adaptation mechanisms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-85
B. Asadova

Stress factors limit the development of living organisms, especially plants, and reduce their productivity. In this regard, the study of the effects of stress factors on plants and the discovery of adaptation mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of stress in the cell. From a biological point of view, stress is considered to be any change in the external environment that impairs the normal development of the plant or changes it in a negative direction. Stresses cause changes in the physiological activity of plants, weaken the process of biosynthesis in the cell, disrupt normal life and ultimately can cause plant death.

2022 ◽  
Yijie Guo ◽  
Sho Kitamoto ◽  
Gustavo Caballero-Flores ◽  
Daisuke Watanabe ◽  
Kohei Sugihara ◽  

Periodontal inflammation leads to oral dysbiosis with the expansion of oral pathobionts. Besides the pathogenic role of oral pathobionts during periodontal inflammation, studies have revealed that oral pathobionts contribute to diseases in distant organs beyond the oral mucosa. For example, the oral pathobiont Klebsiella aerogenes, which accumulates in the oral mucosa during periodontitis in mice, can exacerbate colitis when it ectopically colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. However, the precise mechanisms by which oral pathobionts establish their colonization in extra-oral mucosal sites remains incompletely understood. We performed high-throughput in vivo genetic screening to identify fitness genes required for the adaptation of the oral pathobiont K. aerogenes to different mucosal sites – the oral and gut mucosae – in the steady state and during inflammation. In addition, the global transcriptome of K. aerogenes in different environments was analyzed. We determined that K. aerogenes employs genes related to iron acquisition and chaperone usher pili, which are encoded on a newly identified genomic locus named “locus of colonization in the inflamed gut” (LIG), for adaptation in the gut mucosa, particularly during inflammation. In contrast, the LIG virulence factors are not required for K. aerogenes to adapt to the oral mucosa. Thus, oral pathobionts likely exploit distinct adaptation mechanisms in their ectopically colonized intestinal niche as compared to their original niche.

2022 ◽  
Elena A. Tyumina ◽  
Grigory A. Bazhutin ◽  
Irina B. Ivshina

Against the background of atense environmental situation, the risk of drug pollution in the natural environment is steadily increasing. Pharmaceuticals entering open ecosystems can cause toxic effects in wildlife from molecular to population levels. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of pharmaceutical pollutants on rhodococci, which are typical representatives of soil actinobacteria and active biodegraders of these compounds. The pharmaceutical products used in this research werediclofenac sodium and ibuprofen, which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are widely used and frequently found in the environment. The most common cell adaptations of rhodococci to the effects of NSAIDs were changes in zeta potential, catalase activity, morphometric parameters and degree of hydrophobicity; elevated contents of total cellular lipids; and the formation of cell conglomerates. The findings demonstrated the adaptation mechanisms of rhodococci and their increased resistance to the toxic effects of the pharmaceutical pollutants. Keywords: pharmaceutical pollutants, NSAIDs, diclofenac, ibuprofen, cell responses, Rhodococcus

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 108-116
T. A. Chekanova ◽  
I. N. Manzeniuk

Relevance. Tick-borne relapsing fevers caused by Borrelia species pathogenic for humans are not well understood. Aim of this review is to assess the genetic diversity of Borrelia with special attention to the relapsing fever group and phylogenetically related species carried by ticks. The review also provides up-to-date information on the main vectors and their geographic distribution, reservoirs of borrelia – pathogens, and potential pathogens of tick-borne recurrent fevers. Conclusions. New types of Borrelia, including a candidate, of relapsing fever clade and related phylogenetic lines/groups, which are carried not only by argasid, but also by solid-body ixodids ticks, deserve further study. The preservation of the epidemic potential of tick-borne relapsing fever can be facilitated by climatic changes, and poorly studied adaptation mechanisms of Borrelia to the range of vectors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chengqian Qian ◽  
Min Huang ◽  
Yuhui Du ◽  
Jingjie Song ◽  
Huiqian Mu ◽  

Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen causing a lethality rate as high as 80% in infants. Desiccation tolerance ensures its survival in powdered infant formula (PIF) and contributes to the increased exposure to neonates, resulting in neonatal meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study showed that a food-isolated C. sakazakii G4023 strain exhibited a stronger desiccation tolerance than C. sakazakii ATCC 29544 strain. Considering the proven pathogenicity of G4023, it could be a big threat to infants. Transcriptome and proteome were performed to provide new insights into the desiccation adaptation mechanisms of G4023. Integrated analyses of these omics suggested that 331 genes were found regulated at both transcriptional and protein levels (≥2.0- and ≥1.5-fold, respectively). Deletion of chemotaxis system encoded genes cheA and cheW resulted in decreased tolerance in both short- and long-term desiccation. Reduced O-antigen chain length contributed to the biofilm formation and desiccation tolerance in the short term rather than the long term. In addition, biosynthesis of flagella, arginine and its transport system, and Fe/S cluster were also observed regulated in desiccated G4023. A better understanding of desiccation adaptation mechanisms of G4023 could in turn guide the operations during production and preservation of PIF or other food to reduce survival odds of G4023 and lower its exposure to get to infants.

2022 ◽  
pp. 79-100
Prajjal Dey ◽  
Diptanu Datta ◽  
Debasish Pattnaik ◽  
Deepali Dash ◽  
Debanjana Saha ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2-3 (35-36) ◽  
pp. 44-49
V. Bereznyakov ◽  

Introduction. Сommunity-acquired pneumonia (COP) is a global socio-medical problem. At emergence of pneumonia by any genesis, hypoxia develops. Oxygen homeostasis of the body is provided by the coordinated interaction of external respiration, circulatory system and oxygen-transport system of the blood. Hypoxia, due to the malfunction of the external respiratory system, causes the formation of compensatory changes, in the implementation of which involved components of the oxygen transport system. Molecular genetic mechanisms play an important role in the body's adaptation to oxygen deficiency. Fetal hemoglobin (FetHb), having an increased affinity for oxygen, makes a significant contribution to the body's adaptation to new conditions with altered gaseous environment in the presence of pathological processes occurring with hypoxia. In this regard, it is interest to determine FetHb in adults with COP to study its effect on the diagnosis, prognosis and outcome of the disease. The aim of the study. To determinate the participation of the organism adaptation mechanisms to the lack of oxygen according to the assessment of the content of fetal hemoglobin in the peripheral blood of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Materials and methods. We examined 34 adult patients (18 women and 16 men) with COP, aged 18 to 80 years, who were in the therapeutic department of the City Clinical Hospital № 25 in Kharkiv. The control group was formed of 20 healthy individuals. Spirography was performed on the diagnostic complex "Valenta"; hematological examinations – on the analyzer "ADVIA 60"; measurement of pO2 and pCO2, oxygen saturation, content of fetal hemoglobin – on the device "RAPIDLAB865". Results. In patients with community-acquired pneumonia, there was a decrease of the ventilatory function of external respiration, which is confirmed by a marked decrease in partial oxygen pressure. Oxygen saturation of blood was reduced in the group of patients with COP, but the difference was not statistically significant 94.8 ± 1.0 %. This indicates the presence of compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining adequate blood oxygen saturation. Significant increase in pH (from 7.40 to 7.53) and decrease in standard bicarbonate (from 1.27 to 0.68 mmol/l) resulting from violation of the gas composition of the blood can be regarded as a manifestation of partially compensated respiratory alkalosis. In patients with COP, there was a reduction in the total time of hemolysis, a shift of the maximum erythrogram to the left and an increase in the maximum itself, indicating a sharp decline in erythrocyte resistance. The proportion of erythrocytes with reduced resistance was twice as large as similar forms in the control group and the number of highly resistant cells in patients with COP sharply decreased. Obviously, oxygen starvation-mediated stress erythropoiesis is accompanied by the entry into the circulation of functionally defective erythrocytes. They are subject to accelerated elimination from the vascular bed, which causes a decrease in the quantitative indicators of red blood (erythrocyte content, hemoglobin) while maintaining corpuscular parameters (Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration). At the same time, the analysis of individual hemoglobin fractions revealed an increase in the proportion of fetal hemoglobin (from 2.90 ± 0.31 % in the group of healthy individuals to 5.43 ± 1.05 % in patients with COP) (p less than 0.05). Conclusions. Changes in the parameters of acid hemolysis, fetal hemoglobin in the peripheral blood of patients with community-acquired pneumonia with impaired pulmonary ventilation function indicate their participation in the mechanisms of adaptation to oxygen deficiency and they have informative potential. Elevated fetal hemoglobin in peripheral blood in these patients can be used as an indicator of hypoxia, accompanied by impaired oxygen delivery to tissues, which should be used as an additional criterion for diagnosing tissue hypoxia and justify the timely appointment of antihypoxia drugs. Keywords: hypoxia, community-acquired pneumonia, red blood cells, fetal hemoglobin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Ica Wulansari ◽  
Oekan S Abdoellah ◽  
Budhi Gunawan ◽  

Collective adaptation is a relevant discussion in association with the limited adaptive capacity of farmers to deal with climate change. This study aims to improve the collective adaptation of farmers through the identification of adaptive capacity assessments. A collective adaptation mechanism in the form of planning for rice planting time has succeeded in reducing the vulnerability of farmers. This study was conducted at a rice production center with a collective adaptation mechanism in Indramayu District, West Java Province, Indonesia. The data were collected using a quantitative method through a questionnaire distributed to 296 farmer respondents and a qualitative method through structured interviews. The observations provided an overview for authors to build structured interviews. The results of the study show that the adaptive capacity of farmers is supported by social capital and collective adaptation mechanisms of farmers consisting of trust in the formal leaders, quality of collective decisions, and planning capacity. The results of this study contribute to the implementation of public policies in order to support the successful implementation of adaptation strategies to deal with climate change in accordance with the needs of farmers.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1748
Katarína Ražná ◽  
Jana Žiarovská ◽  
Eva Ivanišová ◽  
Lucia Urbanová ◽  
Ľubomír Harenčár ◽  

The significant healing effect of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and Tilia cordata Mill. flowers are well known. However, the flowers of Tilia tomentosa Moench. are not suitable for harvest due to their toxic effects. To investigate the diverse background of this effect, we applied a functional miRNA-based marker, mannose expression analysis and determined the content of bioactive compounds. Out of nine tested markers, three (miR160, miR167 and miR408) provided reproducible miRNA-based loci and two of them (miR160 and miR398) enabled the acquisition of fingerprinting specific to flower and leaf samples of T. platyphyllos and T. tomentosa. The most pronounced profiling was specific for miR408 marker, the function of which is connected to plant defense and adaptation mechanisms. We confirmed the suitability of microRNA-based markers for polymorphism determination of flowers of selected species of lime-tree. The highest values of antioxidant activity, flavonoids, total polyphenols and phenolic acids content have been reached in silver linden flowers. When comparing the transcription activity of mannose in flowers, more than 30 times higher levels of mannose transcripts for the silver linden flowers was observed.

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