosofov ◽  
J. Khushvaktov ◽  
A. Lubashevskiy ◽  
I. Rozova ◽  

Abstract Novel NaIL detector (5 × 6 inch) was investigated for its neutron detection in wide energy range. It has been found that the detector together with its known ability to detect the γ-radiation it also allows to distinguish neutron signals in three quasi-independent ways. It is sensitive to neutron fluxes on a level down to 10-3 cm-2 s-1. In this work intrinsic α-background and neutron detection sensitivity for the NaIL detector were obtained. Experimental data was compared with results of Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC).

Atoms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 97
Fabio Carelli ◽  
Kamil Fedus ◽  
Grzegorz Karwasz

More than one hundred years of experimental and theoretical investigations of electron scattering in gases delivered cross-sections in a wide energy range, from few meV to keV. An analogy in optics, characterizing different materials, comes under the name of the dispersion relation, i.e., of the dependence of the refraction index on the light wavelength. The dispersion relation for electron (and positron) scattering was hypothesized in the 1970s, but without clear results. Here, we review experimental, theoretical, and semi-empirical cross-sections for N2, CO2, CH4, and CF4 in search of any hint for such a relation—unfortunately, without satisfactory conclusions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2101530
Jie Ma ◽  
Muazzam Idris ◽  
Tian Y. Li ◽  
Daniel S. M. Ravinson ◽  
Tyler Fleetham ◽  

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