intracerebroventricular injection
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Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1681
María Rodríguez-Muñoz ◽  
Elsa Cortés-Montero ◽  
Yara Onetti ◽  
Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez ◽  
Javier Garzón-Niño

Nerve injury produces neuropathic pain through the binding of α2δ1 proteins to glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Notably, mice with a targeted deletion of the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) gene do not develop neuropathy, whereas mice lacking the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) gene exhibit exacerbated allodynia. σ1R antagonists more effectively diminish neuropathic pain of spinal origin when administered by intracerebroventricular injection than systemically. Thus, in mice subjected to unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI), we studied the participation of σ1Rs and HINT1 proteins in the formation of α2δ1-NMDAR complexes within the supraspinal periaqueductal gray (PAG). We found that δ1 peptides required σ1Rs in order to interact with the NMDAR NR1 variant that contains the cytosolic C1 segment. σ1R antagonists or low calcium levels provoke the dissociation of σ1R-NR1 C1 dimers, while they barely affect the integrity of δ1-σ1R-NR1 C1 trimers. However, HINT1 does remove δ1 peptides from the trimer, thereby facilitating the subsequent dissociation of σ1Rs from NMDARs. In σ1R-/- mice, CCI does not promote the formation of NMDAR-α2δ1 complexes and allodynia does not develop. The levels of α2δ1-σ1R-NMDAR complexes increase in HINT1-/- mice and after inducing CCI, degradation of α2δ1 proteins is observed. Notably, σ1R antagonists but not gabapentinoids alleviate neuropathic pain in these mice. During severe neuropathy, the metabolism of α2δ1 proteins may account for the failure of many patients to respond to gabapentinoids. Therefore, σ1Rs promote and HINT1 proteins hinder the formation α2δ1-NMDAR complexes in the PAG, and hence, the appearance of mechanical allodynia depends on the interplay between these proteins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hei-Jen Huang ◽  
Jie-Ling Chen ◽  
Jian-Fu Liao ◽  
Yu-Hsin Chen ◽  
Min-Wei Chieu ◽  

Abstract Background According to recent evidence, psychobiotics exert beneficial effects on central nervous system-related diseases, such as mental disorders. Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128), a novel psychobiotic strain, improves motor function, depression, and anxiety behaviors. However, the psychobiotic effects and mechanisms of PS128 in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remain to be explored. Objectives The goal of the current study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of PS128 and to further elucidate its mechanism in AD mice. Methods PS128 (1010 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml) was administered via oral gavage (o.g.) to 6-month-old male wild-type B6 and 3 × Tg-AD mice (harboring the PS1M146V, APPswe and TauP30IL transgenes) that received an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ, 3 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) for 33 days. After serial behavioral tests, fecal short-chain fatty acid levels and AD-related pathology were assessed in these mice. Results Our findings show that intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin accelerated cognitive dysfunction associated with increasing levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) activity, tau protein phosphorylation at the T231 site (pT231), amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP), β-site AβPP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), gliosis, fecal propionic acid (PPA) levels and cognition-related neuronal loss and decreasing postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) levels in 3 × Tg-AD mice. PS128 supplementation effectively prevented the damage induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Conclusions Based on the experimental results, intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin accelerates the progression of AD in the 3 × Tg-AD mice, primarily by increasing the levels of gliosis, which were mediated by the propionic acid and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta pathways. PS128 supplementation prevents damage induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin by regulating the propionic acid levels, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity, and gliosis in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Therefore, we suggest that PS128 supplementation is a potential strategy to prevent and/or delay the progression of AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 100725
Zoe V. Taylor ◽  
Bishnu Khand ◽  
Angel Porgador ◽  
Alon Monsonego ◽  
Ekaterina Eremenko

Yazhen Shang ◽  
Shengkai Ding

Background: Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), formed by hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the main pathomechanisms of neuronal degeneration, which can be used as a sign of brain disorder. It is positively correlated with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi stems and leaves flavonoids (SSF) on the hyperphosphorylated expression levels at multiple sites of Tau protein induced by β-amyloid protein 25-35 (Aβ25-35) in combined with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) and recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 (RHTGF-β1) (composited Aβ) in rats. Methods: The model of rats for AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 and AlCl3 combined with RHTGF-β1. On day 45 after the operation, the Morris water maze was used to screen the rats’ memory impairment model for AD. The successful model rats were randomly divided into the model group and three-dose of drug group. The drug group rats were daily and orally SSF administrated for 38 days. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of P-Tau (Thr181), P-Tau (Thr217), P-Tau (Thr231), P-Tau (Ser199), P-Tau (Ser235), P-Tau (Ser396) and P-Tau (Ser404) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats. Results: Compared with the sham group, the protein expression of P-Tau (Thr181), P-Tau (Thr217), P-Tau (Thr231), P-Tau (Ser199), P-Tau (Ser235), P-Tau (Ser396) and P-Tau (Ser404) was significantly increased in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in the model group (P < 0.01). However, the three doses of 35, 70 and 140 mg/kg SSF regulated the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein at the above sites to varying degrees in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (P < 0.01) induced by composited Aβ. Conclusion: SSF can significantly reduce the protein expression levels of P-Tau (Thr181), P-Tau (Thr217), P-Tau (Thr231), P-Tau (Ser199), P-Tau (Ser235), P-Tau (Ser396) and P-Tau (Ser404) in rats’ brain induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of composited Aβ. These results demonstrated that the neuro-protection and the impaired memory improvement of SSF were due to the inhibition for the hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein at multiple sites.

2021 ◽  
Abhishek Bhattacherjee ◽  
Gour Daskhan ◽  
Arjun Bains ◽  
Adrianne E.S. Watson ◽  
Ghazaleh Eskandari-Sedighi ◽  

CD33 is an immunomodulatory receptor expressed on microglia and genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility. While antibodies targeting CD33 have entered clinical trials to treat neurodegeneration, it is unknown whether the glycan-binding properties of CD33 can be exploited to modulate microglia. Here, we use liposomes that multivalently display glycan ligands of CD33 (CD33L liposomes) to engage CD33. We find that CD33L liposomes increase phagocytosis of cultured monocytic cells and microglia in a CD33-dependent manner. Enhanced phagocytosis strongly correlates with loss of CD33 from the cell surface and internalization of liposomes. Increased phagocytosis by treatment with CD33L liposomes is dependent on a key intracellular signaling motif on CD33 as well as the glycan-binding ability of CD33. These effects are specific to trans engagement of CD33 by CD33L liposomes, as cis engagement through insertion of lipid-linked CD33L into cells produces the opposite effect on phagocytosis. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of CD33L liposomes in mice enhances phagocytosis of microglia in a CD33-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that multivalent engagement of CD33 with glycan ligands can modulate microglial cell function.

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