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2022 ◽  
Cynthia Nevison ◽  
Peter Hess ◽  
Christine Goodale ◽  
Qing Zhu ◽  
Julius Vira

Enzhu Hu ◽  
Zhimin Ren ◽  
Xiaoke Wang ◽  
Hongxing Zhang ◽  
Weiwei Zhang

Abstract Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration ([O3]) may substantially influence the belowground processes of the terrestrial ecosystem. Nevertheless, a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the responses of soil C and N dynamics to elevated [O3] remains elusive. In this study, the results of 41 peer-reviewed studies were synthesized using meta-analytic techniques, to quantify the impact of O3 on ten variables associated with soil C and N, i.e., total C (TC, including soil organic C), total N (TN), dissolved organic C (DOC), ammonia N (NH4 +), nitrate N (NO3 -), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), rates of nitrification (NTF) and denitrification (DNF), as well as C/N ratio. The results depicted that all these variables showed significant changes (P < 0.05) with [O3] increased by 27.6 ± 18.7 nL/L (mean ± SD), including decreases in TC, DOC, TN, NH4 +, MBC, MBN and NTF, and increases in C/N, NO3 - and DNF. The effect sizes of TN, NTF, and DNF were significantly correlated with O3 fumigation level and experimental duration (P < 0.05). Soil pH and climate were essential in analyses of O3 impacts on soil C and N. However, the responses of most variables to elevated [O3] were generally independent of O3 fumigation method, terrestrial ecosystem type, and additional [CO2] exposure. The altered soil C and N dynamics under elevated [O3] may reduce its C sink capacity, and change soil N availability thus impact plant growth and enhance soil N losses.

A. Limon-Ortega ◽  
A. Baez-Perez

Abstract Environmental conditions contribute to a large percentage of wheat yield variability. This phenomenon is particularly true in rainfed environments and non-responsive soils to N. However, the effect of P application on wheat is unknown in the absence of N fertilizer application. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2019 in permanent beds established in 2005. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design and consisted of superimposing three P treatments (foliar, banded and broadcast application) plus a check (0P) within each one of four preceding N treatments (applied from 2005 to 2009). Foliar P generally showed a greater response than granular P treatments even though the soil tests high P (>30 mg/kg). Precipitation estimated for two different growth intervals explained through regression procedures the Years' effect. Seasonal precipitation (224–407 mm) explained variation of relative yield, N harvest index (NHI) and P agronomic efficiency (AE). Reproductive stage precipitation (48–210 mm) explained soil N supply. In dry years, foliar P application improved predicted relative yield 14% and AE 155 kg grain/kg P compared to granular P treatments. Similarly, soil N supply increased 15 kg/ha in dry moisture conditions during the reproductive stage. The NHI consistently improved over the crop seasons. This improvement was relatively larger for 0 kg N/ha. On average, NHI increased from about 0.57 to 0.72%. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings at the booting growth stage were negatively associated with NHI. Foliar P in this non-responsive soil to N showed the potential to replace granular P sources. However, the omission of granular P needs to be further studied to estimate the long-term effect on the soil P test.

Yang Zhang ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Dandan Huang ◽  
Xuewen Chen ◽  

Residue return can prevent or restore the degradation of cropland, meanwhile, additional N input from residue return inevitably result in the changes of soil nitrogen (N) pools. Our objectives were to evaluate these changes in a 16-year field experiment. The residue return experiment consisted of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP), combined with continuous maize (Zea mays L.) (MM) and maize-soybean (Glycine max Merr.) rotation (MS) cropping systems, that is, NTMM, NTMS, MPMM, MPMS; conventional tillage (removal of crop residue and deep plough) with continuous maize (CTMM) was included as a control. The soil was separated into density (LF, light fraction) and particle size (sand, silt and clay) fraction. In 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm layers, soil TN content in NT was higher than MP, whereas the opposite trend was observed in 10-20 cm. Thus, the stratification ratio of soil TN was greater under NT. Cropping system affected soil TN as MM > MS. Residue return increased soil N storage by 6.44%-24.85% in the plough layer. Taking CTMM as the baseline, NTMM and MPMM increased the N storage in all physical fractions, while the decrease of silt-N storage was observed in NTMS and MPMS. Under residue return, the distribution of N storage changes in LF and sand fraction was affected by tillage practice, and that in silt and clay fraction was affected by cropping system. In summary, NTMM is effective for soil N accumulation due to its highest N storage and all physical fractions of N storage was enhanced.

age ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Rashad S. Alghamdi ◽  
Larry Cihacek ◽  
Aaron Lee M. Daigh ◽  
Shafiqur Rahman

2021 ◽  
Siqi Tao ◽  
Yunxia Zhang ◽  
Chengming Tian ◽  
Sébastien Duplessis ◽  
Naili Zhang

The tropospheric ozone and nitrogen deposition are two major environmental pollutants. Numerous studies have focused on the negative impacts of elevated O3 and the complementary effect of soil N addition to tree physiological characteristics. However, it was notoriously ignored of how elevated O3 with N addition affect tree immunity in face of pathogen infection, as well as of the important roles of phyllosphere microbiome community in host-pathogen-environment interplay. Here, we examined the effects of elevated O3 and soil N addition on poplar leaf rust (Melampsora larici-populina) severity of two susceptible hybrid poplars (clone ‘107’: Populus euramericana cv. ‘74/76’; clone ‘546’: P. deltoides × P. cathayana) in Free-Air-Controlled-Environment plots, besides, the link between Mlp-susceptibility and changes in microbial community was determined using Miseq amplicon sequencing. Rust severity of clone ‘107’ significantly increased under elevated O3 or N addition only, however, the negative impact of elevated O3 could be significantly alleviated when simultaneously conducting N addition, likewise, this trade-off was also found in its phyllosphere microbial α-diversity responding to elevated O3 and N addition. However, the rust severity of clone ‘546’ did not significantly differ in the cases of elevated O3 and N addition. Mlp-infection altered microbial community composition and increased its sensitivity to elevated O3 assessed by significantly different abundance of taxa. Elevated O3 and N addition reduced the complexity of microbial community, which may explain the increased severity of poplar rust. These findings demonstrated that poplars need shifting phyllosphere microbial associations to optimize plant immunity in response to environmental changes.

2021 ◽  
Tyler Anthony ◽  
Joseph Verfaillie ◽  
Daphne Szutu ◽  
Dennis Baldocchi ◽  
Whendee Silver

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2491
Gabriel Dias Paiao ◽  
Fabián G. Fernández ◽  
Seth L. Naeve

Soil drainage is not considered in the N fertilizer guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) in the US Midwest. This study investigated the influence of soil drainage on corn grain yield, N requirement, and residual soil N, and evaluated the utility of in-season soil N measurements to guide N application. This 6-year study in Minnesota, US on a corn–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation had drained and undrained conditions and six at planting (PL) (0–225 in 45 kg N ha−1 increments) and four split (SP) N fertilizer rates (at planting/V6-V8—45/45, 45/90, 45/135, 45/179 kg N ha−1). The drained compared to undrained soil produced 8% more grain yield (12.8 vs. 11.9 Mg ha−1), 12% more N uptake (169 vs. 151 kg N ha−1), 16% lower optimal N rate (ONR) (160 vs. 193 kg N ha−1), 3.1% greater grain yield at ONR (13.5 vs. 13.1 Mg ha−1), and similar in season and residual soil N. Compared to SP, PL lowered ONR (151 vs. 168 kg N ha−1) in drained soils, and the opposite occurred for undrained soils (206 vs. 189 kg N ha−1). These results substantiate the agronomic benefits of artificial drainage and the need to incorporate drainage conditions into N management guidelines.

Winnie Ntinyari ◽  
Joseph P Gweyi-Onyango ◽  
Mekonnen Giweta ◽  
Besnon Mochoge ◽  
James Mutegi ◽  

Abstract Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) is one of the established metrics for benchmarking management of Nitrogen (N) in various systems. Numerous approaches to calculate NUE exist, making it difficult to compare the performances of systems depending on the methodology used. This study adopted the conceptualized framework by European Union Nitrogen Expert Panel (EUNEP) to calculate NUE values for cereal crops to determine future trends for the first time in the Lake Victoria region. Data were collected through in-person interviews among maize and rice smallholder farmers within the Lake Victoria region. A total of 295 observations were recorded. Collected data on yield and N fertilizer were used to make projections on the changes of NUE based on scientific and policy recommendations for Sub-Saharan Africa for 2020 (base year), 2025, 2030, and 2050. Significant differences in maize grain yield for both fertilized and unfertilized farms were observed with very low yields of 2.4 t ha-1 (fertilized) and 1.4 tha-1 (unfertilized). The graphical representation of NUE of both maize and rice showed that most farmers were in the zone of soil N mining. Projected results showed that most maize farmers within Lake Victoria region will continue to experience NUE values >90%, low N inputs <50 kg N ha-1) and less than 5 t ha-1 maize crop yield over the years. For rice farmers, Nyando and Nzoia catchments had surpassed the set target of both yield (6 t ha-1) and N input (50 kg N ha-1). However, NUE values remain higher than the optimal ranges of 50-90% (127.14% -267.57%), indicating risks of depleting soil N status. The unbalanced N fertilization also showed a trend below the linear neutrality option and the average N output for good N management for both crops. Therefore, farmers need to explore various crop management options that could increase N use efficiencies. This should be coupled with policies that promote farmers to access more N input and advocate for optimal management of N and improved quality of the cereals

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