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Heritage ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 3731-3748
Andrea Siniscalco ◽  
Laura Bellia ◽  
Lisa Marchesi

In the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the world of cultural heritage has had to cope with the closures of museums and dedicated structures. In this dramatic context, the digitisation of assets represented a partial solution to guarantee the fruition of the world’s cultural heritage. Even in the context of teaching, the pandemic represented a challenging moment. This contribution presents three different university teaching experiences focused on lighting for cultural heritage. The workshops described were held before, on horseback, and amid the pandemic. The differences are contextualised in the Italian regulatory and methodological framework. Attention is also paid to the digitisation of assets regarding the lighting design verification of the students’ project proposals. The teaching approach, the procedures, the material presented by the students, and the revision methodology are described. The comparison between the three editions allows for evaluations of the main problems encountered in the different contexts and when the used procedures were instead strong points. The use of three-dimensional simulation, initially designed exclusively for lighting verification, has also proved crucial in the communication of students’ works, demonstrating once more that in the future, the information technologies will be able to help those who deal with cultural assets to expand the catchment area and to enhance the communication of sites and museum structures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Luciane Marlyse Moungang ◽  
Lazare Sidjui Sidjui ◽  
Hervé Narcisse Bayaga ◽  
Josséline Ndambedia Mfouapon ◽  
Ondoua Nguélé ◽  

Objective: To assess the usefulness of Cussonia arborea in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases.Study Design: Experimental analytical study.Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment of the Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde1; the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital; the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry of the Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I. The study was done in a period of six months.Methodology: The root bark of Cussonia arborea was collected in the village Yambéta (Central Region, Cameroon), dried and pulverized. Thereafter, two extractions were performed by embedding 200 g of powder in 2000 mL of 96° ethanol, and in a hydro-ethanolic mixture (30/70, v/v), respectively. Qualitative phytochemical screening was performed. Minimum inhibitory and bacterial toxicity were determined by macro-dilution in liquid medium on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Proteus mirabilis provided by the Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment of the Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde1 and the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital.Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, and tannins), alkaloids, quinones, saponins and, cardiac glycosides. However, coumarins were absent in the two extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts ranged from 25 to 100 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentrations from 25 to 200 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract was bactericidal against Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but bacteriostatic against Salmonella sp and Shigella sp. The hydro-ethanolic extract was bacteriostatic against Shigella sp and bactericidal against the other strains.Conclusion: The groups of polyphenols, alkaloids, quinones, saponins and, cardiac glycosides contained in the two extracts can justify the antibacterial activity observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Proteus mirabilis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 132-142
Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla ◽  
Amaifeobu Clement ◽  
Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka ◽  
Analike Rosemary Adamma ◽  
Nnamdi Johnjude Chinonso ◽  

This study evaluated the microalbumin, cystatin C, creatinine and uric acid levels in HIV patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi (NAUTH). A total of one hundred (100) male and female HIV positive and control participants who were aged between 18 and 60 years attending the voluntary counseling and testing unit (VCT) and antiretroviral therapy unit (ART) of NAUTH were randomly recruited for the study and grouped thus: Group A (HIV positive symptomatic participants on long term ART (HPSPLTART) (n= 25); Group B (HIV positive symptomatic participants on short term ART (HPSPSTART) (n= 25); Group C: Asymptomatic HIV positive participants NOT on ART (AHPPNART) (n=25) and Group D: control (n=25).6mls of blood sample and 10mls of freshly voided urine samples were collected from each of the participants for the evaluation of biochemical parameters using standard laboratory methods. Results showed significantly higher BMI and SBP in HPSPSTART than in control (p=0.04; 0.02). SBP was significantly higher in HPSPLTART than in AHPPNART and Control (p=0.00). DBP was significantly higher in HPSPLTART than in HPSPSTART and control respectively (p=0.00). There were significantly higher plasma creatinine and Cys-C levels in both male HIV positives and male HIV positive participants on ART than in both females respectively (p0.00; 0.02). Also, BMI, creatinine, uric acid and Cystatin C levels were significantly higher in male HIV negative participants than in female HIV negative participants (p=0.00; 0.04; 0.02; 0.01). This study has revealed greater risk for renal disease among the HIV participants studied.

Daniele Sandra Yopa ◽  
Hortense Gonsu Kamga ◽  
Emmanuel Nnanga Nga ◽  
Olive Nathalie Kouamen Njikeu ◽  
Claude Stephan Ohandza ◽  

Aims: Over the decades, antibiotic resistance has become a cross-border public health problem. This calls for the profiling of microorganisms, particularly bacteria implicated in antibiotic resistance, in order to improve clinical practice and reduce the incidence of therapeutic failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Study Design: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was made at the bacteriology laboratory at the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon during the period between January 2016 and June 2021. Methodology: All bacterial strains from the following biological fluids were included: blood, stool, urine, suppurations, probe tip and catheter tip. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was collected from the registers of the said laboratory. The data were encoded in Censuses and Survey Procession Software (CSPro) version 7.3 and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25. Graphs and figures were made using Excel 2016 spreadsheet software. Results: A total of 1071 bacteria were enrolled in 955 patients. The age group most represented was 0-5 years (34.6%). Most of the isolates came from a blood sample. Among the isolates, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (18.5%), Escherichia coli (17.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.2%) were the most common. A total of 1071 bacteria were enrolled in 955 patients. The age group most represented was 0-5 years (34.6%). Most of the isolates came from a blood sample. Among the isolates, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (18.5%), Escherichia coli (17.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.2%) were the most represented. Between 2016 and 2020, almost remarkable resistance was observed to the class of penicillins (78% to 83%), cephalosporins (44% to 61%) and quinolones (43% to 100%) for Escherichia coli. For Staphylococcus aureus, resistance changes range from 68% to 77% for the penicillin class. Klebsiella pneumoniae showed an evolution ranging from 11% to 19% for aminosides. Conclusion: Although not all isolates showed a change in the level of resistance to all antibiotics that are frequently used in our study population, Nevertheless, it is important for national public health actors to establish active surveillance of antibiotic and even antimicrobial resistance and to implement a guide to the proper use of antibiotics for health professionals, and the community.

2021 ◽  
Aaron S. Richmond ◽  
Guy A. Boysen ◽  
Regan A. R. Gurung

Genealogy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 86
Victoria Freeman

In 2000, I published Distant Relations: How My Ancestors Colonized North America, a non-fiction exploration of my own family’s involvement in North American colonialism from the 1600s to the present. This personal essay reflects on the context, genesis, process, and consequences of writing this book during a decade of intense ferment in Indigenous–settler relations in Canada amid the revelations of horrific abuse at residential schools and the discovery that my highly respected grandfather had been involved with one. Considering the book from the perspective of 2021, I consider the strengths and limitations of this kind of critical family history and the degree to which public discourses and academic discussion of Canada’s history and settler complicity in colonialism have changed since the book was published. Arguing that critical reflection on family history is still an essential part of unlearning colonial attitudes and recognizing the systemic and structural ways that colonial disparities and processes are embedded in settler societies, I share a critical family history assignment that has been an essential and transformative pedagogical element in my university teaching for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students.

Matthew G. Davey ◽  
John P.M. O’Donnell ◽  
Elizabeth Maher ◽  
Cliona McMenamin ◽  
Peter F. McAnena ◽  

Abstract Background Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, is a set of data protection rules on the acquisition, storage, use, and access of personal data. GDPR came into effect in May 2018 when it was introduced across all 27 European Union (EU) member states and the European Economic Area (EEA). Maintaining compliance with this legislation has presented significant new challenges for ongoing clinical research. Aims To evaluate the knowledge and expectations of patients and doctors regarding GDPR and implications for future clinical research. Methods An anonymous 12-item questionnaire was circulated to patients and doctors at a University Teaching Hospital. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. Results Five hundred nine participants were included: 261 females (51.3%) and 248 males (48.7%). Three hundred fifty were patients (68.8%) and 159 were doctors (31.2%). Three hundred thirty-four participants were aware of GDPR (65.7%): 116 doctors (73.0%) and 218 patients (62.3%, P = 0.018). 71.1% of doctors were willing to allow their personal data to be processed anonymously as part of a clinical research project compared to 43.4% of patients (P < 0.001). 80.2% of patients believed explicit consent is needed before using personal data in clinical research in comparison to 60.4% of doctors (P < 0.001). Level of education impacted awareness of GDPR (P < 0.001); a higher level of education among patients increased GDPR familiarity (P < 0.001), however failed to impact doctor familiarity (P = 0.117). Conclusion GDPR has introduced complexity to the processing and sharing of personal data among researchers. This study has identified differences in the perception of GDPR and willingness to consent to data being used in clinical research between doctors and patients. Measures to adequately inform prospective research participants on data processing and the evolving landscape of data protection regulation should be prioritised.

2021 ◽  
Mirresa Guteta

Abstract Background: Prehypertension is a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120-139 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80-89 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) According to JNC-7 report the new added category. It is considered as a starting point for cardiovascular and many other morbidities. Little is known about the magnitude of prehypertension and its associated factors in study area. Objective: To assess prevalence of Pre-hypertension and Associated factor among adults visiting the Outpatient department at Mizan Tepi university teaching hospital, Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia, 2021.Methods: Institution based cross sectional study design was conducted in Mizan Tepi University Teaching hospital. Simple random sampling method was used to recruit study participants. Data was entered into Epi data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 23 for data analysis. The descriptive analysis of data was done and the result presented using frequency tables and graphs. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) at 95% confidence interval and p-value <0.05 were estimated to determine statistically significant association between predictors and outcome variable.Result: The prevalence of Prehypertension among adults visiting the Outpatient department at Mizan Tepi university teaching hospital was 30.7%. Significant association of prehypertension was found with age (AOR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.69, 2.15), educational status (AOR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.00), physical exercise (AR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.57, 2.16) and Body Mass Index (AOR=4.14, 95% CI: 0.44, 39.34). Conclusion: Pre-Hypertension is high in the study area. As a result, concerned body should take action to enhance patients visiting Mizan Tepi University Teaching hospital about impact of Pre-Hypertension on individual health and how to control it.

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