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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bin Wu ◽  
Xiaoyong Yuan ◽  
Song Chen

Abstract Background To compare the accuracy of low-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (LFUBM) and 14-MHz ultrasonography with tissue harmonic imaging (14-MHz + THI) in the assessment of posterior capsule (PC) integrity in patients with traumatic cataracts (TCs). Methods From January 2019 to October 2020, 51 patients (51 eyes) with TCs who were scheduled for cataract extraction and for whom the PC of the lens could not be observed by the slit lamp visited Tianjin Eye Hospital, including 47 patients (47 eyes) with a penetrating injury of the eyeball and 4 patients (4 eyes) with a blunt injury of the eyeball. All eyes underwent LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI examinations before cataract extraction to determine the integrity of the PC. The integrity of the PC observed in surgery was the actual findings, and the consistency between the 2 methods was assessed in terms of the preoperative examination and intraoperative findings. Fisher’s exact test was used for consistency analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty-two eyes with ruptured PCs and 19 eyes with intact PCs were actual findings in surgery. Thirty eyes with ruptured PCs and 21 eyes with intact PCs were examined by LFUBM. Thirty-two eyes with ruptured PCs and 19 eyes with intact PCs were examined by 14-MHz + THI. There were no significant differences between the 2 methods and the intraoperative findings (P = 0.293 LFUBM, P = 0.623 14-MHz + THI). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI were 91 and 94%, 95 and 89%, 97 and 94%, 86 and 89% and 92 and 92%, respectively. Conclusions Both LFUBM and 14-MHz + THI were proved to have high levels sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the status of the PC in TC and they can be used as accurate diagnostic tool in these cases.

Mohmed Kandeel ◽  
Hoda El-Sobky ◽  
Ahmed Shalah ◽  
Essam A. Amin

Background: Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) is a stigmatizing condition in obstetrics and a significant cause of maternal and neonatal death. It is a kind of pregnancy-related hypertension that develops after 20th week of pregnancy with no presence of other reasons of high blood pressure. Objectives: To study the relation between grades of ocular fundus changes& degree of features severity of pregnancy induced hypertension and its maternal and foetal outcomes. Subjects and Methods: This is a prospective observational follow up study, the research lasted about 16 months and included 121 pregnant women diagnosed with PIH. Ocular examinations were performed using a direct ophthalmoscope, a slit lamp and grades of retinopathy were recorded and linked to the severity of PIH and its consequences. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: Results of the study revealed that most of the patients 62% had no abnormal fundus changes while 29.8% of the patients were grade I retinopathy and 7.4% of the patients were grade II retinopathy & There was significant difference between grades of retinopathy and degree of features of severity of PIH & some of its important maternal & foetal outcomes. Conclusion: Grades of ocular fundus alterations are associated with the severity of PIH's characteristics and are predictive of maternal and fetal comorbidity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (10) ◽  
pp. 1440-1444
Dong Seon Kim ◽  
So Hee Kim ◽  
Youna Choi ◽  
Seung Kwon Choi ◽  
Jae Jung Lee ◽  

Purpose: To report a case of Streptococcus infantarius endophthalmitis related to the use of a XEN® Gel Stent.Case summary: A 75-year-old male was referred to our practice with a diagnosis of endophthalmitis 55 days after XEN® Gel Stent implantation. He had primary open-angle glaucoma. Visual acuity was 20/50. Slit-lamp examination revealed conjunctival injection and anterior chamber inflammation with hypopyon. Fundus examination showed inflammatory cells with exudative materials in the vitreous. The aqueous sampling for culture of causative micro-organisms was followed by removal of the XEN® Gel Stent, along with anterior chamber irrigation and intracameral and intravitreal injection of antibiotics. Streptococcus infantarius was isolated after 5 days. Vitrectomy, anterior chamber lavage, and intravitreal injection of antibiotics were additionally performed to control the intraocular inflammation. Sixteen days after vitrectomy, the intraocular inflammation disappeared. The choroidal detachment was resolved 34 days after vitrectomy. Visual improvement was limited to 20/100 at 6 months.Conclusions: XEN® Gel Stent-related bacterial endophthalmitis was successfully treated by implant removal, vitrectomy, and proper intraocular antibiotic treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chiara Bonzano ◽  
Carlo Alberto Cutolo ◽  
Donatella Musetti ◽  
Ilaria Di Mola ◽  
Chiara Pizzorno ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the demographic and corneal factors associated with the occurrence of delayed reepithelialization (DRE) after epithelium-off crosslinking (epi-off CXL).Design:Retrospective case series.Methods:A chart review was performed to identify patients treated with epi-off CXL. DRE was defined as a corneal epithelial defect detected by fluorescein staining that persisted for more than 10 days. Slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal topography, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) were always performed preoperatively and at each follow-up visit (1, 3, 6, 12 months). A generalized estimating equation was used to assess the baseline factors associated with DRE.Results:Data from 153 eyes were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 24.9 ± 8.5 years, and 47 (30.7%) were women. The average reepithelization time was 4.7 ± 1.8 days. Six eyes (3.9%) experienced DRE. In the multivariate model, both the age of the patient (OR = 1.30; p = 0.02) and the corneal steepest meridian (OR = 0.44, p = 0.047) were associated with DRE. Baseline nerve count was also associated with DRE (0.87, p = 0.03). Male gender was associated with a slower early nerve regrowth (1–6 months) (p = 0.048), but not with the occurrence of DRE (p = 0.27). Preoperative central corneal thickness was not related to DRE (p = 0.16). DRE was not associated with keratoconus progression after epi-off CXL (p = 0.520).Conclusions:The association between DRE and age may reflect the age-related decrease in the corneal healing response. Also, low baseline corneal nerve count is associated with DRE. Gender seems to affect reinnervation measured by IVCM but not the reepithelization time. DRE does not seem to affect the efficacy of epi-off CXL.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jiantao Cui ◽  
Jing Fu ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Weiwei Chen ◽  
Zhaojun Meng ◽  

Abstract Background Early and effective ocular screening may help to eliminate treatable eye disorders. The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study (LCES) revealed the particular prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in grade one schoolchildren (starting age of 6 years old) in Lhasa. Methods This is a cross-sectional part of school-based cohort study. One thousand nine hundred forty-three children were enrolled (median age, 6.78 years, range, 5.89 to 10.32). Each child underwent general and ocular examinations, including logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy evaluation. Multivariate and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the association between refractive error with gender and ethnics. Results The prevalence of visual impairment (logMAR visual acuity ≥0.3 in the better-seeing eye) of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 12.2, 11.7 and 2.7%, respectively. Refractive error presented in 177 (78.0%) out of 227 children with bilateral visual impairment. Myopia (spherical equivalent refractor [SER] ≤ − 0.50 diopter [D] in either eye) was present in 4.7% children when measured after cycloplegic autorefraction. Hyperopia (SER ≥ + 2.00 D) affected 12.1% children. Hyperopia was significantly associated with female gender (P<0.001). Astigmatism (cylinder value ≤ − 0.75 D) was present in 44.8% children. In multivariate regression and correlation analysis, SER had no significant difference between ethnic groups. Conclusion The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study is the first school-based cohort study to reveal the prevalence and pattern of refractive error and visual impairment in Lhasa. Effective strategies such as corrective spectacles should be considered to alleviate treatable visual impairment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110497
Suganeswari Ganesan ◽  
Aditi Ashok Kumar Agarwal ◽  
Krishnakumar Subramanian

Purpose Ocular manifestations of snake bite are rare, ranging from direct injury to the eye from snake venom or indirect injury due to antivenom. We report a rare case of cobra bite causing panophthalmitis due to indirect injury as a result of snake venom toxin related tissue necrosis and susceptibility to secondary infections. Methods Observational case report. External photographs, slit lamp photos, ultrasonography of the eye and histopathology of the eviscerated eye were used to characterize and describe the clinical findings. Thirty-nine-years-old male farmer presented with history of cobra snake bite on his right index finger and developed right eye sudden onset pain and redness 3 days later. On examination, features were suggestive of panophthalmitis and the eye had to be eviscerated with scleral excision. Conclusion It is important for ophthalmologist to be aware of such grave consequences of snake bite to be prepared for the emergency management of such cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tianwei Qian ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  
Caihua Li ◽  
Qiaoyun Gong ◽  
Kun Liu ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of this study is to identify the genetic defect in a Chinese family with congenital aniridia combined with cataract and nystagmus. Methods Complete ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy, anterior segment photography, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed. Blood samples were collected from all family members and genomic DNA was extracted. Genome sequencing was performed in all family members and Sanger sequencing was used to verify variant breakpoints. Results All the thirteen members in this Chinese family, including seven patients and six normal people, were recruited in this study. The ophthalmic examination of affected patients in this family was consistent with congenital aniridia combined with cataract and nystagmus. A novel heterozygous deletion (NC_000011.10:g.31802307_31806556del) containing the 5′ region of PAX6 gene was detected that segregated with the disease. Conclusion We detected a novel deletion in PAX6 responsible for congenital aniridia in the affected individuals of this Chinese family. The novel 4.25 kb deletion in PAX6 gene of our study would further broaden the genetic defects of PAX6 associated with congenital aniridia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2
Jessica Loo ◽  
Maria A. Woodward ◽  
Venkatesh Prajna ◽  
Matthias F. Kriegel ◽  
Mercy Pawar ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Kevin Marquant ◽  
Anne Quinquenel ◽  
Carl Arndt ◽  
Alexandre Denoyer

Abstract Background New targeted antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) against multiple myeloma are known to induce adverse effects that may lead to treatment discontinuation. Preclinical studies reported early severe ocular damage related to the use of belantamab mafodotin (belamaf), including ocular surface inflammation, severe dry eye, and a specific toxicity to the cornea, namely microcystic keratopathy. While belamaf-induced ocular changes have not been prospectively studied, a better understanding of mechanisms involved as well as kinetics may aid in anticipating dose adjustment rather than stopping the treatment once clinical ocular damage is too severe. Case presentation A 61-year-old woman scheduled for belamaf as a fifth-line treatment against multiple myeloma was prospectively included. Clinical examinations were performed before and every 3 weeks afterward, together with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the cornea. Visual acuity, symptoms, slit-lamp examination, and ultrastructural changes of the cornea were recorded according to the received dose of belamaf. More precisely, kinetics, shape, density, and location of the toxic corneal lesions have been followed and analyzed using IVCM. Also, specific lesions at the sub-basal nerve plexus layer were detected and characterized for the first time. This advanced approach allowed a better understanding of the belamaf-induced toxicity, further balancing the dose to maintain good vision and eye health while continuing the treatment. Conclusions Systematic ultrastructural analysis and follow-up of the corneal state during ADCs treatment for multiple myeloma may open new avenues in the therapeutic approach. Early preclinical detection of ocular damage may accurately contribute to finding the correct dose for each patient and not stopping the treatment due to severe ocular adverse effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. e245160
Sonali Prasad ◽  
Vidhata Vidhata ◽  
Subhash Prasad

Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common type of porphyria. It is associated with a deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase enzyme responsible for heme synthesis. Clinical manifestations are predominantly dermatological and very rarely present with ocular involvement. Although scleral thinning in the interpalpebral area is a well-documented entity, sight-threatening corneal involvement is rarely described. We, herein report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with ocular surface dryness, photophobia and mild redness. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed corneo-scleral thinning in both eyes. The diagnosis was confirmed with a urine porphyrin test, serum iron and serum ferritin levels. We started him on conservative management after which he was lost to follow-up. He presented again after 6 years with total corneal opacification and progressive loss of vision in the right eye.

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