Site Infection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Munehisa Koizumi ◽  
Yoshinobu Kato ◽  
Azusa Yoneda ◽  
Kensuke Okamura ◽  
Naoki Tsukada ◽  

Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 113-124
Musjaya, M Guli

The immune sistem is a way of the body’s defense sistem to save the host from the invasion of outside pathogen. Based on how respon to disease, that differentiated into two immune system are innate and adaptive system. Because it an cant throgh the stomach, these pathogenic bacteria go to the small intestin as a site infection. In the intestine, V. cholerae bactesia adhere and colonize and invasion to intestinal epihelial cells. Protection mechanism  to V. cholerae are the natural defense presence of tick mucosa on the surface of epithelial cells can  inhibit pathogene to adhere tointestinal epithelial cells. One anothet defense namely innate immune system did by phagocytic cells to attac pathogen agent and adaptive immune system involves IgA to opsonization so that can increase intestinal mucosal immune system

Khaled Goma ◽  
Saad El Gelany ◽  
Ahmed Fawzy Galal

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication of surgical procedures in gynecology and it poses a significant burden for both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective was determining the incidence and risk factors for SSI post-gynecological operations during the period of five years.Methods: A matched case-control study at Minia maternity university, Egypt where A total of 18772 cases had undergone different gynecological procedures. The 876 cases were complicated with SSI (SSI cases group) and 2 matched controls per case were chosen from the rest of the cases and served as the control group (n=1752 cases).Results: The overall incidence of SSI post-gynecological operations was 4.67% and post-hysterectomy was 7.57%. SSI group had a significantly higher number of cases with diabetes, obesity, high parity (>4), increased blood loss and those had prolonged duration of surgery compared to the control group (all p<0.01).Conclusions: The identified risk factors are crucial for risk stratification of SSI and prioritizing interventions to improve the outcome. These results could give a picture for SSI post-gynecological operations in our country and identifying these risk factors is crucial for risk stratification of SSI and prioritizing interventions to improve the outcome.

2022 ◽  
Raiyyan Aftab ◽  
Vikash H Dodhia ◽  
Christopher Jeanes ◽  
Ryckie G Wade

Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication of surgery, increasing healthcare costs and hospital stay. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and povidone-iodine (PVI) are used for skin antisepsis, minimising SSIs. There is increasing concern of developing resistance to topical biocides, though clinical implications remain unclear. Outcomes: Determining whether the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for topical preparations of CHX or PVI have changed over time, in microbes relevant to SSI. Methods We included studies reporting the mean bactericidal concentration (MBC) of laboratory and clinical isolates of common microbes to CHX and PVI. Excluding non-human samples and studies using antimicrobial solvents or mixtures with other active substances. MBC was pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Change in MBC over time was explored using meta-regression. Results 79 studies were including, analysing 6218 microbes over 45 years. Most used CHX (93%), with insufficient data for meta-analysis of PVI. There was no change in MBC of CHX to Staphylococci (β 0.12 [-1.13, 1.37]; I2 99%) or Streptococci (β 0.13 [-0.35, 0.62]; I2 97%). Conclusions There is no evidence of reduced susceptibility of common SSI-causing microbes to CHX over time. Providing reassurance that the worldwide guidance that CHX should remain the first-choice agent for surgical skin antisepsis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Ananta Bonar ◽  

Objective: This study aims to review the usage and complication of paramedian approach for CAPD catheter insertion. Material & Methods: This is a retrospective study. All ESRD patients ongoing CAPD at the Dialysis Clinic of Zainoel Abidin General Hospital in Aceh, Indonesia between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2018 were included in the present study. Complication outcomes included mechanical and infectious complications are documented and reviewed. Results: A total of 190 ESRD patients had been performed CAPD catheter insertion using paramedian approach in this period. Out of these patients, complication occurred in 31 cases (16.32%). All the complication that occurred in this study are 5 cases of leakage (2.63%), 9 cases of infection (4.74%), 8 cases of drainage problem (4.21%), 9 cases of malposition (4.74%), and no case of bowel perforation. From total of 9 cases of infections, 1 patient had peritonitis from the catheter insertion. The other infection was exit site infection. Conclusion: CAPD catheter insertion using paramedian approach is safe with low complication rates. It could decrease post-operative complications and can be recommended for CAPD catheter insertion technique due to its safety.

Ingwon Yeo ◽  
Christian Klemt ◽  
Matthew Gerald Robinson ◽  
John G. Esposito ◽  
Akachimere Cosmas Uzosike ◽  

AbstractThis is a retrospective study. Surgical site infection (SSI) is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, accurately predicting SSI remains a clinical challenge due to the multitude of patient and surgical factors associated with SSI. This study aimed to develop and validate machine learning models for the prediction of SSI following primary TKA. This is a retrospective study for patients who underwent primary TKA. Chart review was performed to identify patients with superficial or deep SSIs, defined in concordance with the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range: 2.1–4.7 years). Five machine learning algorithms were developed to predict this outcome, and model assessment was performed by discrimination, calibration, and decision curve analysis. A total of 10,021 consecutive primary TKA patients was included in this study. At an average follow-up of 2.8 ± 1.1 years, SSIs were reported in 404 (4.0%) TKA patients, including 223 superficial SSIs and 181 deep SSIs. The neural network model achieved the best performance across discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.84), calibration, and decision curve analysis. The strongest predictors of the occurrence of SSI following primary TKA, in order, were Charlson comorbidity index, obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2), and smoking. The neural network model presented in this study represents an accurate method to predict patient-specific superficial and deep SSIs following primary TKA, which may be employed to assist in clinical decision-making to optimize outcomes in at-risk patients.

Varun Dogra ◽  
Silvi Sandhu ◽  
Ishfaq Ahmad Gilkar ◽  
Shyam Gupta

Background: Midline incision provides excellent access to the abdominal cavity. However, wound infection following a laparotomy can increase morbidity as well as burden on health care system. Wound prognosis can be influenced by the type of incisions, suture material and the method of closure. This study aimed to assess the outcome of midline abdominal wound closure using two different techniques of wound closure.Methods: This was a prospective observational study and consisted of 300 consecutive patients ≥18 years of age undergoing abdominal surgery through a midline incision in emergency setting. Patients who were included in the study were then randomised into two groups. In group I, midline laparotomy was closed with large tissue bites and in group II small tissue bites were used.Results: Out of 300 patients included in this study, 150 patients were subjected to large tissue bites and another 150 patients to small tissue bites. 29 patients out of 150 patients (19%) in large tissue bites group and 16 patients (11%) in small tissue bites developed surgical site infection (SSI). 23 patients out of 50 patients (15%) in large tissue bites group and 11 patients (7%) in small tissue bites developed wound dehiscence.Conclusions: In this study, we found that the patients in group II whose midline laprotomy was closed with small tissue bites had better wound outcome postoperatively in terms of wound site infection and wound dehiscence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 321
Fu-Huan Huang ◽  
Po-Lung Cheng ◽  
Wen-Hsuan Hou ◽  
Yih-Cherng Duh

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic hernia repair with the extraperitoneal approach in pediatric inguinal hernias. Summary Background Data: Inguinal hernia repair is the most common operation in pediatric surgical practice. Although open hernia repair (OHR) is a well-established procedure with good outcomes, studies have reported acceptable or even better outcomes of laparoscopic hernia repair with the extraperitoneal approach (LHRE). However, a meta-analysis comparing LHRE with OHR is lacking. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative studies (prospective or retrospective). Outcomes were metachronous contralateral inguinal hernia (MCIH), hernia recurrence, surgical site infection, operation time, and hospitalization length. A meta-analysis was performed, and risk ratios (RR), weighted mean difference (WMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Five RCTs and 21 comparative studies involving 24,479 patients were included. Lower MCIH incidence (RR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17; p < 0.00001) and a trend of shorter operation time (WMD: −11.90 min, 95% CI: −16.63 to −7.44; p < 0.00001) were found in the LHRE group. No significant differences in ipsilateral recurrence hernias, surgical site infection, and length of hospitalization were found between the groups. Conclusions: LHRE presented lower MCIH incidence and shorter operation times, with no increase in hernia recurrence, surgical site infection, or length of hospitalization. As more surgeons are increasingly becoming familiar with LHRE, LHRE would be a feasible and effective choice for pediatric inguinal hernia repair.

2022 ◽  
Alison R. Billas ◽  
Janet A. Grimes ◽  
Danielle L. Hollenbeck ◽  
Vanna M. Dickerson ◽  
Mandy L. Wallace ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (01) ◽  
pp. 5808-5913
Ibrahim EKE ◽  
Mehmet Akif AKCAL ◽  
Yusuf IYETIN ◽  

Objective This study aims to observe whether Kryptonite Bone Cement combined with a standard Kirschner wire, instead of autogenous bone grafts, increases bone healing and mechanical strength in rats with tibia fractures. Methods The study included sixteen rats, which were divided into two groups as a control group (n=8) and an experimental group (n=8). After segmental fractures were made in both groups, intramedullary fixation of tibia procedures were conducted with the use of a Kirschner wire. No additional procedures were performed inthe control group, but Kryptonite Bone Cement was applied in the experimental group. The rats were evaluated clinically, radiologically and histologically4 times; immediately after the operation, and atthe 1st, 3rd, and 6thweeks following surgery. Results One rat from the experimental and one from the control group had both wound dehiscence and wound site infection. No recovery was observed in any rats either in the control or experimental group immediately after surgery. During week 1, callus formation was identified in 5 rats in the experimental group (p=0.0072), and during week 3, fracture lines disappeared in 4 rats in the experimental group (p=0.064); the differences between control and experimental groups were statistically significant. During week 6, no statistical significance was observed in radiological assessments for the control group and experimental group (p=0.71). The rate of non-union was higher in the control group (37.50%) than in the experimental one, while the rate of complete fusion was higher in the experimental group (87.50%) than that in the control group. Conclusion Osteoconductivity and ergonomic qualities of Kryptonite Bone Cement prove helpful in bone repair. Future studies to be conducted in a prospective and randomized manner will be effective on demonstrating the effectiveness of Kryptonite Bone Cement.

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