hand motion
Recently Published Documents





Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Daniele Esposito ◽  
Jessica Centracchio ◽  
Emilio Andreozzi ◽  
Sergio Savino ◽  
Gaetano D. Gargiulo ◽  

Voluntary hand movements are usually impaired after a cerebral stroke, affecting millions of people per year worldwide. Recently, the use of hand exoskeletons for assistance and motor rehabilitation has become increasingly widespread. This study presents a novel hand exoskeleton, designed to be low cost, wearable, easily adaptable and suitable for home use. Most of the components of the exoskeleton are 3D printed, allowing for easy replication, customization and maintenance at a low cost. A strongly underactuated mechanical system allows one to synergically move the four fingers by means of a single actuator through a rigid transmission, while the thumb is kept in an adduction or abduction position. The exoskeleton’s ability to extend a typical hypertonic paretic hand of stroke patients was firstly tested using the SimScape Multibody simulation environment; this helped in the choice of a proper electric actuator. Force-myography was used instead of the standard electromyography to voluntarily control the exoskeleton with more simplicity. The user can activate the flexion/extension of the exoskeleton by a weak contraction of two antagonist muscles. A symmetrical master–slave motion strategy (i.e., the paretic hand motion is activated by the healthy hand) is also available for patients with severe muscle atrophy. An inexpensive microcontroller board was used to implement the electronic control of the exoskeleton and provide feedback to the user. The entire exoskeleton including batteries can be worn on the patient’s arm. The ability to provide a fluid and safe grip, like that of a healthy hand, was verified through kinematic analyses obtained by processing high-framerate videos. The trajectories described by the phalanges of the natural and the exoskeleton finger were compared by means of cross-correlation coefficients; a similarity of about 80% was found. The time required for both closing and opening of the hand exoskeleton was about 0.9 s. A rigid cylindric handlebar containing a load cell measured an average power grasp force of 94.61 N, enough to assist the user in performing most of the activities of daily living. The exoskeleton can be used as an aid and to promote motor function recovery during patient’s neurorehabilitation therapy.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 568
Bertrand Schneider ◽  
Javaria Hassan ◽  
Gahyun Sung

While the majority of social scientists still rely on traditional research instruments (e.g., surveys, self-reports, qualitative observations), multimodal sensing is becoming an emerging methodology for capturing human behaviors. Sensing technology has the potential to complement and enrich traditional measures by providing high frequency data on people’s behavior, cognition and affects. However, there is currently no easy-to-use toolkit for recording multimodal data streams. Existing methodologies rely on the use of physical sensors and custom-written code for accessing sensor data. In this paper, we present the EZ-MMLA toolkit. This toolkit was implemented as a website and provides easy access to multimodal data collection algorithms. One can collect a variety of data modalities: data on users’ attention (eye-tracking), physiological states (heart rate), body posture (skeletal data), gestures (from hand motion), emotions (from facial expressions and speech) and lower-level computer vision algorithms (e.g., fiducial/color tracking). This toolkit can run from any browser and does not require dedicated hardware or programming experience. We compare this toolkit with traditional methods and describe a case study where the EZ-MMLA toolkit was used by aspiring educational researchers in a classroom context. We conclude by discussing future work and other applications of this toolkit, potential limitations and implications.

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110632
Thomas J. France ◽  
Fraser J. Leversedge ◽  
Alexander Lauder

Background: Reasonable functional outcomes for nonoperative management of isolated, closed fifth metacarpal neck fractures with up to 70° angulation have been reported; however, reported outcomes for fractures with greater than 70° angulation are limited. This study describes clinical outcomes of nonsurgically treated fifth metacarpal neck fractures with angulation of greater than 70°. Methods: A retrospective review of patients treated between May 1, 2016, and May 1, 2020, included: (1) patients aged 18 years and above with an isolated, closed, fifth metacarpal neck fracture; (2) nonsurgical treatment; (3) healed fractures with angulation greater than 70° measured on oblique radiographs; and (4) minimum 6-month follow-up after injury. Photographic hand motion and patient-rated outcomes (Functional Hand Scale, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH], 12-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-12]) were collected and reported. Results: A total of 364 fractures were identified; 11% (40/364) demonstrated angulation of greater than 70° (range: 71°-82°); and 15 patients (inclusion rate: 38%, 15/40) with mean fracture angulation of 73° (range: 71°-77°) participated in the study. Mean follow-up was 32 months (range: 8-120 months), the dominant hand was injured in 87% (13/15) of patients, and 47% (7/15) of patients worked in manual labor. All patients scored the highest rating of “very good” (range: 26-30 of 30 points) on the functional hand scale. A QuickDASH score of zero (no morbidity) was reported in 80% (12/15) of patients. About 87% (13/15) of patients had average or above-average scores on the SF-12 (mean = 109, range: 84-115). Conclusions: Patients with healed, isolated, closed fifth metacarpal neck malunions with severe angulation greater than 70° demonstrated acceptable functional outcomes based on patient-rated outcomes scoring.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (12) ◽  
pp. 1667-1671
Seongmi Kim ◽  
Hye Jin Lee ◽  
Ahnul Ha ◽  
Jong Young Lee ◽  
Jinho Jeong

Purpose: We report a case of keratitis that improved after removal of a causative plant foreign body from below the posterior surface of an opaque cornea. The foreign body was revealed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and gonioscopy.Case summary: A 79-year-old woman was referred with an impression of left-eye keratitis; the eye had been injured by a branch of a tangerine tree 1 month prior. She had been given the usual topical antibiotics by a local clinic, but they were ineffective. At her initial visit, her visual acuity was only hand motion in the left eye; slit-lamp examination revealed a 3 × 3-mm corneal infiltration with a hypopyon in the anterior chamber. Despite administration of strong topical antibiotics on an hourly basis, the corneal lesion worsened. AS-OCT and gonioscopy revealed a small foreign body below the posterior surface of the cornea; this was surgically removed. The corneal opacity and corneal epithelial defects dramatically improved, and the hypopyon disappeared.Conclusions: The possibility of a residual foreign body should be considered if trauma precedes infectious keratitis that does not improve with conventional treatment and the posterior surface of the cornea is not visible because of corneal opacity. In such a case, AS-OCT and gonioscopy can be useful.

Maximiliano Barrera-Sánchez ◽  
Rosa E. Martinez-Muñoz ◽  
Raul E. Ruiz-Lozano ◽  
Catharina Busch ◽  
Juan Homar Paez-Garza ◽  

Abstract Background/Aim To describe demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, and visual prognosis of Coats disease in Hispanic patients. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on nine patients (ten eyes) diagnosed with Coats disease in our two clinical centrers from 2004 – 2017. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 5.5 years (range 1 – 12 years) and mean follow-up time was 48 months (range 9 – 108 months). Eight patients (89%) were male and had unilateral disease and one (11%) female patient had bilateral disease. In 40% of the cases, patients were asymptomatic. Visual acuity at first presentation was worse than hand motion in 60% of the eyes. Half of the eyes (5/10 eyes, 50%) had exudative retinal detachment (≥ stage IIIA). Vascular ablation with cryotherapy combined with retinal photocoagulation was the most frequent therapeutic approach (40%). Despite anatomical success at 6 months in 100% of the treated eyes, visual outcome at 1 year of treatment was poor (worse than 20/200) in 70% of the cases. Conclusions In our case series, patients were mostly asymptomatic on presentation, with severe stages of Coats disease. Even with anatomical success after surgical treatment in all treated cases, long-term visual prognosis remained very limited.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000348942110593
Jordan B. Hochman ◽  
Justyn Pisa ◽  
Katrice Kazmerik ◽  
Bertram Unger

Objective: Temporal bone simulation is now commonly used to augment cadaveric education. Assessment of these tools is ongoing, with haptic modeling illustrating dissimilar motion patterns compared to cadaveric opportunities. This has the potential to result in maladaptive skill development. It is hypothesized that trainee drill motion patterns during printed model dissection may likewise demonstrate dissimilar hand motion patterns. Methods: Resident surgeons dissected 3D-printed temporal bones generated from microCT data and cadaveric simulations. A magnetic position tracking system (TrakSTAR Ascension, Yarraville, Australia) captured drill position and orientation. Skill assessment included cortical mastoidectomy, thinning procedures (sigmoid sinus, dural plate, posterior canal wall) and facial recess development. Dissection was performed by 8 trainees (n = 5 < PGY3 > n = 3) using k-cos metrics to analyze drill strokes within position recordings. K-cos metrics define strokes by change in direction, providing metrics for stroke duration, curvature, and length. Results: T-tests between models showed no significant difference in drill stroke frequency (cadaveric = 1.36/s, printed = 1.50/s, P < .40) but demonstrate significantly shorter duration (cadaveric = 0.37 s, printed = 0.16 s, P < .01) and a higher percentage of curved strokes (cadaveric = 31, printed = 67, P < .01) employed in printed bone dissection. Junior staff used a higher number of short strokes (junior = 0.54, senior = 0.38, P < .01) and higher percentage of curved strokes (junior = 35%, senior = 21%, P < .01). Conclusions: Significant differences in hand motions were present between simulations, however the significance is unclear. This may indicate that printed bone is not best positioned to be the principal training schema.

2021 ◽  
Serena Yeung ◽  
Emmett Goodman ◽  
Krishna Patel ◽  
Yilun Zhang ◽  
William Locke ◽  

Abstract Open procedures represent the dominant form of surgery worldwide. Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to optimize surgical practice and improve patient outcomes, but efforts have focused primarily on minimally invasive techniques. Our work overcomes existing data limitations for training AI models by curating, from YouTube, the largest dataset of open surgical videos to date: 1997 videos from 23 surgical procedures uploaded from 50 countries. Using this dataset, we developed a multi-task AI model capable of real-time understanding of surgical behaviors, hands, and tools—the building blocks of procedural flow and surgeon skill—across both space and time. We show that our model generalizes across diverse surgery types and environments. Illustrating this generalizability, we directly applied our YouTube-trained model to analyze open surgeries prospectively collected at an academic medical center and identified kinematic descriptors of surgical skill related to efficiency of hand motion. Our Annotated Videos of Open Surgery (AVOS) dataset and trained model will be made available for further development of surgical AI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 619-628
Young-Hoo Kwon ◽  
Noelle J. Tuttle ◽  
Cheng-Ju Hung ◽  
Nicholas A. Levine ◽  
Seungho Baek

The purpose of this study was to investigate the linear relationships among the hand/clubhead motion characteristics in golf driving in skilled male golfers (n = 66; handicap ≤ 3). The hand motion plane (HMP) and functional swing plane (FSP) angles, the HMP–FSP angle gaps, the planarity characteristics of the off-plane motion of the clubhead, and the attack angles were computed from the drives captured by an optical motion capture system. The HMP angles were identified as the key variables, as the HMP and FSP angles were intercorrelated, but the plane angle gaps, the planarity bias, and the attack angles showed correlations to the HMP angles primarily. Three main swing pattern clusters were identified. The parallel HMP–FSP alignment pattern with a small direction gap was associated with neutral planarity and planar swing pattern. The inward alignment pattern with a large inward direction gap was characterized by flat planes, follow-through-centric planarity, spiral swing pattern, and inward/downward impact. The outward alignment pattern with a large outward direction gap was associated with steep planes, downswing-centric planarity, reverse spiral swing, and outward/upward impact. The findings suggest that practical drills targeting the hand motion pattern can be effective in holistically reprogramming the swing pattern.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1817
Akio Oishi ◽  
Kaoru Fujinami ◽  
Go Mawatari ◽  
Nobuhisa Naoi ◽  
Yasuhiro Ikeda ◽  

Peripherin-2 (PRPH2) is one of the causative genes of inherited retinal dystrophy. While the gene is relatively common in Caucasians, reports from Asian ethnicities are limited. In the present study, we report 40 Japanese patients from 30 families with PRPH2-associated retinal dystrophy. We identified 17 distinct pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants using next-generation sequencing. Variants p.R142W and p.V200E were relatively common in the cohort. The age of onset was generally in the 40’s; however, some patients had earlier onset (age: 5 years). Visual acuity of the patients ranged from hand motion to 1.5 (Snellen equivalent 20/13). The patients showed variable phenotypes such as retinitis pigmentosa, cone-rod dystrophy, and macular dystrophy. Additionally, intrafamilial phenotypic variability was observed. Choroidal neovascularization was observed in three eyes of two patients with retinitis pigmentosa. The results demonstrate the genotypic and phenotypic variations of the disease in the Asian cohort.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document