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Author(s):  
Felipe Mendes Zorzi ◽  
Luiz Francisco Zafalon ◽  
Franklin Bispo Santos ◽  
Arthur Ferreira Borges ◽  
Ticiano Gomes Nascimento ◽  
...  

Fifty-two Staphylococcus aureus recovered from papillary ostium and milk samples collected from cows with subclinical mastitis and milking environments in three small dairy herds located in southeastern Brazil were subjected to PCR identification based on the thermonuclease (nuc) gene. All the strains were submitted to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and we investigated the sequence types (STs), agr groups (I-IV), virulence genes encoding for Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), biofilm-associated proteins, bi-component toxins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens, and enterotoxins. Screening for oxacillin resistance (2-6 μg/ml oxacillin), beta-lactamase activity assays, and PCR for the mecA/mecC genes detected 26 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 26 mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus (MIONSA). While MSSA isolates were found to be susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, or only resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, MIONSA isolates were multidrug-resistant. ST126-agr group II MSSA isolates were prevalent in milk (n=14) and carried a broad set of virulence genes (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla, and hlb), as well as the ST126-agr group II MIONSA isolated from milking liners (n=1), which also carried the eta gene. ST1-agr group III MIONSA isolates (n=4) were found in papillary ostium and milk, but most MIONSA isolates (n=21), which were identified in both papillary ostium and milking liners, were agr-negative and assigned to ST126. The agr-negative and agr group III lineages showed a low potential for virulence. Studies on the characterization of bovine-associated MSSA/MIONSA are essential to reduce S. aureus mastitis to prevent economic losses in dairy production and also to monitor the zoonotic potential of these pathogens associated with invasive infections and treatment failures in healthcare.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 73-77
Author(s):  
Mohammad Sadiq Malla ◽  
Basharat Farooq ◽  
Rayees Najib ◽  
Sameena Ashraf

Background: Awake fiber-optic nasal intubation is a gold standard management of difficult airway in temporal mandibular (TM) joint ankylosis. Aims and Objectives: We compared topical lignocaine nebulization with airway nerve blocks for awake fiber-optic nasal intubation in TM joint ankylosis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of either gender were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 each. Group I received 10 ml of 2% lignocaine nebulization over a period for 20 min. Group II received bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal nerve block (each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine). Awake fiber-optic bronchoscopy-guided nasal intubation was done in all patients. All the patients received sedation during the procedure. The intubation time, intubating conditions, vocal cord position, cough severity, and degree of patient satisfaction were recorded. Student’s t-test was used to analyze parametric data, while the Mann–Whitney U-test was applied to non-parametric data and Fisher’s test to categorical data. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The time taken for intubation was significantly shorter in Group II [110.2 (14.6) s compared with Group I (211.0 [22.3] s) (P=0.028 ss). The intubating conditions and degree of patient comfort were better in Group II compared with Group I. Although all patients were successfully intubated, patient satisfaction was higher in Group II. Conclusion: Airway nerve block is a better way of anesthetizing airway as compared to nebulization for awake fiber-optic nasal intubation. However, nebulization with lignocaine may be an alternative in situations where nerve blocks are not feasible or may be used as an adjuvant to nerve blocks.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shivkumar Gopalakrishnan ◽  
sangeetha kandasamy ◽  
S.Malini ◽  
S.Peer Mohamed ◽  
k.velmurugan

Abstract Background. Approximately 5% of COVID-19 patients suffer near fatal disease. Clinical and radiologic features may predict severe disease albeit with limited specificity and radiation hazard. Laboratory biomarkers are eyed as simple, specific and point of care triage tools to optimize management decisions.This study aimed to study the role of inflammatory markers in prognosticating COVID-19 patients.Methodology. A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on COVID-19 adult inpatients classified into three groups as mild disease-recovered [Group I], severe disease-recovered [Group II] and dead [Group III]. Categorical outcomes were compared using Chi square test. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Unadjusted OR along with 95% CI was calculated. The utility of lab parameters (Ferritin, LDH, D dimer, N/L ratio and PLT/L ratio) in predicting severity of COVID-19 was assessed by Receiver Operative Curve (ROC) analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results. The mean age was 49.32 +/- 17.1 years. Among study population, 378 were Group I, 66 Group II, and 56 Group III. Median levels of Ferritin among the 3 groups were 62ng/mL, 388.50 ng/mL and 1199.50 ng/mL. Median value of LDH were 95U/L, 720 and 982.50(p <0.001). D-dimer values of 3 groups were 23.20ng/mL, 104.30 ng/mL and 197.10 ng/mL (p <0.001). CRP done qualitatively was positive in 2 (0.53%), 30 (45.45%) and 53 (94.64%) of patients. The odds of patients suffering severe COVID-19 rose with rising values of ferritin, LDH and D-dimer [unadjusted OR 1.007, 1.004 &1.020]Conclusion. One time measurement of serum ferritin, LDH, D-dimer and CRP is promising to predict outcomes for COVID 19 inpatients. Single qualitative CRP was equally good but more cost effective than quantitative CRP. The most specific combination was NLR, Lymphocyte percentage and D-dimer levels done between 7th – 10th day of symptoms.


2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (4) ◽  
pp. 460-466
Author(s):  
Seolah Back ◽  
Joonhaeng Lee ◽  
Jongbin Kim ◽  
Miran Han ◽  
Jong Soo Kim

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the hemostatic agent containing aluminum chloride with hemostatic agent containing ferric sulfate on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement(RMGIC) to dentin in primary tooth. Twenty extracted non-carious human primary teeth were collected in this study. The specimens were cut to expose dentin and polished. The specimens were randomly seperated into 3 groups for treatment; group I: polyacrylic acid(PAA), RMGIC; group II: aluminum chloride, PAA, RMGIC; group III: ferric sulfate, PAA, RMGIC Ten specimens from each group were subjected to shear bond strength test. The mean shear bond strength of each group was as follows: 10.07 ± 1.83 MPa in Group I, 7.62 ± 0.78 MPA in group II, 5.23 ± 0.78 MPa in group III. There were significant differences among all groups(p < 0.001). In conclusion, both aluminum chloride hemostatic agent and ferric sulfate hemostatic agent decreased the shear bond strength of RMGIC to dentin. And ferric sulfate hemostatic agent decreased the shear bond strength of RMGIC more than the aluminium chloride hemostatic agent.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiongjie Hu ◽  
Yiwen Liu ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  
Ziyan Sun ◽  
Yujin Wang ◽  
...  

To retrospectively analyze whether traction bronchiectasis was reversible in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and whether computed tomography (CT) findings were associated with the reversibility, 41 COVID-19 survivors with ARDS were followed-up for more than 4 months. Demographics, clinical data, and all chest CT images were collected. The follow-up CT images were compared with the previous CT scans. There were 28 (68%) patients with traction bronchiectasis (Group I) and 13 (32%) patients without traction bronchiectasis (Group II) on CT images. Traction bronchiectasis disappeared completely in 21 of the 28 (75%) patients (Group IA), but did not completely disappear in seven of the 28 (25%) patients (Group IB). In the second week after onset, the evaluation score on CT images in Group I was significantly higher than that in Group II (p = 0.001). The proportion of reticulation on the last CT images in Group IB was found higher than that in Group IA (p &lt; 0.05). COVID-19 survivors with ARDS might develop traction bronchiectasis, which can be absorbed completely in most patients. Traction bronchiectasis in a few patients did not disappear completely, but bronchiectasis was significantly relieved. The long-term follow-up is necessary to further assess whether traction bronchiectasis represents irreversible fibrosis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shwan O. Amen ◽  
Banan Q. Rasool ◽  
Alaa Rashid ◽  
Sara S. Shakir ◽  
Parez M. Qadr ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The rise of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PPCI) procedure as an option for treating Coronary Artery Diseases demands addressing a variety of concerns in the recovery period and afterward including fasting the Ramadan month in the countries with the prevailing Muslim population. Therefore this study aims to assess the ability and the safety of fasting among patients who underwent PPCI within two specified periods.Method: This study was a prospective observational study with a sample size of 200 consecutive patients that have been divided into two groups based on the duration of their last PCI for an attack of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). The patients were admitted to the Causality Department of the Surgical Specialty Hospital-Cardiac Center, Erbil/Iraq. The studied data have been analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 25 (SPSS), and a P-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The proportion of fasting and non-fasting patients showed a significant association with the duration of their last PCI procedure with a P-value of 0.001 as 14% in Group I (patients with less than 6 weeks duration post-PCI) successfully fasted the month while it was 54% in Group II (Patients with more than 6 weeks duration post PCI). Among our findings, there were significant associations with P-values of 0.001 between post-PCI symptoms and Ramadan fasting. In regards to NYHA classifications assessment, Group I had a higher proportion of patients classified as Class III and Class IV compared to Group II with a significant P-value of 0.001 with proportions of class III classification in Group I of 14.3% among fasting, 17.1% among non-fasting, and 58.3% among those who could not continue their fasting while in Group II, the proportions showed 3.7% among fasting, 6.7% among non-fasting, and 0% among those who could not continue their fasting.Conclusion: We discourage fasting among patients who have undergone Percutaneous Coronary Intervention within the first 6 weeks, as well as patients who have NYHA class III and above as they are highly liable for deterioration and can not continue their fasting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 486-497
Author(s):  
Mohamed A. Abuheikal ◽  
◽  
Sherihan M. Eissa ◽  
Hisham S. El Gabry ◽  
◽  
...  

Background: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques have lately become a popular treatment option for complete dentures fabrication. The two principal CAD-CAM techniques milling and 3D printing used in complete dentures construction have been approved and documented in showing clinically good results. Surface characteristics of dentures fabricated by these new techniques have a great effect on microbiological adherence to denture fitting surfaces. Aim: As other clinical trials and/or in-vitro studies evaluating the microbiological effect and its correlation with the surface roughness of the two advanced manufacturing techniques and comparing it with the conventional technique are lacking. Thus, this study aimed to further assess the microbiological and surface properties of different widely used denture base materials. Methodology: Thirty-six completely edentulous patients were selected and divided randomly into three groups Group I patients received conventional complete denture, Group II patients received CAD/CAM milled complete dentures and Group III patients received 3D printed complete dentures. All denture`s surface roughness were evaluated, also all patients were recalled after 3, 9 & 12 months respectively to evaluate the microbiological adherence. Results: Microbiological count significantly increased (P < 0.05) after 12 months in all groups, after 12 months there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between three groups as group II (Milled) was significantly the lowest, then the group I (conventional), while group III (3D printed) was significantly the highest. Regarding surface roughness of group II (milled) was significantly the lowest, while group III (3D printed) was significantly the highest. Finally, there was a strong positive significant correlation between microbiological adherence and surface roughness in all groups as (r > 0.5). Conclusion: Group II (Milled) appeared to be the best regarding microbiological adherence and surface roughness followed by the group I (conventional) and finally group III (3D printed). Furthermore, it was evident that surface roughness has a great effect on microbiological adherence regardless of the fabrication technique utilized.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (12) ◽  
pp. 1711-1717
Author(s):  
Nazish Waris ◽  
Samina Bano ◽  
Asher Fawwad ◽  
Abdul Basit

Objective: Association between alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) with newly diagnosed and known type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to estimate association of liver enzymes with lipid profile in type 2 DM subjects. Study Design: Prospective Clinical study. Setting: Karachi University with Collaboration of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology. Period: November 2018 to May 2019. Material & Methods: Total 100 people were divided into four groups; Group I: 25 healthy controls with normal glucose tolerance, Group II: 25 newly diagnosed DM, Group III: 25 known DM type 2 with <5years duration and Group IV: 25 known DM type 2 between 5-10 years duration. Baseline data was collected on predesigned questionnaire. Blood samples for biochemical parameters were analyzed using standardized laboratory techniques. Results: Group I mean age (years) was 50.78±2.34, group II 50.56±1.96, group III 50.37±1.46 and group IV 56±1.36. In Group I, ALT and AST were significantly correlated to each other’s. In group II, ALT was significantly correlated with AST, triglycerides and HDL-C, while AST correlated with ALT and HDL-C. In group III, ALT was significantly correlated with AST, while AST correlated to ALT, triglycerides and HbA1c. However, in group IV, ALT was significantly correlated with AST, LDL-C and HDL-C, and, AST with ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C. Conclusion: Elevated ALT and AST- the salient markers for disease of non-alcoholic fatty liver with deranged dyslipidemia were found in known type 2 DM as well as in newly diagnosed type 2 DM subjects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (4) ◽  
pp. 397-404
Author(s):  
Seung-Hee Woo ◽  
Jisun Shin ◽  
Joonhaeng Lee ◽  
Miran Han ◽  
Jong Soo Kim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hemostatic agent containing aluminum chloride on the shear bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) to the dentin of primary teeth. Thirty-six extracted non-carious human primary teeth were collected in this study. Dentin surfaces were cut and polished. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups; group I: RMGIC without conditioning; group II: polyacrylic acid (PAA), RMGIC; group III: aluminum chloride, RMGIC; group IV: aluminum chloride, PAA, RMGIC. All teeth were thermocycled between 5.0℃ and 55.0℃ for 5000 cycles. Fifteen specimens from each group were subjected to shear bond strength test and 3 specimens from each group were inspected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mean shear bond strength of each group was as follows: 4.04 ± 0.88 MPa in group I, 8.29 ± 1.40 MPa in group II, 1.39 ± 0.47 MPa in group III, 6.24 ± 2.76 MPa in group IV. There were significant differences among all groups (p < 0.001). SEM image of the dentinal tubules were partially exposed in group III and group IV. Fully exposed dentinal tubules were found in group II. In conclusion, aluminum chloride decreased the shear bond strength of RMGIC to dentin, regardless of PAA conditioning.


2021 ◽  
Vol 48 (4) ◽  
pp. 467-475
Author(s):  
Kunho Lee ◽  
Junyong Ahn ◽  
Jong Soo Kim ◽  
Miran Han ◽  
Joonhaeng Lee ◽  
...  

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of sodium fluoride(NaF) varnish and potassium iodide(KI) on remineralization efficacy of silver diamine fluoride(SDF) by measuring microhardness and evaluating surface morphology by scanning electron microscope(SEM). Artificial caries lesions were induced on extracted primary molars and vickers microhardness was measured. Specimens were randomly separated into 4 groups for treatment. The specimens in group I were treated with SDF, group II with NaF varnish after SDF, group III with KI after SDF and group IV with distilled water. After 8 days of pH cycling, vickers microhardness was measured and difference before and after treatment was calculated. For SEM, 2 samples were evaluated respectively after enamel polishing, lesion formation and after pH cycling. Group III showed highest increase in microhardness. Group I showed higher increase in microhardness than Group II but without statistical difference. Group IV showed lowest increase in microhardness value among 4 groups. On SEM image, group I, II and III showed smoother and less irregular surface compared to group IV. Amorphous crystal pellicles were observed in group III. In conclusion, SDF, SDF and NaF, SDF and KI groups showed smoother surface and increase in microhardness suggesting the possibility that remineralization effect might take place in oral conditions. In addition, in limited conditions of this study, applying NaF varnish after SDF did not increase the remineralization efficacy of SDF while KI significantly increased the remineralization efficacy of SDF. However, additional study considering various conditions that might affect demineralization and remineralization in clinical situations need to be conducted.


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