corneal ulcers
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Mathias Roth ◽  
Sebastian Dierse ◽  
Jan Alder ◽  
Christoph Holtmann ◽  
Gerd Geerling

Abstract Background Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is an orphan disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1–5/10,000. No data regarding the incidence exists. The primary aim was to evaluate incidence and prevalence of NK at a tertiary referral center in Germany, and the secondary aim was to analyze demographic parameters, etiology, and clinical features and therapeutic outcomes. Methods and material All patients treated for NK with serum eye drops (SED), amnionic membrane transplantation (AMT), or penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 2013–2017 were identified. Age, sex, etiology of NK, visual acuity, disease stage, treatment, and visual acuity were analyzed. Incidence and prevalence of NK in our hospital and the overall population of the city were calculated. Results In 63 eyes of 60 patients (56.7% male; 68 ± 16 years), the most common underlying diseases were herpetic infections (23.8%), neurological causes (19%), and diabetes mellitus (14.3%). The annual incidence of NK in our tertiary referral center ranges between 5/10,000 and 3/10,000, the prevalence between 9/10,00 and 22/10,000. In all patients treated with corneal ulcers, the prevalence was up to 27% (2706/10,000). The incidence in the overall population is estimated at 0.1–0.3/10,000, the prevalence at 0.2–0.5/10,000 to 0.5/10,000. Conclusion Based on our assessment, the prevalence of NK in the overall population is lower than estimated before. However, in patients with corneal ulcers, the percentage of NK is comparably high. The disease may still be underdiagnosed due to the variety of underlying disorders and unknown comorbidities. Thus, in cases of therapy-refractive superficial keratopathy or ulcerations, NK should be considered more frequently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (12) ◽  
pp. 2735-2739
Amna Rizwan ◽  
Asfandyar Asghar ◽  
Syed Ali Hasan Naqvi ◽  
Ume Sughra ◽  
Hassan Raza

Objective: To determine the risk factors, causative organisms, sensitivity patterns and treatment outcomes of infective corneal ulcers. Methods: The is a prospective cohort study carried out from January 2018 to December 2019 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH) Rawalpindi. A total of 65 eyes of 65 patients of corneal ulcer meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated and corneal scrapes were sent for microbiological assessment.  Variables studied were age, gender, risk factors, onset and duration of symptoms, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), treatment and complications. Results: Out of 65 eyes of 65 patients, 40 (61.5%) were females and 25 (38.4%) were males. Most common local risk factor was ocular surgery (29.2%) followed by ocular trauma (23.1%). Diabetes was present in 44.6% of the cases. Culture results after corneal scrapings were positive for 39 (60%) of the total samples, while 26 (40%) had no growth. Bacterial growth was present in 51.3% of eyes, fungal in 28.2% while 20.5% of the eyes were infected with polymicrobial organisms. Most common pathogens were Pseudomonas (25.6%) that were most sensitive to ciprofloxacin. By the end of the follow-up period 40 cases (61.5%) showed improvement. Conclusion: This study concluded that isolated Pseudomonas was the most common pathogen. Prompt diagnosis with culture sensitivity tests are very much needed in developing countries to avoid blindness due to keratitis. Keywords: Infective keratitis, risk factors, corneal ulcer, culture sensitivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Tingting Wang ◽  
Meng Wang ◽  
Weifang Zhu ◽  
Lianyu Wang ◽  
Zhongyue Chen ◽  

Corneal ulcer is a common leading cause of corneal blindness. It is difficult to accurately segment corneal ulcers due to the following problems: large differences in the pathological shapes between point-flaky and flaky corneal ulcers, blurred boundary, noise interference, and the lack of sufficient slit-lamp images with ground truth. To address these problems, in this paper, we proposed a novel semi-supervised multi-scale self-transformer generative adversarial network (Semi-MsST-GAN) that can leverage unlabeled images to improve the performance of corneal ulcer segmentation in fluorescein staining of slit-lamp images. Firstly, to improve the performance of segmenting the corneal ulcer regions with complex pathological features, we proposed a novel multi-scale self-transformer network (MsSTNet) as the MsST-GAN generator, which can guide the model to aggregate the low-level weak semantic features with the high-level strong semantic information and adaptively learn the spatial correlation in feature maps. Then, to further improve the segmentation performance by leveraging unlabeled data, the semi-supervised approach based on the proposed MsST-GAN was explored to solve the problem of the lack of slit-lamp images with corresponding ground truth. The proposed Semi-MsST-GAN was comprehensively evaluated on the public SUSTech-SYSU dataset, which contains 354 labeled and 358 unlabeled fluorescein staining slit-lamp images. The results showed that, compared with other state-of-the-art methods, our proposed method achieves better performance with comparable efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 15-21
E. V. Fedoseeva ◽  
E. V. Chentsova ◽  
N. V. Borovkova ◽  
I. N. Ponomarev ◽  
V. A. Vlasova ◽  

Purpose: to study the effectiveness of the use of thrombofibrin clot of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with corneal ulcers. Material and methods. A clinical study, conducted by the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery of Helmholtz National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases, involved 20 patients, aged from 22 to 82, with corneal ulcers of inflammatory and burn genesis more than 100 microns deep. All patients got coated with a thrombofibrin PRP clot from autologous blood. Prior to the study, all patients received standard treatment for 2 weeks to 3 months, including multiple amniotic membrane coating, with no effect. The thrombofibrin clot was produced by the Scientific Department of Biotechnology and Transfusiology of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine. The ready clot was placed on the surface of the cornea and covered with an amniotic membrane. The membrane was fixed to the episclera along the border of the limb with a circular suture, whereupon autologous serum was injected along the limb in 4 quadrants, to be followed by temporary lateral blepharography. Results. On the 2nd day following the procedure, the patients noted a decrease in lacrimation and pain in the operated eye. As shown by optical coherence tomography, the average depth of the corneal ulcer at the beginning of the study in all patients was 129 ± 28.5 microns. On the 5th day, the depth lowered to an average of 71 ± 32.6 microns, and on the 10th day, to 23.3 ± 15.1 microns. In 7 patients (35%), complete healing of the defect was observed on the 15th day, while in 9 patients (45%) it was stated between the 16th and the 20th day. Thus, the average time of healing of the ulcer with complete epithelization occurred was 15 days. In four patients with the consequences of severe burns (20%), the ulcer did not heal due to extensive damage to the limbal zone. Conclusion. The use of a thrombofibrin PRP clot in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation allows achieving a stable and fairly rapid healing of corneal ulcers of various origins. However, this method is ineffective in patients with limbal cell insufficiency, severe burns and extensive damage to the limbal zone. In such cases, it is advisable to use more radical surgical methods, such as buccal or limbal cell transplantation, or allolimbal transplantation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 137-252

Microbial keratitis is an infectious process that occurs due to the proliferation of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) and associated inflammation and tissue destruction. Smears and cultures are indicated for the isolation of microorganisms and for making the correct diagnosis and immediate initiation of antimicrobial therapy, especially in cases where corneal infiltrate is chronic, large, deep, or atypical. Microbial keratitis is considered a vision-threatening ocular emergency. Therefore, this chapter, which consists of almost all cases studied before and after treatment, highlights the importance of early recognition, isolation of specific microorganisms, and sensitivity-based therapy. Also, the evaluation of these cases helps to show the appearance of the eye after the therapeutic treatment and demonstrates the emergency of immediate surgery to save the eyeball in cases where medical treatment is ineffective. The authors have summarized the treatment options they have used for bacterial, fungal, acanthamoeba, and herpetic keratitis cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 43-48
L. A. Kovaleva

Part I of the article presents a review of publications highlighting current exogenous and endogenous risk factors contributing to the occurrence of bacterial corneal ulcers, laboratory diagnostic methods, clinical differential diagnostic features of bacterial corneal ulcers. A wide variety of objective symptoms characterizes the clinical picture of bacterial corneal ulcers. Still, objective differential diagnostic signs make it possible with a high degree of probability to assume the etiology of the disease during the first biomicroscopy and immediately begin etiotropic therapy, on the timing of which the outcome of the disease depends. Standard laboratory examination of patients with bacterial corneal ulcers includes the bacterioscopic and cultural examination of the contents of the conjunctival sac. However, the absence of etiotropic therapy while waiting for the results of microbiological research methods, which takes from 3 to 7 days, contributes to the rapid progression of the disease, the development of endophthalmitis, and corneal perforation, up to the loss of an eye in children. In this regard, treatment must be started immediately. Therefore, the choice of a drug is determined not only by the causative agent, proven laboratory but, first of all, based on clinical differential diagnostic signs of the disease. The traditional, undeniable approach to the conservative treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers is conventional etiotropic therapy using local and systemic antibacterial drugs. In addition, timely intensive specific drug therapy prevents the destruction of all layers of the cornea, and the use of metabolic drugs that improve regeneration and trophism promotes epithelialization of corneal ulcers. Attention should be given to the necessity and validity of the choice of antibacterial drugs for various etiological forms of bacterial corneal ulcers in children. An individual approach is a basis for effective antibiotic therapy in pediatric ophthalmology. The article presents an up-to-date review of publications and modern algorithms for treating bacterial corneal ulcers in children, the main causative agents of which are: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

2021 ◽  
Jae-Gon Kim ◽  
Jong Hwa Jun

Abstract This study sought to describe the use of deep-frozen donor corneal remnants preserved after keratoplasty procedures for therapeutic or tectonic keratoplasty without subsequent optical keratoplasty. This single-centre retrospective consecutive case series analyzed the electronic medical records of patients who had undergone therapeutic or tectonic keratoplasty using deep-frozen donor remains preserved in Optisol-GS, for the past 11 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. Fifty-five surgical cases in 46 patients were included. Twenty-three surgical cases in 18 patients underwent therapeutic keratoplasty for refractory infectious corneal ulcer. Complete eradiation of primary infection was achieved in 14 patients (77.8%). Tectonic keratoplasty were performed 32 cases in 28 patients. Twenty-seven of 28 patients were ultimately able to maintain anatomical integrity (96.4%). Mean uncorrected visual acuity improved from 1.77 ± 0.94 preoperatively to 1.31 ± 0.95 at the last follow up postoperatively in the tectonic graft group by logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (P = 0.002). There were no cases of graft rejection. Keratoplasty using cryopreserved donor tissue is a suitable surgical alternative for infectious or non-infectious corneal ulcers in elderly patients or patients with poor general condition. It could be a viable alternative to overcome the shortage of corneal donors.

Muthiah Srinivasan ◽  
Thulasiraj Ravilla ◽  
Valaguru Vijayakumar ◽  
Devanesam Yesunesan ◽  
Iswarya Mani ◽  

Samantha V Palmer ◽  
Filipe Espinheira Gomes ◽  
Jessica A. A. McArt

Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the frequency of ophthalmic disorders in 7 brachycephalic dog breeds referred to an academic veterinary ophthalmology service. ANIMALS 970 client-owned dogs of 7 brachycephalic breeds that were evaluated by the ophthalmology service in a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2008 through December 2017. PROCEDURES Medical records of 7 brachycephalic breeds (ie, Boston Terriers, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Pekingese, Pugs, and Shih Tzus) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient signalment, ophthalmic diagnoses, affected eyes, and number and dates of visits. RESULTS Median age at the first examination was 7 years (range, 23 days to 22 years). The number of dogs seen for a first examination increased with age. Corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis were each diagnosed in ≥ 100 dogs and represented 40.4% (1,161/2,873) of all diagnoses. On the basis of anatomic location, 66.3% (1,905/2,873) of all disorders were located in either the cornea (1,014/2,873 [35.2%]) or adnexa (891/2,873 [31%]). There was a significant difference in breed proportion in the study population; of the 7 breeds studied, Shih Tzus (34.3% [333/970]), Pugs (20.8% [202/970]), and Boston Terriers (16.6% [161/970]) were the most prevalent breeds. The frequency of some diseases within the referral population was associated with breed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that the most prevalent disorders for the brachycephalic breeds in this ophthalmic referral population were corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis. Although all dogs shared brachycephalic features, the frequency of specific ophthalmic diseases varied between breeds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Nabilah Afifah ◽  
Herwindo Dicky Putranto ◽  
Lely Retno Wulandari

Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the leading cause of corneal ulcers in children 0 to 3 years of age compared to children in general. Case presentation: A two-months-old infant presented with whitish patches on the right eye two days before admission. A central corneal ulcer with a size of 7-mm x 7-mm accompanied by corneal thinning and melting was shown on the right cornea. It is was surrounded by greyish white creamy infiltrates. Corneal scraping showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimens. The cornea became perforate and crystalline lens extrusion was found at the day after intravenous ceftriaxone, levofloxacin eye drop, and cefazoline fortified eye drop administering. It might be caused by bacterial elastase and toxin which contributed to corneal damage. The patient was underwent a multilayer Amniotic Membrane Transplantation (AMT) combined with a pericardial patch graft due to corneal perforation. Two months post-AMT and pericardial patch graft the corneal perforation became entirely heal due to multilayer AMT, despite lysis of the pericardial patch graft. Corneal scar formation and reduction of vitreous opacity in ultrasound examination were shown. The patient was planned to undergo keratoplasty. Conclusions: Corneal ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are highly destructive. The levels of infection, diagnostic, and therapeutic are still problems in pediatric patients. Lens extrusion and lysis of the pericardial patch graft are examples in this case. Keratoplasty is the definitive treatment for corneal ulcers with perforation; however, multilayer AMT combined with pericardial patch graft can be used as an alternative therapy to accelerate wound healing, reduce inflammation, and maintain the integrity of the eyeball.

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