study design
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2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-22
Agnieszka Tycińska ◽  
Marek Gierlotka ◽  
Stanisław Bartuś ◽  
Mariusz Gąsior ◽  
Renata Główczyńska ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gloria D. Sclar ◽  
Valerie Bauza ◽  
Hans-Joachim Mosler ◽  
Alokananda Bisoyi ◽  
Howard H. Chang ◽  

Abstract Background Poor child feces management (CFM) is believed to be an important source of exposure to enteric pathogens that contribute to a large disease burden in low-income settings. While access to sanitation facilities is improving, national surveys indicate that even households with latrines often do not safely dispose of their child’s feces. Working with caregivers in rural Odisha, India, we co-developed an intervention aimed at improving safe disposal of child feces and encouraging child latrine use at an earlier age. We describe the rationale for the intervention and summarize the protocol for a cluster randomized trial (CRT) to evaluate its effectiveness at changing CFM practices. Methods The intervention consists of six behavior change strategies together with hardware provision: wash basin and bucket with lid to aid safe management of soiled nappies and a novel latrine training mat to aid safe disposal and latrine training. The intervention will be offered at the village level to interested caregivers of children < 5 years of age by a community-based organization. Following a baseline survey, 74 villages were randomly allocated to either intervention or control arm. The primary outcome is caregiver reported safe disposal of child feces after last defecation, either by the caregiver disposing of the child’s feces into the latrine or the child using the latrine, measured approximately four to six months following intervention delivery. Secondary outcomes include fecal contamination of household drinking water and the childs’ hands. A process evaluation will also be conducted to assess intervention fidelity and reach, and explore implementer and participant feedback. Discussion This study addresses a crucial knowledge gap in sanitation by developing a scalable intervention to improve safe management of child feces. The behavior change strategies were designed following the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities and Self-Regulation (RANAS) approach, which has shown to be effective for other environmental behavior change interventions in low-income settings. The latrine training mat hardware is a novel design developed cooperatively and manufactured locally. The evaluation follows a rigorous CRT study design assessing the impact of the intervention on CFM behavior change, as well as fecal contamination of two sources of potential exposure. Trial registration This trial is registered at ISRCTN: ISRCTN15831099.

Abhishek Goyal ◽  
Ankur Joshi ◽  
Abhijit Pakhare ◽  
Rajnish Joshi ◽  
Parneet Kaur Bhagtana ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-45
Claire Gill ◽  
Mike Griffiths ◽  
Ava Easton ◽  
Tom Solomon

Aim: To explore the experiences of registered nurses providing care to adult patients affected by encephalitis, from admission into hospital through to discharge. Study design: A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used. Sample and setting: Eight registered nurses in a city centre teaching hospital. Methods: Data collection took place using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed and themes identified using framework analysis. Findings: Three key findings were identified: nurses felt that they lacked knowledge of encephalitis, lacked time to give these patients the care they needed, and they lacked access to rehabilitation for patients with encephalitis. Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence on nurses' experiences of providing care to patients affected by encephalitis. It has shown that they often lack the knowledge and time to give adequate support to patients. They also lack access to rehabilitation for these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Florence Gignac ◽  
Valeria Righi ◽  
Raül Toran ◽  
Lucía Paz Errandonea ◽  
Rodney Ortiz ◽  

Abstract Background While the health risks of air pollution attract considerable attention, both scholarly and within the general population, citizens are rarely involved in environmental health research, beyond participating as data subjects. Co-created citizen science is an approach that fosters collaboration between scientists and lay people to engage the latter in all phases of research. Currently, this approach is rare in environmental epidemiology and when co-creation processes do take place, they are often not documented. This paper describes the first stages of an ongoing co-created citizen science epidemiological project in Barcelona (Spain), that included identifying topics that citizens wish to investigate as regards air pollution and health, formulating their concerns into research questions and co-designing the study protocol. This paper also reflects key trade-offs between scientific rigor and public engagement and provides suggestions to consider when applying citizen science to environmental health studies. Methods Experts created an online survey and analyzed responses with descriptive statistics and qualitative coding. A pop-up intervention was held to discuss with citizens their concerns about air pollution and health. Later on, a community meeting was organized to narrow down the research topics and list potential research questions. In an online survey, citizens were asked to vote for the research question they would like to investigate with the experts. A workshop was held to choose a study design in which citizens would like to partake to answer their preferred research question. Results According to 488 respondents from the first survey, cognitive and mental health were the main priorities of investigation. Based on the second survey, with 27% of the votes from 556 citizens, the most popular research question was, “How does air pollution together with noise and green/blue spaces affect mental health?”. The study design selected was an observational study in which citizens provide daily repeated measures of different cognitive and mental health outcomes and relate them to the air pollution concentrations. Conclusions Based on the co-creation activities and the results obtained, we conclude that applying citizen science in an environmental health project is valuable for researchers despite some challenges such as engaging citizens and maximizing representativity.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 32
Novatus Tesha ◽  
Malale Tungu ◽  
Alphoncina Kagaigai ◽  
Boniface Yohana ◽  
Hevenlight A. Paulo

Background: There have been claims amongst nutrition stakeholders in Tanzania that the food basket regions, are the regions most affected by stunting among  children. However, this study could not find evidence that combines food production and stunting levels, to substantiate this claim. Therefore, this study aims to compare data on stunting, food production and consumption within administrative regions of the Tanzania mainland. Methods: The study used an ecological study design to show the relationship between stunting, poverty, food production and consumption across administrative regions in Tanzania. The study used data from three national wide surveys: 2017/2018 Household Budget Survey (HBS), Tanzania National Nutrition Survey (TNNS) 2018 and Agriculture Statistics for Food Security report 2018/2019. Results: The study showed that there is a positive relationship between the prevalence of stunting and food production (r=0.43, p=0.03), while there is a negative relationship between stunting and the level of both the average monthly household consumption expenditure (r = -0.48, p = 0.01) and average monthly household food consumption expenditure (r = -0.509, p = 0.01). It was further found that some regions which have higher levels of stunting such as Njombe, have the lowest level of basic need poverty. Conclusion: The study found a positive relationship between food production and the prevalence of stunting using data across regions in mainland Tanzania. This is an indication that regional food security may not entail nutrition security, hence a call for more advocacy on nutrition-sensitive agriculture.

2022 ◽  
pp. 019459982110688
Matthew J. Urban ◽  
Aoi Shimomura ◽  
Swapnil Shah ◽  
Tasher Losenegger ◽  
Jennifer Westrick ◽  

Objective To broadly synthesize the literature regarding rural health disparities in otolaryngology, categorize findings, and identify research gaps to stimulate future work. Study Design Scoping review. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and CINAHL. Review Methods The methods were developed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Peer-reviewed, English-language, US-based studies examining a rural disparity in otolaryngology-related disease incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, or outcome were included. Descriptive studies, commentaries, reviews, and letters to the editor were excluded. Studies published prior to 1980 were excluded. Results The literature search resulted in 1536 unique abstracts and yielded 79 studies that met final criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five percent were published after 2010. The distribution of literature was as follows: otology (34.2%), head and neck cancer (20.3%), endocrine surgery (13.9%), rhinology and allergy (8.9%), trauma (5.1%), laryngology (3.8%), other pediatrics (2.5%), and adult sleep (1.3%). Studies on otolaryngology health care systems also accounted for 10.1%. The most common topics studied were practice patterns (41%) and epidemiology (27%), while the Southeast (47%) was the most common US region represented, and database study (42%) was the most common study design. Conclusion Overall, there was low-quality evidence with large gaps in the literature in all subspecialties, most notably facial plastic surgery, laryngology, adult sleep, and pediatrics. Importantly, there were few studies on intervention and zero studies on resident exposure to rural populations, which will be critical to making rural otolaryngology care more equitable in the future.

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